The Wright brothers and Wilbur, were two American aviation pioneers credited with inventing and flying the world's first successful airplane. They made the first controlled, sustained flight of a powered, heavier-than-air aircraft with the Wright Flyer on December 17, 1903, four miles south of Kitty Hawk, North Carolina. In 1904–05, the brothers developed their flying machine into the first practical fixed-wing aircraft, the Wright Flyer III. Although not the first to build experimental aircraft, the Wright brothers were the first to invent aircraft controls that made fixed-wing powered flight possible; the brothers' breakthrough was their creation of a three-axis control system, which enabled the pilot to steer the aircraft and to maintain its equilibrium. This method remains standard on fixed-wing aircraft of all kinds. From the beginning of their aeronautical work, the Wright brothers focused on developing a reliable method of pilot control as the key to solving "the flying problem"; this approach differed from other experimenters of the time who put more emphasis on developing powerful engines.
Using a small homebuilt wind tunnel, the Wrights collected more accurate data than any before, enabling them to design more efficient wings and propellers. Their first U. S. patent did not claim invention of a flying machine, but a system of aerodynamic control that manipulated a flying machine's surfaces. The brothers gained the mechanical skills essential to their success by working for years in their Dayton, Ohio-based shop with printing presses, bicycles and other machinery, their work with bicycles in particular influenced their belief that an unstable vehicle such as a flying machine could be controlled and balanced with practice. From 1900 until their first powered flights in late 1903, they conducted extensive glider tests that developed their skills as pilots, their shop employee Charlie Taylor became an important part of the team, building their first airplane engine in close collaboration with the brothers. The Wright brothers' status as inventors of the airplane has been subject to counter-claims by various parties.
Much controversy persists over the many competing claims of early aviators. Edward Roach, historian for the Dayton Aviation Heritage National Historical Park, argues that they were excellent self-taught engineers who could run a small company, but they did not have the business skills or temperament to dominate the growing aviation industry; the Wright brothers were two of seven children born to Milton Wright, of English and Dutch ancestry, Susan Catherine Koerner, of German and Swiss ancestry. Milton Wright's mother, Catherine Reeder, was descended from the progenitor of the Vanderbilt family and the Huguenot Gano family of New Rochelle, New York. Wilbur was born near Millville, Indiana, in 1867; the brothers never married. The other Wright siblings were Reuchlin, Lorin and twins Otis and Ida; the direct paternal ancestry goes back to a Samuel Wright who sailed to America and settled in Massachusetts in 1636. None of the Wright children had middle names. Instead, their father tried hard to give them distinctive first names.
Wilbur was named for Wilbur Fisk and Orville for Orville Dewey, both clergymen that Milton Wright admired. They were "Will" and "Orv" to their friends and in Dayton, their neighbors knew them as "the Bishop's kids", or "the Bishop's boys"; because of their father's position as a bishop in the Church of the United Brethren in Christ, he traveled and the Wrights moved — twelve times before returning permanently to Dayton in 1884. In elementary school, Orville was once expelled. In 1878 when the family lived in Cedar Rapids, their father brought home a toy helicopter for his two younger sons; the device was based on an invention of French aeronautical pioneer Alphonse Pénaud. Made of paper and cork with a rubber band to twirl its rotor, it was about a foot long. Wilbur and Orville played with it until it broke, built their own. In years, they pointed to their experience with the toy as the spark of their interest in flying. Both brothers did not receive diplomas; the family's abrupt move in 1884 from Richmond, Indiana, to Dayton, where the family had lived during the 1870s, prevented Wilbur from receiving his diploma after finishing four years of high school.
