Canada is a country in the northern part of North America. Its ten provinces and three territories extend from the Atlantic to the Pacific and northward into the Arctic Ocean, covering 9.98 million square kilometres, making it the world's second-largest country by total area. Canada's southern border with the United States is the world's longest bi-national land border, its capital is Ottawa, its three largest metropolitan areas are Toronto and Vancouver. As a whole, Canada is sparsely populated, the majority of its land area being dominated by forest and tundra, its population is urbanized, with over 80 percent of its inhabitants concentrated in large and medium-sized cities, many near the southern border. Canada's climate varies across its vast area, ranging from arctic weather in the north, to hot summers in the southern regions, with four distinct seasons. Various indigenous peoples have inhabited what is now Canada for thousands of years prior to European colonization. Beginning in the 16th century and French expeditions explored, settled, along the Atlantic coast.
As a consequence of various armed conflicts, France ceded nearly all of its colonies in North America in 1763. In 1867, with the union of three British North American colonies through Confederation, Canada was formed as a federal dominion of four provinces; this began an accretion of provinces and territories and a process of increasing autonomy from the United Kingdom. This widening autonomy was highlighted by the Statute of Westminster of 1931 and culminated in the Canada Act of 1982, which severed the vestiges of legal dependence on the British parliament. Canada is a parliamentary democracy and a constitutional monarchy in the Westminster tradition, with Elizabeth II as its queen and a prime minister who serves as the chair of the federal cabinet and head of government; the country is a realm within the Commonwealth of Nations, a member of the Francophonie and bilingual at the federal level. It ranks among the highest in international measurements of government transparency, civil liberties, quality of life, economic freedom, education.
It is one of the world's most ethnically diverse and multicultural nations, the product of large-scale immigration from many other countries. Canada's long and complex relationship with the United States has had a significant impact on its economy and culture. A developed country, Canada has the sixteenth-highest nominal per capita income globally as well as the twelfth-highest ranking in the Human Development Index, its advanced economy is the tenth-largest in the world, relying chiefly upon its abundant natural resources and well-developed international trade networks. Canada is part of several major international and intergovernmental institutions or groupings including the United Nations, the North Atlantic Treaty Organization, the G7, the Group of Ten, the G20, the North American Free Trade Agreement and the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation forum. While a variety of theories have been postulated for the etymological origins of Canada, the name is now accepted as coming from the St. Lawrence Iroquoian word kanata, meaning "village" or "settlement".
In 1535, indigenous inhabitants of the present-day Quebec City region used the word to direct French explorer Jacques Cartier to the village of Stadacona. Cartier used the word Canada to refer not only to that particular village but to the entire area subject to Donnacona. From the 16th to the early 18th century "Canada" referred to the part of New France that lay along the Saint Lawrence River. In 1791, the area became two British colonies called Upper Canada and Lower Canada collectively named the Canadas. Upon Confederation in 1867, Canada was adopted as the legal name for the new country at the London Conference, the word Dominion was conferred as the country's title. By the 1950s, the term Dominion of Canada was no longer used by the United Kingdom, which considered Canada a "Realm of the Commonwealth"; the government of Louis St. Laurent ended the practice of using'Dominion' in the Statutes of Canada in 1951. In 1982, the passage of the Canada Act, bringing the Constitution of Canada under Canadian control, referred only to Canada, that year the name of the national holiday was changed from Dominion Day to Canada Day.
The term Dominion was used to distinguish the federal government from the provinces, though after the Second World War the term federal had replaced dominion. Indigenous peoples in present-day Canada include the First Nations, Métis, the last being a mixed-blood people who originated in the mid-17th century when First Nations and Inuit people married European settlers; the term "Aboriginal" as a collective noun is a specific term of art used in some legal documents, including the Constitution Act 1982. The first inhabitants of North America are hypothesized to have migrated from Siberia by way of the Bering land bridge and arrived at least 14,000 years ago; the Paleo-Indian archeological sites at Old Crow Flats and Bluefish Caves are two of the oldest sites of human habitation in Canada. The characteristics of Canadian indigenous societies included permanent settlements, complex societal hierarchies, trading networks; some of these cultures had collapsed by the time European explorers arrived in the late 15th and early 16th centuries and have only been discovered through archeological investigations.
