British Computer Society
The British Computer Society is a professional body and a learned society that represents those working in Information Technology and Computer Science, both in the United Kingdom and internationally. Founded in 1956, BCS has played an important role in educating and nurturing IT professionals, computer scientists, computer engineers, upholding the profession, accrediting chartered IT professional status, creating a global community active in promoting and furthering the field and practice of computing. With a worldwide membership of over 68,000 members in over 150 countries, BCS is a registered charity and was incorporated by Royal Charter in 1984, its objectives are to promote the study and application of communications technology and computing technology and to advance knowledge of education in ICT for the benefit of professional practitioners and the general public. BCS is a member institution of Engineering Council, through which it is licensed to award the designation of Incorporated Engineer and Chartered Engineer and therefore is responsible for regulation of ICT and computer science fields within the UK.
The BCS is a member of the Council of European Professional Informatics Societies and the Seoul Accord for international tertiary degree recognition. BCS was a member organisation of the Science Council through which it was licensed to award the designation of Chartered Scientist. BCS has offices off the Strand in Southampton Street, south of Covent Garden in central London; the main administrative offices are in Swindon, west of London. It has two overseas offices in Sri Lanka and Mauritius. Members are sent the quarterly IT professional magazine ITNOW. BCS is a member organization of the Federation of Enterprise Architecture Professional Organizations, a worldwide association of professional organizations which have come together to provide a forum to standardize and otherwise advance the discipline of Enterprise Architecture; the forerunner of BCS was the "London Computer Group", founded in 1956. BCS was formed a year from the merger of the LCG and an unincorporated association of scientists into an unincorporated club.
In October 1957, BCS was incorporated, by Articles of Association, as "The British Computer Society Ltd": the first President of BCS was Sir Maurice Wilkes, FRS. In 1966, the BCS was granted charitable status and in 1970, the BCS was given Armorial Bearings including the shield and crest; the major ethical responsibilities of BCS are emphasized by the leopard's face, surmounting the whole crest and depicting eternal vigilance over the integrity of the Society and its members. The BCS patron is HRH The Duke of Kent, KG, he became patron in December 1976 and has been involved in BCS activities having been President in the Silver Jubilee Year in 1982–1983. In 2007, BCS launched BCSrecruit.com — a job site aimed at IT professionals. In 2008 the BCS was labelled "irrelevant" by an IT training company, in connection with claims it made that nine out of ten IT professionals were "unaware" of the BCS's Chartered accreditation scheme. On 21 September 2009, the British Computer Society went through a transformation and re-branded itself as "BCS — The Chartered Institute for IT".
In 2010, an Extraordinary General Meeting was called to discuss the direction of the BCS. The debate has been covered by the computing press. BCS is governed by a Trustee Board comprising the President, the Deputy President, the immediate past President, up to nine Vice Presidents, five Professional Members elected by the advisory Council. Sir Maurice Wilkes, Professor of Computer Science at Cambridge University, served as its first president; each president serves for a 2-year term. A list of presidents of the British Computer Society can be found at BCS web site; the BCS advisory Council elects the Honorary Officers — the President, the Deputy President and up to nine Vice-Presidents, together with the immediate past President and five members of Council. Lists of Trust Board and Advisory Council members are maintained online; the advisory Council provides advice to the Trustee Board on the direction and operation of BCS. The Council is a representative body of the membership, with members elected directly by the professional membership, by the Branches and Forums.
The Fellow of BCS title is conferred to individuals to recognize their outstanding achievements and contributions to Information Technology. Fellows are expected to give something back to the profession, by promoting and evangelizing the profession to the public and society, contributing to debates in conferences, meetings, etc. Fellows are nominated to the society each year and have to be supported by one or more existing fellows. Criteria for election to fellow include: Demonstrate leadership in the profession Wide acknowledgement of specific IT expertise Contribution to advancement of knowledge Eminent individual Authority and seniority, including leading major projects and managing teamsCurrent fellows include distinguished individuals from industries and universities; some of the prominent fellows include: Dame Wendy Hall, FBCS - ex-President of BCS Andy Harter, FBCS - CEO of RealVNC Tony Hey, FBCS - ex-VP of Microsoft Research Hermann Hauser, Distinguished FBCS - founder of ARM Ltd. The BCS is the only professional body in the United Kingdom with the ability to grant chartered status to IT professionals under its Royal Charter, granted to them by the Privy Council.