The diploma was awarded posthumously to Wilbur on April 16, 1994, which would have been his 127th birthday. In late 1885 or early 1886 Wilbur was struck in the face by a hockey stick while playing an ice-skating game with friends, resulting in the loss of his front teeth, he had been vigorous and athletic until and although his injuries did not appear severe, he became withdrawn. He had planned to attend Yale. Instead, he spent the next few years housebound. During this time he cared for his mother, terminally ill with tuberculosis, read extensively in his father's library and ably assisted his father during times of controversy within the Brethren Church, but expressed unease over his own lack of ambition. Orville dropped out of high school after his junior year to start a printing business in 1889, having designed and built his own printing press with Wilbur's help. Wilbur joined the print shop, in March the brothers launched a weekly newspaper, the West Side News. Subsequent issues listed Orville as Wilbur as editor on the masthead.
In April 1890 they converted the paper to a daily, The Evening Item, but it lasted only f
Aircraft Owners and Pilots Association
The Aircraft Owners and Pilots Association is a Frederick, Maryland-based American non-profit political organization that advocates for general aviation. The organization started at Wings Field in Pennsylvania. On 24 April 1932, The Philadelphia Aviation Country Club was founded at Wings Field; the country club was the location of meetings of members that founded AOPA. AOPA incorporated on May 15, 1939, with C. Towsend Ludington serving as the first president, AOPA's membership consists of general aviation pilots in the United States. AOPA exists to serve the interests of its members as aircraft owners and pilots, to promote the economy, safety and popularity of flight in general aviation aircraft. In 1971 the organization purchased Airport World Magazine, moving its operations to Bethesda, Maryland. With 384,915 members in 2012, AOPA is the largest aviation association in the world, although since 2010 it has decreased in membership from 414,224, a loss of 7% in two years. AOPA is affiliated with other similar organizations in other countries though membership in the International Council of Aircraft Owner and Pilot Associations.
In 2015, AOPA was inducted into the International Air & Space Hall of Fame at the San Diego Air & Space Museum. AOPA has several programs. AOPA Foundation, is AOPA’s 501 charitable organization; the foundation's four goals are to improve general aviation safety, grow pilot population and improve community airports, provide a positive image of general aviation. AOPA Political Action Committee, is just for AOPA members. Through lobbying, it represents the interests of general aviation to Congress, the Executive Branch, state and local governments; the AOPA PAC campaigns in favor of federal and local candidates that support their policies and oppose those who do not through advertising and membership grassroots campaigns. GA Serves America, was created to promote general aviation to the public. Legal Services Plan/Pilot Protection Services, provides AOPA members with legal defense against alleged FAA enforcement charges as well as assistance obtaining an FAA flight medical. Enrollment in Pilot Protection Services is only open to AOPA members and requires an additional payment above dues.
The Legal Services Plan was combined with the former medical program in May 2012 under the name Pilot Protection Services. The Legal Services Plan was created in June 1983. Air Safety Institute is a separate nonprofit, tax exempt organization promoting safety and pilot proficiency in general aviation through quality training, research and the dissemination of information. AOPA sponsors its own open house in Frederick Maryland; the yearly event started in 1991 with 125 aircraft. By 2001, the attendance grew to 760 aircraft; the event was cancelled for five years after the September 11th attacks, airspace changes, but resumed in 2006. Canadian Owners and Pilots Association – similar organization established in Canada in 1952 Experimental Aircraft Association – similar organization focused on homebuilt aircraft Official Website AOPA Air Safety Institute General Aviation Serves America AOPA USA's Let's Go Flying Records of the AOPA at the Hagley Museum and Library
Nav Canada is a run, not-for-profit corporation that owns and operates Canada's civil air navigation system. It was established in accordance with the Civil Air Navigation Services Commercialization Act; the company employs 1,900 air traffic controllers, 650 flight service specialists and 700 technologists. It has been responsible for the safe and expeditious flow of air traffic in Canadian airspace since November 1, 1996 when the government transferred the ANS from Transport Canada to Nav Canada; as part of the transfer, or privatization, Nav Canada paid the government CA$1.5 billion. Nav Canada manages 12 million aircraft movements a year for 40,000 customers in over 18 million square kilometres, making it the world’s second-largest air navigation service provider by traffic volume. Nav Canada, which operates independently of any government funding, is headquartered in Ottawa, Ontario, it is only allowed to be funded by service charges to aircraft operators. Nav Canada's operations consist of various sites across the country.