The indigenous population at the time of the first European settlements is estimated to have been between 200,000
Horacio Zeballos Jr. is an Argentine professional tennis player on the men's circuit. His career-high singles ranking is world no. 39. His highest doubles ranking to date has been world no. 18, in April 2019. He has played most of his tennis in Challenger events, he qualified for the US Open and defeated Michael Berrer in the first round for his first win at Grand Slam level, before losing to Tomáš Berdych in four sets in the second round. He reached the final in the St. Petersburg Open in Russia, he reached the doubles final at the Movistar Open in Santiago in 2010, partnered with Potito Starace. They lost to Łukasz Kubot and Oliver Marach, he won the title in doubles at the Copa Telmex with Sebastián Prieto. Zeballos won the 2009 ATP Newcomer of the Year award on 17 February 2010. Zeballos won his first pro title in 2013 at the VTR Open in Chile on 10 February. In the final, he beat Rafael Nadal, becoming one of only four players to beat the former world no. 1 in a clay-court final. Zeballos is an Argentine of Spanish descent.
He enjoys music, ping-pong, swimming. His father is named Horacio Zeballos, his mother is named Carolina, he has Carolina Jr.. His favorite surface is clay, he was coached by Alejandro Lombardo until 22 March 2012. Zeballos has competed on the ATP Challenger Tour, where he has won five singles titles and six doubles titles, he reached his first ATP Tour final at the St. Petersburg Open, defeating Yuri Schukin, Oleksandr Dolgopolov Jr. Ernests Gulbis and Igor Kunitsyn before falling in the final to Stakhovsky in a third-set tiebreak. Zeballos started the singles season in a slump, he lost to countryman Juan Mónaco in Auckland and German Philipp Kohlschreiber at the Australian Open, before losing in three sets after taking the opener against Łukasz Kubot in Santiago. He retired in the second set when a set down against Spain's Marcel Granollers in his first clay match of the year in Brazil. Horacio, had an excellent start to the doubles season. In his first tournament, the Heineken Open and Rogier Wassen defeated world no. 1 team Bob and Mike Bryan.
Zeballos reached the round of 16 at the Australian Open with countryman Leonardo Mayer, reached the final at the Movistar Open with Italian Potito Starace. Zeballos turned to the clay in the Copa Telmex in Argentina, where in the first round, he defeated countryman and former French Open champion Gastón Gaudio, it was Zeballos' first ATP singles win. Zeballos next defeated former world no. 1 Carlos Moyá and reached his first ATP quarterfinal since October, where he lost to countryman Juan Mónaco. In doubles and countryman Sebastián Prieto were the fourth seeds and won the title against Simon Greul and Peter Luczak, it was Zeballos' first career ATP title. The next week, at the Abierto Mexicano Telcel, Zeballos lost in the first round to Łukasz Kubot, he made it to the doubles semifinals, partnered with Mónaco. Zeballos was selected for the Argentine Davis Cup team for the first time, he played doubles with David Nalbandian against the Swedish pair of Robert Lindstedt and Robin Söderling. They won in straight sets.
Next, Zeballos played the BNP Paribas Open in Indian Wells. Zeballos lost to Ricardo Mello, he redeemed himself by winning his first-round match at the Sony Ericsson Open against Andreas Seppi. After that, Zeballos reached a career milestone as he defeated his first-ever top-25 player, 24th ranked Gilles Simon in the second round, he lost in the third round to eventual finalist Tomáš Berdych. His next tournament was the US Men's Clay Court Championships, he defeated Taylor Dent in the first round and Israeli Dudi Sela. He defeated world no. 11, Fernando González, for his first top-15 win and the biggest one of his career. He faced eventual champion Juan Ignacio Chela in the semifinals, where he lost in straight sets. At the Monte Carlo Masters he lost in the first round in straight sets to Spain's Tommy Robredo and in the Barcelona Open to Pablo Cuevas, he lost to John Isner in Rome, but defeated Peter Polansky in Belgrade in his next match. In the second round of the Serbia Open, he lost to Filip Krajinović.
