The Canadian National Railway is a Canadian Class I freight railway headquartered in Montreal, that serves Canada and the Midwestern and Southern United States. CN is Canada's largest railway, in terms of both revenue and the physical size of its rail network, is Canada's only transcontinental railway company, spanning Canada from the Atlantic coast in Nova Scotia to the Pacific coast in British Columbia across about 20,400 route miles of track. CN is a public company with 24,000 employees, as of July 2019 it had a market cap of CA$90 billion. CN was government-owned, having been a Canadian Crown corporation from its founding to its privatization in 1995; as of 2019, Bill Gates is the largest single shareholder of CN stock. The railway was referred to as "Canadian National Railways" between 1919 and 1960, as "Canadian National"/"Canadien National" from 1960 to the present; the Canadian National Railways was incorporated on June 6, 1919, comprising several railways that had become bankrupt and fallen into federal government hands, along with some railways owned by the government.
On November 17, 1995, the federal government privatized CN. Over the next decade, the company expanded into the United States, purchasing Illinois Central Railroad and Wisconsin Central Transportation, among others. Now a freight railway, CN operated passenger services until 1978, when they were assumed by Via Rail; the only passenger services run by CN after 1978 were several mixed trains in Newfoundland, several commuter trains both on CN's electrified routes and towards the South Shore in the Montreal area. The Newfoundland mixed trains lasted until 1988, while the Montreal commuter trains are now operated by Montreal's EXO. In response to public concerns fearing loss of key transportation links, the government of Canada assumed majority ownership of the near bankrupt Canadian Northern Railway on September 6, 1918, appointed a "Board of Management" to oversee the company. At the same time, CNoR was directed to assume management of Canadian Government Railways, a system comprising the Intercolonial Railway of Canada, National Transcontinental Railway, the Prince Edward Island Railway, among others.
On December 20, 1918, the federal government created the Canadian National Railways – a title only with no corporate powers – through a Canadian Privy Council Order in Council as a means to simplify the funding and operation of the various railway companies. The absorption of the Intercolonial Railway would see CNR adopt that system's slogan The People's Railway. Another Canadian railway, the Grand Trunk Pacific Railway, encountered financial difficulty on March 7, 1919, when its parent company Grand Trunk Railway defaulted on repayment of construction loans to the federal government; the federal government's Department of Railways and Canals took over operation of the GTPR until July 12, 1920, when it too was placed under the CNR. The Canadian National Railway was organized on October 10, 1922; the bankrupt GTR itself was placed under the care of a federal government "Board of Management" on May 21, 1920, while GTR management and shareholders opposed to nationalization took legal action. After several years of arbitration, the GTR was absorbed into CNR on January 30, 1923.
In subsequent years, several smaller independent railways would be added to the CNR as they went bankrupt, or it became politically expedient to do so, however the system was more or less finalized following the addition of the GTR. Canadian National Railways was born out of both domestic urgency. Railways, until the rise of the personal automobile and creation of taxpayer-funded all-weather highways, were the only viable long-distance land transportation available in Canada for many years; as such, their operation consumed a great deal of political attention. Many countries regard railway networks as critical infrastructure and at the time of the creation of CNR during the continuing threat of the First World War, Canada was not the only country to engage in railway nationalization. In the early 20th century, many governments were taking a more interventionist role in the economy, foreshadowing the influence of economists like John Maynard Keynes; this political trend, combined with broader geo-political events, made nationalization an appealing choice for Canada.
The Winnipeg General Strike of 1919 and allied involvement in the Russian Revolution seemed to validate the continuing process. The need for a viable rail system was paramount in a time of civil unrest and foreign military intervention. CN Telegraph originated as the Great North West Telegraph Company in 1880 to connect Ontario and Manitoba and became a subsidiary of Western Union in 1881. In 1915, facing bankruptcy, GNWTC was acquired by the Canadian Northern Railway's telegraph company; when Canadian Northern was nationalized in 1918 and amalgamated into Canadian National Railways in 1921, its telegraph arm was renamed the Canadian National Telegraph Company. CN Telegraphs began co-operating with its Canadian Pacific owned rival CPR Telegraphs in the 1930s, sharing telegraph networks and co-founding a teleprinter system in 1957. In 1967 the two services were amalgamated into a joint venture CNCP Telecommunications which evolved into a telecoms company. CN sold its stake of the company to CP in 1984.
In 1923 CNR's second president, Sir Henry Thornton who succeeded David Blyth Hanna, created the CNR Radio Department to provide passengers with entertainment radio reception and give the railway a competitive advantage over its rival, CP
Massimiliano Pani is an Italian songwriter and composer born on 18 April 1963 in Milan to parents Corrado Pani and Mina. His mother has always aroused great curiosity and interest not only for her career but the events that have characterized her private life Corrado Pani was married at the time and due to Mina's refusal to hide the relationship, the singer was banned from performing on public Italian television or radio channels. Within a year, her affair with Corrado ended. At the age of sixteen he wrote his first two songs, Sensazioni and Il vento, which were both included on the 1979 album Attila by Mina. Following this, Pani trained Celso Valli. Thereafter he started working with mother on her album Kyrie in 1980 and appears on the cover; this would be the start of a permanent collaboration with his mother as a writer and keyboardist. While developing musical projects with Celso Valli and Piero Cassano for the musical group Matia Bazar, Pani continued to write songs for other artists including the opening theme of the Sanremo Festival in 1984, with the song Rose su rose sung by Mina.