These include: About 1,400 ground-based navigation aids 55 flight service stations 8 flight information centres, one each in: Kamloops – most of British Columbia Edmonton – all of Alberta and northeastern BC Winnipeg – northwestern Ontario, all of Manitoba and Saskatchewan London – most of Ontario North Bay – all of Nunavut and Northwest Territories, most of the Arctic waters Quebec City – all of Quebec, southwestern Labrador, tip of eastern Ontario, northern New Brunswick Halifax – most of New Brunswick, Nova Scotia, Prince Edward Island, most of Newfoundland and Labrador Whitehorse – northwestern British Columbia and all of Yukon 41 control towers 46 radar sites and 15 automatic dependent surveillance-broadcast ground sites 7 Area Control Centres, one each in: Vancouver – Surrey, BC Edmonton – Edmonton International Airport Winnipeg – Winnipeg-James Armstrong Richardson International Airport Toronto Centre – Toronto-Pearson International Airport Montreal Centre – Montreal-Trudeau International Airport Moncton – Riverview, New Brunswick Gander – Gander International Airport North Atlantic Oceanic control centre: Gander ControlNav Canada has three other facilities: National Operations Centre: Ottawa Technical Systems Centre: Ottawa The Nav Centre – 1950 Montreal Road in Cornwall, Ontario As a non-share capital corporation, Nav Canada has no shareholders.
The company is governed by a 15-member board of directors representing the four stakeholder groups that founded Nav Canada. The four stakeholders elect 10 members as follows: These 10 directors elect four independent directors, with no ties to the stakeholder groups; those 14 directors appoint the president and chief executive officer who becomes the 15th board member. This structure ensures that the interests of individual stakeholders do not predominate and no member group could exert undue influence over the remainder of the board. To further ensure that the interests of Nav Canada are served, these board members cannot be active employees or members of airlines, unions, or government; the company was formed on November 1, 1996 when the government sold the country's air navigation services from Transport Canada to the new not-for-profit private entity for CAD$1.5 billion. The company was formed in response to a number of issues with Transport Canada's operation of air traffic control and air navigation facilities.
While TC's safety record and operational staff were rated its infrastructure was old and in need of serious updating at a time of government restraint. This resulted in system delays for airlines and costs that were exceeding the airline ticket tax, a directed tax, supposed to fund the system; the climate of government wage freezes resulted in staff shortages of air traffic controllers that were hard to address within a government department. Having TC as the service provider, the regulator and inspector was a conflict of interest. Pressure from the airlines on the government mounted for a solution to the problem, hurting the air industry's bottom line. A number of solutions were considered, including forming a crown corporation, but rejected in favour of outright privatization, the new company being formed as a non-share-capital not-for-profit, run by a board of directors who were appointed and now elected; the company's revenue is predominately from service fees charged to aircraft operators which amount to about CAD$1.2B annually.
Nav Canada raises revenues from developing and selling technology and related services to other air navigation service providers around the world. It has some smaller sources of income, such as conducting maintenance work for other ANS providers and rentals from the Nav Centre in Cornwall, Ontario. To address the old infrastructure it purchased from the Canadian government the company has carried out projects such as implementing a wide area multilateration system, replacing 95 Instrument Landing System installations with new equipment, new control towers in Toronto and Calgary, modernizing the Vancouver Area Control Centre and building a new logistics centre Nav Canada felt the impact of the late-2000s recession in two ways: losses in its investments in third party sponsored asset-backed commercial paper and falling revenues due to reduced air traffic levels. In the summer of 2007 the company held $368 million in ABCP. On 12 January 2009 final Ontario Superior Court of Justice approval was granted to restructure the third party ABCP notes.