However, he beat new rival Krajinovic in the ARAG World Team Cup, where Argentina won in the title when Zeballos defeated American Robby Ginepri in the second rubber of the final. In the first round of the French Open, Zeballos defeated qualifier Martin Fischer, he lost to eventual champion Rafael Nadal in the second round. At Wimbledon, Horacio lost to Lu Yen-hsun in the first round, but in doubles with partner Leonardo Mayer, defeated fifth seeded pair of Łukasz Kubot and Oliver Marach. Horacio won a Davis Cup doubles rubber with Eduardo Schwank, Argentina went into the semifinal. Horacio next played the Atlanta Tennis Championships, he received a bye into the second round, where he lost to Taylor Dent. He lost in Los Angeles, won one match in Washington, lost in New Haven to Máximo González. At the US Open, Horacio recorded the biggest win of his career. In singles, he lost to Igor Andreev. In doubles, with Eduardo Schwank, he won the first round and in the second round, came back from serving 2–4, 15–40 in a third set to win in a tiebreak against the world no. 4 team, Max Mirnyi and Mahesh Bhupathi.
They defeated Robert Lindstedt and Horia Tecău for Horacio to reach his first Grand Slam quarterfinal. They defeated Marach to get to the semifinals, their great run was ended losing to Rohan Bopanna and Aisam-ul-Haq Qureshi. Horacio we
United States dollar
The United States dollar is the official currency of the United States and its territories per the United States Constitution since 1792. In practice, the dollar is divided into 100 smaller cent units, but is divided into 1000 mills for accounting; the circulating paper money consists of Federal Reserve Notes that are denominated in United States dollars. Since the suspension in 1971 of convertibility of paper U. S. currency into any precious metal, the U. S. dollar is, de facto, fiat money. As it is the most used in international transactions, the U. S. dollar is the world's primary reserve currency. Several countries use it as their official currency, in many others it is the de facto currency. Besides the United States, it is used as the sole currency in two British Overseas Territories in the Caribbean: the British Virgin Islands and Turks and Caicos Islands. A few countries use the Federal Reserve Notes for paper money, while still minting their own coins, or accept U. S. dollar coins. As of June 27, 2018, there are $1.67 trillion in circulation, of which $1.62 trillion is in Federal Reserve notes.
Article I, Section 8 of the U. S. Constitution provides that the Congress has the power "To coin money". Laws implementing this power are codified at 31 U. S. C. § 5112. Section 5112 prescribes the forms; these coins are both designated in Section 5112 as "legal tender" in payment of debts. The Sacagawea dollar is one example of the copper alloy dollar; the pure silver dollar is known as the American Silver Eagle. Section 5112 provides for the minting and issuance of other coins, which have values ranging from one cent to 100 dollars; these other coins are more described in Coins of the United States dollar. The Constitution provides that "a regular Statement and Account of the Receipts and Expenditures of all public Money shall be published from time to time"; that provision of the Constitution is made specific by Section 331 of Title 31 of the United States Code. The sums of money reported in the "Statements" are being expressed in U. S. dollars. The U. S. dollar may therefore be described as the unit of account of the United States.
The word "dollar" is one of the words in the first paragraph of Section 9 of Article I of the Constitution. There, "dollars" is a reference to the Spanish milled dollar, a coin that had a monetary value of 8 Spanish units of currency, or reales. In 1792 the U. S. Congress passed a Coinage Act. Section 9 of that act authorized the production of various coins, including "DOLLARS OR UNITS—each to be of the value of a Spanish milled dollar as the same is now current, to contain three hundred and seventy-one grains and four sixteenth parts of a grain of pure, or four hundred and sixteen grains of standard silver". Section 20 of the act provided, "That the money of account of the United States shall be expressed in dollars, or units... and that all accounts in the public offices and all proceedings in the courts of the United States shall be kept and had in conformity to this regulation". In other words, this act designated the United States dollar as the unit of currency of the United States. Unlike the Spanish milled dollar, the U.