Pani is dedicated to the composing jingles for children's cartoons with the lyrics of Alessandra Valeri Manera. These jingles were aired by the networks Mediaset and sung by Cristina D'Avena including Principessa dai capelli blu and Prendi il mondo e vai in 1988, Siamo fatti così and Questa allegra gioventù in 1989, Un mondo di magia and Super Mario in 1990, Conosciamoci un po and Bravo Molière in 1991). In 1988, he composed some songs for the album Palla al centro per Rudy, sung by Cristina D'Avena and dedicated to the TV series of the same name. Pani moved on and became a talent scout, he produced the debut albums of Massimo Bozzi, the Proxima and Audio2. Pani made his debut as a solo singer with L'occasione; the album contains music by lyrics by Giorgio Calabrese. The album is dedicated to his mother, who appears among the choirs of the disc, under the pseudonym Regina Zoni. In 1992, his mother recorded "Non avere te", "Robinson" and a duet Come stai with Pani for her album Sorelle Lumière.
Two years he released his second album, Storie per cani sciolti, again as a songwriter and arranger. Some pieces from this album were recorded by Mina on her albums; this was his past album and since has been an active songwriter and composing music for television and film. In 1998 wrote the music for the soap opera Vivere, including the main theme, titled Cazzo largo, recorded by Mina. In 1998, he arranged and produced the CD Mina Celentano. Four singles were released from the album and the album remained in the sales chart for several months, selling more than 1,500,000 copies. In 1999 he arranges six tracks on the album Minage by Monica Naranjo, including a duet with Mina, titled El se encuentra entre tu y yo, he occasionally arranges albums for singers Georgia, Fabrizio De André, Piero Cassano, Danilo Rea, Anna Oxa, Pelù, Fausto Leali and Franco Ambrosetti. In 2010, 2011 and 2012 he returned to TV as a judge in the children talent series Ti lascio una canzone, presented by Antonella Clerici.
He has a younger half-sister, the daughter of journalist Virgilio Crocco and his mother Mina. He has been married twice, his first marriage was to German model Ulrike Fellrath with whom he had a son Axel Pani in 1986. Axel is a musician and songwriter in his own right, he has worked as a writer and has contributed to his grandmother Mina’s albums, including the songs, Per poco che sia for the 2006 album Bau, Con o senza te and Il frutto che vuoi for the 2009 album Facile, Il povero e il re for the 2010 album Caramella Fly away and Only this song for the 2011 album Piccolino, "La sola ballerina che tu avrai" and "Oui c'est la vie" for the 2014 album Selfie, his second marriage is to showgirl Milena Martelli, with whom he has a son Edoardo Pani, born in June 2004. Edoardo sings on the opening lines of the song with his grandmother Mina on her 2014 album Selfie Since 1986 Pani lives and works in Lugano, but unlike his mother and sister, he retained his Italian citizenship. 1991 - L'occasione PDU CD 30015 1993 - Storie per cani sciolti PDU CD 30022 1988 - Prendi il mondo e vai 1988 - Principessa dai capelli blu 1989 - Questa allegra gioventù 1989 - Siamo fatti così 1990 - Super Mario |Super Mario 1990 - Un mondo di magia 1991 - Conosciamoci un po 1991 - Bravo Molière 1998 – 2008 - Canto largo 1991 - Chiara e gli altri 1997 - Da cosa nasce cosa 2000 - Sei forte maestro 2001 - Sei forte maestro 1998 - 2008 - Vivere 2006 - La terza stella 2009 - Terapia d'urgenza 2010 - La banda dei Babbi Natale 1996 - Gelato al limone, as host with Benedicta Boccoli, for Rai Uno, 1996 - David di Donatello, as the host of the evening awards ceremony on the network Telepiù 1996 - Europa mon amour, as host for Rai Uno, 1996 - Telethon, as host Rai Uno, 1997 - Telesogni, host for the Sanremo Festival for Rai Tre, 1997 - Premio Recanati per la Musica d'Autore, conductor for Rai Due, 1997 - Salone del Libro di Torino, as conductor for the Special for Rai Uno, 1998 - Capodanno, as conductor at the piazza di Torino for Rai Uno, 2010 - Ti lascio una canzone, presented by Antonella Clerici, Rai Uno, as President of the judging consisting of Stefania Sandrelli, 2011 - Ti lascio una canzone, condotto da Antonella Clerici, Rai Uno, as President of the judging panel consisting of Orietta Berti and Francesco Facchinetti 2012 - É stato solo un flirt, presented by Antonella Clerici, for Rai Uno, 2012 - Ti lascio una canzone, presented by Antonella Clerici, Rai Uno, member of the judging panel 2
Eugeniu Ștefănescu-Est was a Romanian poet, prose writer and visual artist, professionally active as a lawyer. He was active on the local Symbolist scene from ca. 1900, when he became an associate and disciple of Ion Minulescu. Before Worled War I, while he took up jobs as a magistrate, his synaesthesic and extrovert lyrical pieces earned attention, while his cartoons were taken up in magazines such as L'Assiette au Beurre and Furnica, he abandoned the verse genre by the 1920s, earning attention as the author of fairy tales, also trying his hand as a novelist. Losing his eyesight, Ștefănescu-Est spent the last thirty years of his life in anonymity, looked after by his daughter. Born in Craiova to composer George Stephănescu and his wife Eufrosina, he attended high school in Ploiești and at Bucharest's Poenaru and Saint Sava high schools, he made his poetry debut with Toamna in Foaia pentru toți, in 1897. His work was published by Literatorul, the Symbolist review, but saw print in the traditionalist Sămănătorul.