The company expects that the non-credit related fai
Ottawa is the capital city of Canada. It stands on the south bank of the Ottawa River in the eastern portion of southern Ontario. Ottawa borders Gatineau, Quebec; as of 2016, Ottawa had a city population of 964,743 and a metropolitan population of 1,323,783 making it the fourth-largest city and the fifth-largest CMA in Canada. Founded in 1826 as Bytown, incorporated as Ottawa in 1855, the city has evolved into the political centre of Canada, its original boundaries were expanded through numerous annexations and were replaced by a new city incorporation and amalgamation in 2001 which increased its land area. The city name "Ottawa" was chosen in reference to the Ottawa River, the name of, derived from the Algonquin Odawa, meaning "to trade". Ottawa has the most educated population among Canadian cities and is home to a number of post-secondary and cultural institutions, including the National Arts Centre, the National Gallery, numerous national museums. Ottawa has the highest standard of living in low unemployment.
With the draining of the Champlain Sea around ten thousand years ago, the Ottawa Valley became habitable. Local populations used the area for wild edible harvesting, fishing, trade and camps for over 6500 years; the Ottawa river valley has archaeological sites with arrow heads and stone tools. Three major rivers meet within Ottawa, making it an important trade and travel area for thousands of years; the Algonquins called the Ottawa River Kichi Sibi or Kichissippi meaning "Great River" or "Grand River". Étienne Brûlé regarded as the first European to travel up the Ottawa River, passed by Ottawa in 1610 on his way to the Great Lakes. Three years Samuel de Champlain wrote about the waterfalls in the area and about his encounters with the Algonquins, using the Ottawa River for centuries. Many missionaries would follow the early traders; the first maps of the area used the word Ottawa, derived from the Algonquin word adawe, to name the river. Philemon Wright, a New Englander, created the first settlement in the area on 7 March 1800 on the north side of the river, across from the present day city of Ottawa in Hull.
He, with five other families and twenty-five labourers, set about to create an agricultural community called Wrightsville. Wright pioneered the Ottawa Valley timber trade by transporting timber by river from the Ottawa Valley to Quebec City. Bytown, Ottawa's original name, was founded as a community in 1826 when hundreds of land speculators were attracted to the south side of the river when news spread that British authorities were constructing the northerly end of the Rideau Canal military project at that location; the following year, the town was named after British military engineer Colonel John By, responsible for the entire Rideau Waterway construction project. The canal's military purpose was to provide a secure route between Montreal and Kingston on Lake Ontario, bypassing a vulnerable stretch of the St. Lawrence River bordering the state of New York that had left re-supply ships bound for southwestern Ontario exposed to enemy fire during the War of 1812. Colonel By set up military barracks on the site of today's Parliament Hill.
He laid out the streets of the town and created two distinct neighbourhoods named "Upper Town" west of the canal and "Lower Town" east of the canal. Similar to its Upper Canada and Lower Canada namesakes "Upper Town" was predominantly English speaking and Protestant whereas "Lower Town" was predominantly French and Catholic. Bytown's population grew to 1,000 as the Rideau Canal was being completed in 1832. Bytown encountered some impassioned and violent times in her early pioneer period that included Irish labour unrest that attributed to the Shiners' War from 1835 to 1845 and political dissension evident from the 1849 Stony Monday Riot. In 1855 Bytown was incorporated as a city. William Pittman Lett was installed as the first city clerk guiding it through 36 years of development. On New Year's Eve 1857, Queen Victoria, as a symbolic and political gesture, was presented with the responsibility of selecting a location for the permanent capital of the Province of Canada. In reality, Prime Minister John A. Macdonald had assigned this selection process to the Executive Branch of the Government, as previous attempts to arrive at a consensus had ended in deadlock.