S. dollar is based upon a decimal system of values. In addition to the dollar the coinage act established monetary units of mill or one-thousandth of a dollar, cent or one-hundredth of a dollar, dime or one-tenth of a dollar, eagle or ten dollars, with prescribed weights and composition of gold, silver, or copper for each, it was proposed in the mid-1800s that one hundred dollars be known as a union, but no union coins were struck and only patterns for the $50 half union exist. However, only cents are in everyday use as divisions of the dollar. XX9 per gallon, e.g. $3.599, more written as $3.599⁄10. When issued in circulating form, denominations equal to or less than a dollar are emitted as U. S. coins while denominations equal to or greater than a dollar are emitted as Federal Reserve notes. Both one-dollar coins and notes are produced today, although the note form is more common. In the past, "paper money" was issued in denominations less than a dollar and gold coins were issued for circulation up to the value of $20.
The term eagle was used in the Coinage Act of 1792 for the denomination of ten dollars, subsequently was used in naming gold coins. Paper currency less than one dollar in denomination, known as "fractional currency", was sometimes pejoratively referred to as "shinplasters". In 1854, James Guthrie Secretary of the Treasury, proposed creating $100, $50 and $25 gold coins, which were referred to as a "Union", "Half Union", "Quarter Union", thus implying a denomination of 1 Union = $100. Today, USD notes are made from cotton fiber paper, unlike most common paper, made of wood fiber. U. S. coins are produced by the United States Mint. U. S. dollar banknotes are printed by the Bureau of Engraving and Printing and, since 1914, have been issued by t
Rafael Nadal Parera is a Spanish professional tennis player ranked world No. 2 in men's singles tennis by the Association of Tennis Professionals. Nadal has won 17 Grand Slam singles titles, the second most in history for a male player, as well as a record 33 ATP Tour Masters 1000 titles, 20 ATP Tour 500 titles, the 2008 Olympic gold medal in singles. In addition, Nadal has held the world No. 1 ranking for a total of 196 weeks. In majors, Nadal has won a record 11 French Open titles, three US Open titles, two Wimbledon titles, one Australian Open title. Nadal has won 80 career titles overall, including a record 57 clay court titles. With 81 consecutive match wins on clay, Nadal holds the record for the longest single surface win streak in the Open Era, he was a member of the winning Spain Davis Cup team in 2004, 2008, 2009, 2011. In 2010, he became the seventh male player in history and youngest of five in the Open Era to achieve the Career Grand Slam at age 24, he is the second male player, after Andre Agassi.
In 2011, Nadal was named the Laureus World Sportsman of the Year. Rafael Nadal was born in Manacor, a town on the island of Mallorca in the Balearic Islands, Spain to parents Ana María Parera and Sebastián Nadal, his father is a businessman, owner of an insurance company and window company Vidres Mallorca, the restaurant, Sa Punta. Rafael has María Isabel, his uncle, Miguel Ángel Nadal, is a retired professional footballer, who played for RCD Mallorca, FC Barcelona, the Spanish national team. He idolized Barcelona striker Ronaldo as a child, via his uncle got access to the Barcelona dressing room to have a photo with the Brazilian. Nadal supports football clubs RCD Mallorca. Recognizing in Rafael a natural talent, another uncle, Toni Nadal, a former professional tennis player, introduced him to tennis when he was three years old. At age 8, Nadal won an under-12 regional tennis championship at a time when he was a promising football player; this made Toni Nadal intensify training, at that time he encouraged Nadal to play left-handed for a natural advantage on the tennis court, as he noticed Nadal played forehand shots with two hands.