Thus having the ability to grant Chartered status to both its Fellows and Professional members. Known as Chartered IT Professional, they are
Canada is a country in the northern part of North America. Its ten provinces and three territories extend from the Atlantic to the Pacific and northward into the Arctic Ocean, covering 9.98 million square kilometres, making it the world's second-largest country by total area. Canada's southern border with the United States is the world's longest bi-national land border, its capital is Ottawa, its three largest metropolitan areas are Toronto and Vancouver. As a whole, Canada is sparsely populated, the majority of its land area being dominated by forest and tundra, its population is urbanized, with over 80 percent of its inhabitants concentrated in large and medium-sized cities, many near the southern border. Canada's climate varies across its vast area, ranging from arctic weather in the north, to hot summers in the southern regions, with four distinct seasons. Various indigenous peoples have inhabited what is now Canada for thousands of years prior to European colonization. Beginning in the 16th century and French expeditions explored, settled, along the Atlantic coast.
As a consequence of various armed conflicts, France ceded nearly all of its colonies in North America in 1763. In 1867, with the union of three British North American colonies through Confederation, Canada was formed as a federal dominion of four provinces; this began an accretion of provinces and territories and a process of increasing autonomy from the United Kingdom. This widening autonomy was highlighted by the Statute of Westminster of 1931 and culminated in the Canada Act of 1982, which severed the vestiges of legal dependence on the British parliament. Canada is a parliamentary democracy and a constitutional monarchy in the Westminster tradition, with Elizabeth II as its queen and a prime minister who serves as the chair of the federal cabinet and head of government; the country is a realm within the Commonwealth of Nations, a member of the Francophonie and bilingual at the federal level. It ranks among the highest in international measurements of government transparency, civil liberties, quality of life, economic freedom, education.
It is one of the world's most ethnically diverse and multicultural nations, the product of large-scale immigration from many other countries. Canada's long and complex relationship with the United States has had a significant impact on its economy and culture. A developed country, Canada has the sixteenth-highest nominal per capita income globally as well as the twelfth-highest ranking in the Human Development Index, its advanced economy is the tenth-largest in the world, relying chiefly upon its abundant natural resources and well-developed international trade networks. Canada is part of several major international and intergovernmental institutions or groupings including the United Nations, the North Atlantic Treaty Organization, the G7, the Group of Ten, the G20, the North American Free Trade Agreement and the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation forum. While a variety of theories have been postulated for the etymological origins of Canada, the name is now accepted as coming from the St. Lawrence Iroquoian word kanata, meaning "village" or "settlement".
In 1535, indigenous inhabitants of the present-day Quebec City region used the word to direct French explorer Jacques Cartier to the village of Stadacona. Cartier used the word Canada to refer not only to that particular village but to the entire area subject to Donnacona. From the 16th to the early 18th century "Canada" referred to the part of New France that lay along the Saint Lawrence River. In 1791, the area became two British colonies called Upper Canada and Lower Canada collectively named the Canadas. Upon Confederation in 1867, Canada was adopted as the legal name for the new country at the London Conference, the word Dominion was conferred as the country's title. By the 1950s, the term Dominion of Canada was no longer used by the United Kingdom, which considered Canada a "Realm of the Commonwealth"; the government of Louis St. Laurent ended the practice of using'Dominion' in the Statutes of Canada in 1951. In 1982, the passage of the Canada Act, bringing the Constitution of Canada under Canadian control, referred only to Canada, that year the name of the national holiday was changed from Dominion Day to Canada Day.
The term Dominion was used to distinguish the federal government from the provinces, though after the Second World War the term federal had replaced dominion. Indigenous peoples in present-day Canada include the First Nations, Métis, the last being a mixed-blood people who originated in the mid-17th century when First Nations and Inuit people married European settlers; the term "Aboriginal" as a collective noun is a specific term of art used in some legal documents, including the Constitution Act 1982. The first inhabitants of North America are hypothesized to have migrated from Siberia by way of the Bering land bridge and arrived at least 14,000 years ago; the Paleo-Indian archeological sites at Old Crow Flats and Bluefish Caves are two of the oldest sites of human habitation in Canada. The characteristics of Canadian indigenous societies included permanent settlements, complex societal hierarchies, trading networks; some of these cultures had collapsed by the time European explorers arrived in the late 15th and early 16th centuries and have only been discovered through archeological investigations.