The "Queen's choice" turned out to be the small frontier town of Ottawa for two main reasons: Firstly, Ottawa's isolated location in a back country surrounded by dense forest far from the Canada–US border and situated on a cliff face would make it more defensible from attack. Secondly, Ottawa was midway between Toronto and Kingston and Montreal and Quebec City. Additionally, despite Ottawa's regional isolation it had seasonal water transportation access to Montreal over the Ottawa River and to Kingston via the Rideau Waterway. By 1854 it had a modern all season Bytown and Prescott Railway that carried passengers and supplies the 82-kilometres to Prescott on the Saint Lawrence River and beyond. Ottawa's small size, it was thought, would make it less prone to rampaging politically motivated mobs, as had happened in the previous Canadian capitals; the government owned the land that would become Parliament Hill which they thought would be an ideal location for the Parliament Buildings. Ottawa was th
Marsh & McLennan Companies
Marsh & McLennan Companies, Inc. is a global professional services firm, headquartered in New York City with businesses in insurance brokerage, risk management, reinsurance services, talent management, investment advisory, management consulting. Its four main operating companies are Marsh, Oliver Wyman Group, Guy Carpenter. Marsh & McLennan Companies ranked #212 on the 2018 Fortune 500 ranking, the company's 24th year on the annual Fortune list, #458 on the 2017 Forbes Global 2000 List. Marsh & McLennan's 2016 revenue of $13.2 billion ranked it #1 on Business Insurance's ranking of the world's largest insurance brokers. Burroughs, Marsh & McLennan was formed by Henry W. Marsh and Donald R. McLennan in Chicago in 1905, it was renamed as Marsh & McLennan in 1906. The reinsurance firm Guy Carpenter & Company was acquired in 1923, a year after it was founded by Guy Carpenter. In 1959, it acquired the human resources consulting firm Mercer; the 1960s were notable for the company's development, including an initial public offering in 1962 and a 1969 reorganization that introduced a holding company configuration, with the company offering clients its services under the banners of separately managed companies.
In 1970, the company purchased Putnam Investments. In 1997, the company boosted its insurance brokerage business with a $1.8 billion acquisition of Johnson & Higgins, which, at the time, was one of MMC’s biggest competitors in its brokerage business. The purchase occurred during a time of consolidation in the industry, pushed Marsh & McLennan back above Aon as the world’s largest insurance broker. Throughout the 2000s, the company further transformed and focused its operating strategy through various acquisitions and divestment at its subsidiaries, including: In 2000, Marsh & McLennan’s HR consulting unit, acquired Delta Consulting Group for its organizational development and change management expertise. In 2003, the company acquired Oliver Wyman, a management consultancy with a large financial services industry clientele; the Oliver Wyman acquisition served to transform MMC from a company known for its insurance brokerage services into one with a full-fledged management consulting practice that competes with McKinsey, Boston Consulting Group, others.
In 2007, Marsh & McLennan sold its Putnam Investments mutual fund business to Power Financial Corp. for $3.9 billion in a divestment meant to focus the parent company on its risk and human capital businesses. In 2007, the company announced that its insurance brokerage unit, had received the first license for a wholly owned foreign company to operate an insurance brokerage business in China. In 2010, the company sold Kroll, its corporate intelligence and investigative unit, to Altegrity Inc. for $1.13 billion. Prior to this final deal and divestiture, Marsh & McLennan had been selling off smaller divisions within Kroll to further focus on its core risk and consulting businesses. In July 2017, Marsh & McLennan Cos. Inc. was ranked first in Business Insurance's world's largest brokers list. In 2004, the company's insurance brokerage unit, was embroiled in a bid rigging scandal that plagued much of the insurance industry, including brokerage rivals Aon and Willis Group, insurer AIG. In a lawsuit, Eliot Spitzer New York State’s attorney general, accused Marsh of not serving as an unbiased broker, leading to increased costs for clients and higher revenues for Marsh.