At age 12, Nadal won the Spanish and European tennis titles in his age group, while playing football full-time. Nadal's father made him choose between football and tennis so that his school work would not deteriorate entirely. Nadal said: "I chose tennis. Football had to stop straight away."When he was 14, the Spanish tennis federation requested that Nadal leave Mallorca and move to Barcelona to continue his tennis training. His family turned down this request because they feared his education would suffer, but because Toni said that "I don't want to believe that you have to go to America, or other places to be a good athlete. You can do it from your home." The decision to stay home meant less financial support from the federation. In May 2001, he defeated former Grand Slam tournament champion Pat Cash in a clay-court exhibition match. Nadal turned professional at age 15, participated in two events on the ITF junior circuit. On 29 April 2002, at 15 years and 10 months, the world No. 762 Nadal won his first ATP match, defeating Ramón Delgado, became the ninth player in the Open Era to do so before the age of 16.
In 2001, Nadal finished the year with a Challenger series record of 1–1 in singles with no titles or finals appearances. He did not participate in any doubles Challengers events. At ITF Futures, Nadal's record was 7–5 in singles and 1–2 in doubles, with no titles or finals appearances. In 2002, aged 16, Nadal reached the semifinals of the Boys' Singles tournament at Wimbledon, in his first ITF junior event. In the same year, he helped Spain defeat the US in the final of the Junior Davis Cup in his second, final, appearance on the ITF junior circuit. Nadal's Challenger level record in 2002 was 4–2 in singles with no titles, he did not participate in any doubles Challengers events. Nadal finished the year with a Futures record of 40 -- 9 in 10 -- 9 in doubles, he won 6 singles tournaments including 5 on clay and 1 on hard courts. He did not reach any doubles finals. Nadal entered the clay-court Mallorca Open, part of the ATP International Series, at the end of April as a wildcard, where he participated in both singles and doubles.
In singles, Nadal won his first ATP match, defeating Ramon Delgado in the Round of 32. He was defeated in the Round of 16 by Olivier Rochus. In doubles and his partner, Bartolome Salva-Vidal, were defeated in the first round by David Adams and Simon Aspelin. In 2003, Nadal won two Challenger titles and finished the year ranked No. 49. He won the ATP Newcomer of the Year Award. In his Wimbledon debut in 2003, he became the youngest man to reach the third round since Boris Becker in 1984. After Wimbledon Nadal participated at Bastad, where he lost to Nicolas Lapentti in the quarterfinals, at Stuttgart, where he lost to Fernando Gonzalez in the Round of 32. At Umag, he lost to Carlos Moya in the semifinals. After playing two more Challenger level events, the last Challenger tournaments of his career, Nadal finished his 2003 campaign with three first round losses in ATP events. Nadal competed in seven doubles tournaments in 2003, won his first ATP title at the clay-court Croatia Open in Umag, where he partnered with Álex López Morón to defeat Todd Perry and Thomas Shimada in straight sets in the final.2004 started with a doubles championship alongside Tommy Robredo at the Maharashtra Open.
In singles, Nadal reached the third round of the 20
Daniil Sergeyevich Medvedev is a Russian professional tennis player. He has won 4 ATP singles titles. Medvedev has a career high ATP singles ranking of 15 achieved on 18 February 2019, he has a career high ATP doubles ranking of 265 achieved on 18 September 2017. Medvedev made his ATP main draw debut at the 2015 Kremlin Cup, partnering Aslan Karatsev in the doubles event; as a qualifier, Medvedev made his ATP singles main draw debut at the 2016 Nice Open, lost to Guido Pella in three sets. Three weeks he earned his first singles ATP World Tour win at the 2016 Ricoh Open, defeating Horacio Zeballos in straight sets. In January 2017, Medvedev reached his first ATP singles final. In the final at the Chennai Open he lost to Roberto Bautista Agut in two sets; as a result, Medvedev jumped 34 positions from 99 to 65 in a new career-high. In February, he continued his good form when advancing to quarterfinals of the Open Sud de France and the Open 13, losing to Jo-Wilfried Tsonga and Lucas Pouille respectively.