Completing his secondary education with private tutors, Ștefănescu was boarding-school colleagues with Minulescu, his future associate and inspiration. He took his baccalaureate studied law at Bucharest and Paris universities. Around 1903, in France, he debuted as a cartoonist, his work taken up in L'Assiette au Beurre, L'Indiscret, La Chronique Amusante, he obtained a law degree in 1904, finding his first employment as a clerk at the House of Arts, from April 1906, was an assistant judge at Turnu Măgurele. From 1906, as "Est", he began contributing cartoons to George Ranetti's Furnica, his identity was revealed to the public in 1924. His poetic work was featured in Minulescu's Symbolist magazines: Revista Celor L'alți and Insula, where he was one of the main contributors, it appeared in Seara, the Symbolist-friendly newspaper, in Tristan Tzara's Simbolul. For a while, he attended the salon hosted by Alexandru Bogdan-Pitești, the controversial arts patron. In parallel, from 1908, Ștefănescu was judge in training at Ciolăneștii din Deal, Teleorman County, on the Ștorobăneasa–Bârca circuit.
After a brief marriage to an unknown woman from Ciolăneștii din Deal, he wed a Virginia Malcoci Petrescu in September 1911. His first book appeared that year, as Poeme. In interwar Greater Romania, Ștefănescu resumed his practice, transferring to the Ilfov County bar association in April 1923, he became a widower that year. With his work included in 1920s anthologies by Perpessicius and Ion Pillat, his second book of verse, the 1925 Imperii efemere, he became a bailiff at the courthouses in Buzău, Brașov and Alba Iulia, by focusing on writing prose. His modern fairy tales, inspired by Romanian folklore, appeared in 1929 as Păunașul Codrilor, he resigned from the magistracy in September 1934, but continued to write in the folkloric genre, with collections that had Romanian, Arab or Indian themes: Povestea lui Buceag Împărat, Povestea lui Mitu Sucitu, Abdalah și frumoasa Azad. The series was completed with Zastra fachirul, his novels, published during World War II, were Spre o nouă viață, Școala dragostei, Femei moderne.
By his daughter Margareta, or Marga, was earning notoriety as a visual artist: after working for Straja Țării, she illustrated books by Mihail Drumeș and the literary newspaper Ziarul Copiilor. In 1949, under the communist regime, Ștefănescu-Est unsuccessfully attempted to publish the novella Țara mea frumoasă and the fairy tale Făt-Frumos din agrișe. Forgotten by 1950, he had lost his eyesight; the family was repressed under the new laws: Marga's husband, who had served in the Honor Guard at the Royal Palace, was imprisoned. Giving up on publishing, Marga moved to Galați, where she taught technical drawing at the Faculty of Land Development, she provided for him. In 1968, an anthology listed the poet as deceased, but Ștefănescu gave an interview in 1977 at his Galați home—according to critic Alexandru Piru, this was a "Ionescian" situation, he died in Galați just before turning 99, making him "the dean of Romanian poetry, age-wise". Rediscovered and republished after the Romanian Revolution of 1989, Marga Ștefănescu, remarried Ciurdăreanu, turned 100 in March 2013.
In 1927, the modernist reviewer Eugen Lovinescu suggested that Ștefănescu-Est was a disciple of Ion Minulescu, copying Minulescu's "technique and verbalization". The Symbolist poet-critic N. Davidescu, also the scholar Tudor Vianu, described Ștefănescu-Est as belonging to a "Wallachian", rhetorical and "extrovert", school of Romanian Symbolism. Rating his poems in Simbolul, researcher Paul Cernat finds that they fit in with generically "Symbolist and Art Nouveau cliches". However, according to the literary critic and h