In early 2005, Marsh agreed to pay $850 million to settle the lawsuit and compensate clients whose commercial insurance it arranged from 2001 to 2004. Much of Marsh & McLennan's corporate strategy since 2005 stemmed from an effort to recover from this tumultuous period leading to the firm's current organization and simplified focus on insurance services and consulting. At the time of the 2001 September 11 attacks in the United States, the corporation held offices on eight floors, 93 to 100, of the North Tower of the World Trade Center; when American Airlines Flight 11 crashed into the building, its offices spanned the entire impact zone, floors 93 to 99. Everybody present in the company's offices on the day of the attack died as all stairwells at impact zone were destroyed or blocked by the crash. Marsh & McLennan Companies is composed of two primary business segments: Risk and Insurance Services, Consulting. Marsh, which provides insurance broking and risk management consulting. John Doyle has been the president and CEO since 2017.
Guy Carpenter, a risk and reinsurance intermediary Mercer, offering health, retirement and investment consulting services Oliver Wyman Group, a collection of management consulting firms Willis Towers Watson Aon Brian Duperreault Official website
Advocacy is an activity by an individual or group that aims to influence decisions within political and social systems and institutions. Advocacy can include many activities that a person or organization undertakes including media campaigns, public speaking and publishing research or conducting exit poll or the filing of an amicus brief. Lobbying is a form of advocacy where a direct approach is made to legislators on an issue which plays a significant role in modern politics. Research has started to address how advocacy groups in the United States and Canada are using social media to facilitate civic engagement and collective action. An advocate is someone. There are several forms of advocacy, each representing a different approach in a way to initiate changes in the society. One of the most popular forms is social justice advocacy; the initial definition does not encompass the notions of power relations, people's participation and a vision of a just society as promoted by social justice advocates.
For them, advocacy represents the series of actions taken and issues highlighted to change the “what is” into a “what should be”, considering that this “what should be” is a more decent and a more just society. Those actions, which vary with the political and social environment in which they are conducted, have several points in common. They: Question the way policy is administered Participate in the agenda-setting as they raise significant issues Target political systems "because those systems are not responding to people's needs" Are inclusive and engaging Propose policy solutions Open up space for public argumentationOther forms of advocacy include: Budget advocacy: another aspect of advocacy that ensures proactive engagement of Civil Society Organizations with the government budget to make the government more accountable to the people and promote transparency. Budget advocacy enables citizens and social action groups to compel the government to be more alert to the needs and aspirations of people in general and the deprived sections of the community.
Bureaucratic advocacy: people considered "experts" have more chance to succeed at presenting their issues to decision-makers. They use bureaucratic advocacy to influence the agenda. Express versus issue advocacy: These two types of advocacy when grouped together refers to a debate in the United States whether a group is expressly making their desire known that voters should cast ballots in a particular way, or whether a group has a long-term issue that isn't campaign and election season specific. Health advocacy: supports and promotes patients' health care rights as well as enhance community health and policy initiatives that focus on the availability and quality of care. Ideological advocacy: in this approach, groups fight, sometimes during protests, to advance their ideas in the decision-making circles. Interest-group advocacy: lobbying is the main tool used by interest groups doing mass advocacy, it is a form of action that does not always succeed at influencing political decision-makers as it requires resources and organization to be effective.
Legislative advocacy: the "reliance on the state or federal legislative process" as part of a strategy to create change. Mass advocacy: any type of action taken by large groups Media advocacy: "the strategic use of the mass media as a resource to advance a social or public policy initiative". In Canada, for example, the Manitoba Public Insurance campaigns illustrate how media advocacy was used to fight alcohol and tobacco-related health issues. We can consider the role of health advocacy and the media in “the enactment of municipal smoking bylaws in Canada between 1970 and 1995.” Special education advocacy: advocacy with a "specific focus on the educational rights of students with disabilities."Different contexts in which advocacy is used: In a legal/law context: An "advocate" is the title of a specific person, authorized/appointed in some way to speak on behalf of a person in a legal process. In a political context: An "advocacy group" is an organized collection of people who seek to influence political decisions and policy, without seeking election to public office.