In June, he made it to the quarterfinals of the Rosmalen Grass Court Championships defeating the 6th seed, Robin Haase, Thanasi Kokkinakis before losing to Ivo Karlović in straight sets. In the Aegon Championships, he advanced to his first ATP 500 quarterfinal by beating Nicolas Mahut and Thanasi Kokkinakis in the first 2 rounds he lost to the No. 6 seed Grigor Dimitrov in the quarterfinals. One week he kept up his good form on grass by advancing to the semi-final of Eastbourne International before losing to Novak Djokovic. At Wimbledon he got his first Grand Slam victory by defeating 5th seed and world No. 3 Stan Wawrinka in the first round in four sets. This result was notable, he subsequently lost in the next round to Ruben Bemelmans. Medvedev was handed three fines totalling $14,500 for his conduct during the match with Bemelmans. After Wimbledon, Medvedev was disqualified from the second round of the Savannah Challenger event for making a racist comment after the umpire ruled in favor of his opponent.
Medvedev thought he had won a break point against his opponent Donald Young's serve, but chair umpire Sandy French ruled that his returning shot had gone out. Medvedev said French, who are both African-Americans, were friends, he was disqualified mid-match for'question the impartiality of the umpire based on her race'. Medvedev started the 2018 season by qualifying for the Sydney International, he reached the final. The final became the "youngest" since 2007, when 20-year-old Rafael Nadal defeated 19-year-old Novak Djokovic in the final of Indian Wells, it became the tournament's youngest since 1989. Medvedev reached the quarterfinals of the Rotterdam Open, losing to Andreas Seppi in three sets. In August, he won his second ATP title at the 2018 Winston-Salem Open after defeating the home favorite Steve Johnson in straight sets. After losing to Borna Ćorić in the third round of the US Open, he went on to win his first ATP 500 and third ATP title in Tokyo as a qualifier, overcoming Japanese star and No. 3 seeded Kei Nishikori 6–2, 6–4 in the final match.
This triumph brought him to a new career high ranking of No. 22 and made him become the No. 1 player in Russia. In October, he continued his good form, reaching the 2018 Kremlin Cup semifinal, losing to his countryman and eventual champion Karen Khachanov. One week he made the ATP 500 2018 Swiss Indoors semifinals, which he lost to Roger Federer, he reached his highest ranking yet, at No. 16. Medvedev finished 2018 with the most hard court match wins of any player on the ATP World Tour. Medvedev started the 2019 season well by reaching the final of the Brisbane International, he lost the final to Kei Nishikori. At the Australian Open, Medvedev was seeded 15th, he defeated qualifier Lloyd Harris, unseeded Ryan Harrison, 21st seed David Goffin before losing to top seed Novak Djokovic in four sets in the fourth round. Medvedev won his fourth ATP title at the Sofia Open beating Márton Fucsovics in the final in straight sets; the following week, Medvedev lost in the semifinals of the ATP 500 tournament in Rotterdam against Gaël Monfils.
Current through the Miami Masters. Medvedev's match record against those who have been ranked in the top 10 is as follows, with those who have been No. 1 in boldface, retired players in italics. * Statistics correct as of 4 March 2019. Indicates the outcome of the Davis Cup match followed by the score, place of event, the zonal classification and its phase, the court surface. Daniil Medvedev at the Association of Tennis Professionals Daniil Medvedev at the International Tennis Federation Daniil Medvedev at the Davis Cup
John Player & Sons
John Player & Sons, most known as Player's, was a tobacco and cigarette manufacturer based in Nottingham, England. In 1901, the company merged with other companies to form The Imperial Tobacco Company to face competition from US manufacturers; the company released several series of association football trading cards in the 1930s under the Player's brand. Nowadays the brands "Player" and "John Player Special" are owned and commercialised by Imperial Brands. In March 1820, William Wright set up a small tobacco factory in Craigshill, West Lothian; this business earned Wright a comfortable fortune. John Player bought the business in 1877, he had the Castle Tobacco Factories built in Radford, just west of the city centre. He had three large factory blocks built, but only one was used to process and pack tobacco; the other two blocks were loaned out to lace manufacturers until the business had expanded enough to use the additional space. One of John Player's innovations was to offer pre-packaged tobacco.