The indigenous population at the time of the first European settlements is estimated to have been between 200,000
Project Management Body of Knowledge
The Project Management Body of Knowledge is a set of standard terminology and guidelines for project management. The body of knowledge evolves over time and is presented in A Guide to the Project Management Body of Knowledge, a book whose sixth edition was released in 2017; the Guide is a document resulting from work overseen by the Project Management Institute, which offers the CAPM and PMP certifications. Much of the PMBOK Guide is unique to project management e.g. critical path method and work breakdown structure. The PMBOK Guide overlaps with general management regarding planning, staffing and controlling the operations of an organisation. Other management disciplines which overlap with the PMBOK Guide include financial forecasting, organisational behaviour, management science and other planning methods. Earlier versions of the PMBOK Guide were recognized as standards by the American National Standards Institute which assigns standards in the United States and the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers.
The evolution of the PMBOK Guide is reflected in editions of the Guide. The Guide was first published by the Project Management Institute in 1996; that document was to some extent based on earlier work that began with a white paper published in 1983 called the "Ethics and Accreditation Committee Final Report." The second edition was published in 2000. In 2004, the PMBOK Guide — Third Edition was published with major changes from the previous editions; the Fourth edition was published in 2008. The Fifth Edition was released in 2013; the latest English-language version of The PMBOK Guide — The Sixth Edition was released in September 2017. The PMBOK Guide is intended to be a "subset of the project management body of knowledge, recognized as a good practice.'Generally recognized' means the knowledge and practices described are applicable to most projects most of the time and there is a consensus about their value and usefulness.'Good practice' means there is a general agreement that the application of the knowledge, skills and techniques can enhance the chance of success over many projects."
This means that sometimes the "latest" project management trends promoted by consultants, may not be part of the latest version of The PMBOK Guide. However, the 6th Edition of the PMBOK Guide now includes an "Agile Practice Guide" The PMBOK Guide is process-based, meaning it describes work as being accomplished by processes; this approach is consistent with other management standards such as ISO 9000 and the Software Engineering Institute's CMMI. Processes interact throughout a project or its various phases. Inputs Tools and Techniques Outputs A Guide to the Project Management Body of Knowledge — Sixth Edition provides guidelines for managing individual projects and defines project management related concepts, it describes the project management life cycle and its related processes, as well as the project life cycle. And for the first time it includes an "Agile Practice Guide"; the PMBOK as described in the Guide recognizes 49 processes that fall into five basic process groups and ten knowledge areas that are typical of most projects, most of the time.
The five process groups are: Initiating: processes performed to define a new project or a new phase of an existing project by obtaining authorization to start the project or phase. Planning: Those processes required to establish the scope of the project, refine the objectives, define the course of action required to attain the objectives that the project was undertaken to achieve. Executing: Those processes performed to complete the work defined in the project management plan to satisfy the project specifications Monitoring and Controlling: Those processes required to track and regulate the progress and performance of the project. Closing: Those processes performed to finalize all activities across all Process Groups to formally close the project or phase; the ten knowledge areas, each of which contains some or all of the project management processes, are: Project Integration Management: the processes and activities needed to identify, combine and coordinate the various processes and project management activities within the project management process groups.
Project Scope management: the processes required to ensure that the project includes all the work required, only the work required, to complete the project successfully. Project Schedule Management: the processes required to manage the timely completion of the project; until the 6th edition of the PMBOK Guide this was called "Project Time Management" Project Cost Management: the processes involved in planning, budgeting, funding and controlling costs so that the project can be completed within the approved budget. Project Quality Management: the processes and activities of the performing organization that determine quality policies and responsibilities so that the project will satisfy the needs for which it was undertaken. Project Resource Management: the processes that organize and lead the project team; until the 6th edition of the PMBOK Guide this was called "Project Human Resource Management" Project Communications Management: the processes that are required to ensure timely and appropriate planning, creation, storage, management, control and the ultimate disposition of project information.