Before this, smokers would have bought tobacco by weight from loose supplies and cigarette papers to roll them in. He adopted a registered trade mark as a guarantee to the public that the goods could be relied on. John Player died in December 1884 and for the next nine years, the business was run by a small group of family friends until W G and J D Player were ready to take over the firm in 1893; the business became a private limited company in 1895, with a share capital of £200,000. The business was run by Player's sons John Dane Player and William Goodacre Player. In 1901, in response to competitive threats from the US, Player's merged with the Imperial Tobacco Group; the largest constituent of Imperial Tobacco was W. D. & H. O. Wills and the new group was run from Wills' head office in Bristol. Player's retained its own identity with cigarette brands such as No. 9, John Player Special, Gold Leaf. Player's Medium Navy Cut was the most popular by far of the three Navy Cut brands. Two thirds of all the cigarettes sold in Britain were Player's and two thirds of these were branded as Player's Medium Navy Cut.
In January 1937, Player's sold nearly 3.5 million cigarettes. The popularity of the brand was amongst the middle class and in the South of England, it was smoked in the north but other brands were locally more popular. Production continued to grow until at its peak in the late 1950s, Player's was employing 11,000 workers and producing 15 brands of pipe tobacco and 11 brands of cigarettes. In the UK in 1968, in response to an increase in tobacco duty in the budget, Player's launched a new, cheaper brand, "Player's No.10". Priced at 3 s 2 d for 20, it was the cheapest cigarette on the British market. A new factory was opened in the early 1970s on Nottingham's industrial outskirts, with better road access and more effective floor space, next to the headquarters of Boots the Chemists. On 15 April 2014, Imperial Tobacco announced that the Horizon factory would close in early 2016, bringing an end to cigarette and tobacco manufacture in Nottingham after over 130 years; the old factories in Radford the cavernous No. 1 Factory which occupied the whole area between Radford Boulevard and Alfreton Road, bordered by Player Street and Beckenham Road, were run down.
The No. 2 Factory, facing onto Radford Boulevard with its distinctive clock and the No. 3 factory with its rooftop'John Player & Sons' sign, were demolished in the late 1980s. The iron railings and gates onto Radford Boulevard from the present retail park are the ones that surrounded No. 2 Factory – the large gates were the entrance to the factory yard between No. 2 and No. 3 factories and the smaller gates were the pedestrian entrances to No. 2 factory itself. John Player's brands are well known in motor racing from their long association with the Lotus Formula One team, the Forsythe Racing Champ Car team, Norton motorcycle racing team. Ford introduced the John Player Special limited edition, in March 1975. Available only in black or white, the JPS featured yards of gold pinstriping to mimic the Formula 1 livery, gold-coloured wheels, a bespoke upgraded interior of beige cloth and carpet trimmed with black. John Player's sponsorship of Team Lotus began with the Lotus 49 in Gold Leaf colours in the 1968 Tasman Series.
It continued with the Lotus 49 and Lotus 72 in Formula One, changed to the black and gold John Player Special colours in 1972, ended in 1986 with the Lotus 98T. In Australia, JPS Team BMW competed in the Australian Touring Car Championship between 1981 and 1987, with Jim Richards winning the series in 1985 and 1987. In 1981, BMW released a limited-edition road version of its 323i touring car in JPS colours to the Australian market and another in 1984. Imperial Tobacco Canada's Player's brands sponsored Canadian auto racing for decades. After a blanket tobacco advertising ban was instituted in the Canadian Tobacco Act in 1988, Imperial created a new corporation, Player's Racing Ltd., an auto racing promotion company. This took advantage of an exemption in the Act that allowed tobacco companies to sponsor "cultural events" using the company's proper name instead of a brand name. Player's Ltd. advertising looked nearly identical to Player's cigarette packs, given that it was one of the few legal outlets for advertising, the company was extensively promoted both during race weekends and at ot
Serena Jameka Williams is an American professional tennis player. The Women's Tennis Association ranked her world No. 1 in singles on eight separate occasions between 2002 and 2017. She reached the No. 1 ranking for the first time on July 8, 2002. On her sixth occasion, she held the ranking for 186 consecutive weeks, tying the record set by Steffi Graf. In total, she has been No. 1 for 319 weeks, which ranks third in the "Open Era" among female players behind Graf and Martina Navratilova. Williams holds the most Grand Slam titles in singles and mixed doubles combined among active players, her 39 major titles puts her joint-third on the all-time list and second in the Open Era: 23 in singles, 14 in women's doubles, two in mixed doubles. She is the most recent female player to have held all four Grand Slam singles titles and the third player to achieve this twice, after Rod Laver and Graf, she is the most recent player to have won a Grand Slam title on each surface in one calendar year. She is together with her sister Venus, the most recent player to have held all four Grand Slam women's doubles titles simultaneously.