Project Risk Management: the pr
ITIL an acronym for Information Technology Infrastructure Library, is a set of detailed practices for IT service management that focuses on aligning IT services with the needs of business. ITIL describes processes, procedures and checklists which are not organization-specific nor technology-specific, but can be applied by an organization for establishing integration with the organization's strategy, delivering value, maintaining a minimum level of competency, it allows the organization to establish a baseline from which it can plan and measure. It is used to measure improvement. There is no formal independent third party compliance assessment available for ITIL compliance in an organisation. Certification in ITIL is only available to individuals. Since July 2013, ITIL has been owned by AXELOS, a joint venture between Capita and the UK Cabinet Office. AXELOS licenses organisations to use the ITIL intellectual property, accredits licensed examination institutes, manages updates to the framework.
Organizations that wish to implement ITIL internally do not require this license. The ITIL 4 Foundation Book was released February 18th 2019. In its former version, ITIL is published as a series of five core volumes, each of which covers a different ITSM lifecycle stage. Although ITIL underpins ISO/IEC 20000, the International Service Management Standard for IT service management, there are some differences between the ISO 20000 standard, ICT Standard by IFGICT and the ITIL framework. Responding to growing dependence on IT, the UK Government's Central Computer and Telecommunications Agency in the 1980s developed a set of recommendations, it recognized that, without standard practices, government agencies and private sector contracts had started independently creating their own IT management practices. The IT Infrastructure Library originated as a collection of books, each covering a specific practice within IT service management. ITIL was built around a process model-based view of controlling and managing operations credited to W. Edwards Deming and his plan-do-check-act cycle.
After the initial publication in 1989–96, the number of books grew within ITIL Version 1 to more than 30 volumes. In 2000/2001, to make ITIL more accessible, ITIL Version 2 consolidated the publications into nine logical "sets" that grouped related process-guidelines to match different aspects of IT management and services; the Service Management sets were by far the most used and understood of the ITIL Version 2 publications. In April 2001, the CCTA was merged into an office of the UK Treasury. In 2006, the ITIL Version 2 glossary was published. In May 2007, this organization issued ITIL Version 3 consisting of 26 processes and functions, now grouped into only 5 volumes, arranged around the concept of Service lifecycle structure. ITIL Version 3 is now known as ITIL 2007 Edition. In 2009, the OGC announced that ITIL Version 2 certification would be withdrawn and launched a major consultation as per how to proceed. In July 2011, the 2011 edition of ITIL was published, providing an update to the version published in 2007.
The OGC is no longer listed as the owner of ITIL, following the consolidation of OGC into the Cabinet Office. The ITIL 4 Edition starts with the ITIL Foundation book, released on February 18th 2019; the ITIL Foundation book of the ITIL 4 Edition introduces some new concepts and evolves existing knowledge. There are two key components of the ITIL 4 framework ITIL service value system Four dimensions model ITIL 4 Edition defines as first key component the service value system. ITIL named five core components of the ITIL SVS: The service value chain provides an operation model with six activities: plan improve engage design and transition obtain/ build deliver and support; the well known ITIL processes are now named as practices. They are grouped as 14 general management practices, 17 service management practices, three technical management practices. They’re the core messages of ITIL 4 and of service management in general, seen in many other frameworks, standards or methods like Lean, DevOps, COBIT, PRINCE2 and more.
Focus on value - Generate value directly or indirectly. Start where you are - Preserve good capabilities and improve where needed. Progress iteratively with feedback - Improve in small steps and measure your way forward. Collaborate and promote visibility - Transparent work in the teams, with the stakeholders and partners. Think and work holistically - It’s an End-to-End responsibility – the service and the SVS. Keep it simple and practical - The right size and use of processes, resources matters. Optimize and automate - Manual work is a bug. Reserve human intervention only for needed activities; the system, which direct and control the organization. In the ITIL SVS are three levels of continual improvement: the ITIL continual improvement model, well known from the previous versions of ITIL. What is the vision? Where are we now? Where do we want to be? How do we get there? Take action Did we get there? How do we keep the momentum going? the improve service value chain activity, introduced there the continual improvement practice, which covers the day-to-day activities and is described with the other ITIL practices The second key component in ITIL 4 Edition is the four dimension model.
The four dimension model ensures a holistic approach to service management. The four dimensions remember the former 4 P’s of ITIL – people, partners, processes; each component of the SVS should considered this four