Her total of 23 Grand Slam singles titles marks the record for the most Grand Slam tournament wins in the Open Era, is second on the all-time list behind Margaret Court. She has won an all-time record of 13 Grand Slam singles titles on hard court. Williams holds the Open Era record for most titles won at the Australian Open and shares the Open Era record for most titles won at the US Open with Chris Evert, she holds the all-time record for the most women's singles matches won at majors with 335 matches. Williams has won 14 Grand Slam doubles titles, all with her sister Venus, the pair are unbeaten in Grand Slam doubles finals; as a team and Venus have the third most women's doubles Grand Slam titles, behind the 18 titles of Natasha Zvereva and the record 20 titles won by Martina Navratilova and Pam Shriver. Williams is a five-time winner of the WTA Tour Championships in the singles division, she has won four Olympic gold medals, one in women's singles and three in women's doubles—an all-time record shared with her sister, Venus.
The arrival of the Williams sisters has been credited with ushering in a new era of power and athleticism on the women's professional tennis tour. She is ranked at No.11 in the world by the WTA. Earning $29 million in prize money and endorsements, Williams was the highest paid female athlete in 2016, she repeated this feat in 2017 when she was the only woman on Forbes' list of the 100 highest paid athletes with $27 million in prize money and endorsements. She has won the'Laureus Sportswoman of the Year' award four times, in December 2015, she was named Sportsperson of the Year by Sports Illustrated magazine. Williams was born in Saginaw, Michigan, to Oracene Price and Richard Williams, is the youngest of Price's five daughters: half-sisters Yetunde and Isha Price, full older sister Venus, she has at least seven paternal half-siblings. When the children were young, the family moved to Compton, where Williams started playing tennis at the age of four, her father home-schooled her sister, Venus. While he and subsequently her mother have been the official coaches, other mentors who helped her learn the game included Richard Williams, a Compton man who shared her father's name and would go on to found The Venus and Serena Williams Tennis/Tutorial Academy.
When Williams was nine and her family moved from Compton to West Palm Beach, Florida, so that she could attend the tennis academy of Rick Macci. Macci did not always agree with Williams's father, but respected that "he treated his daughters like kids, allowed them to be little girls". Richard stopped sending his daughters to national junior tennis tournaments when Williams was 10, since he wanted them to go and to focus on school work. Experiences of racism drove this experience, as Richard Williams had heard white parents talk about the Williams sisters in a derogatory manner during tournaments. At that time, Williams had a 46–3 record on the United States Tennis Association junior tour and was ranked number one among under-10 players in Florida. In 1995, when Williams was in the ninth grade, her father pulled his daughters out of Macci's academy and, from on, took over all coaching at their home; when asked in 2000 whether having followed the normal path of playing on the junior circuit would have been beneficial, Williams responded: "Everyone does different things.
I think for Venus and I, we just attempted a different road, it worked for us." Williams is a baseline player, her game is built around taking immediate control of rallies with her powerful and consistent serve, return of serve, forceful groundstrokes from both her forehand and backhand swings. Williams's forehand is considered to be among the most powerful shots in the women's game, as is her double-handed backhand. Williams strikes her backhand groundstroke using an open stance, uses the same open stance for her forehand. Williams's aggressive play, a "high risk" style, is balanced in part by her serve, which most say is the greatest in women's tennis history, she projects great pace and placement with her serves. What makes her serve more deadly is her ball placement and her ability to place powerful shots with gr