In a social care context: Both terms are used in the UK in the context of a network of interconnected organisations and projects which seek to benefit people who are in difficulty. In the context of inclusion: Citizen Advocacy organisations seek to cause benefit by reconnecting people who have become isolated, their practice was defined in two key documents: CAPE, Learning from Citizen Advocacy Programs. Advocacy in all its forms seeks to ensure that people those who are most vulnerable in society, are able to: Have their voice heard on issues that are important to them Defend and safeguard their rights Have their views and wishes genuinely considered when decisions are being made about their livesAdvocacy is a process of supporting and enabling people to: Express their views and concerns Access information and services Defend and promote their rights and responsibilities Explore choices and options Groups involved in advocacy work have been using the Internet to accomplish organizational goals.
It has been argued that the Internet helps to increase the speed and effectiveness of advocacy-related communication as well as mobilization efforts, suggesting that social media are beneficial to the advocacy community. People advocate for a large variety of topics; some of these are clear-cut social issues that are univers
Chris Austin Hadfield is a Canadian retired astronaut and former Royal Canadian Air Force fighter pilot. The first Canadian to walk in space, Hadfield has flown two Space Shuttle missions and served as commander of the International Space Station. Hadfield, raised on a farm in southern Ontario, was inspired as a child when he watched the Apollo 11 Moon landing on TV, he attended high school in Oakville and Milton and earned his glider pilot licence as a member of the Royal Canadian Air Cadets. He earned an engineering degree at Royal Military College. While in the military he learned to fly various types of aircraft and became a test pilot and flew several experimental planes; as part of an exchange program with the United States Navy and United States Air Force, he obtained a master's degree in aviation systems at the University of Tennessee Space Institute. In 1992, he was accepted into the Canadian astronaut program by the Canadian Space Agency, he first flew in space aboard STS-74 in November 1995 as a mission specialist.
During the mission he visited the Russian space station Mir. In April 2001 he flew again on STS-100 and visited the International Space Station, where he walked in space and helped to install the Canadarm2. In December 2012 he flew for a third time aboard Soyuz TMA-07M and joined Expedition 34 on the ISS, he was a member of this expedition until March 2013 when he became the commander of the ISS as part of Expedition 35. He was responsible for a crew of five astronauts and helped to run dozens of scientific experiments dealing with the impact of low gravity on human biology. During the mission, he gained popularity by chronicling life aboard the space station and taking pictures of the Earth and posting them on various social media platforms to a large following of people around the world, he was a guest on television news and talk shows and gained popularity by playing the International Space Station's guitar in space. His mission ended in May 2013. Shortly after returning, he announced his retirement, capping a 35-year career as a military pilot and an astronaut.
Hadfield was born in Ontario. His parents are Eleanor Hadfield, who live in Milton, Ontario. Hadfield was raised on a corn farm in southern Ontario and became interested in flying at a young age and in being an astronaut at age nine when he saw the Apollo 11 Moon landing on television, he is married to his high-school girlfriend Helene, they have three adult children: Kyle and Kristin Hadfield. Hadfield used to be a ski instructor at Glen Eden Ski Area before becoming a test pilot. Hadfield is of southern Scottish descent, he is a devoted fan of the Toronto Maple Leafs and wore a Leafs jersey under his spacesuit during his Soyuz TMA-07M reentry in May 2013. After the 2012 NHL Lockout ended, Hadfield tweeted a photo of himself holding a Maple Leafs logo, stated he was "ready to cheer on from orbit", he sang the Canadian National Anthem during the Toronto Maple Leafs and Montreal Canadiens game on January 18, 2014 at the Air Canada Centre in Toronto. Hadfield attended White Oaks Secondary School in Oakville, Ontario until his senior year and graduated as an Ontario Scholar from Milton District High School in 1977.
As a member of the Royal Canadian Air Cadets, he earned a glider pilot scholarship at age 15 and a powered pilot scholarship at age 16. After graduating from high school in 1978, he joined the Canadian Armed Forces and spent two years at Royal Roads Military College followed by two years at the Royal Military College, where he received a bachelor's degree in mechanical engineering in 1982. Before graduating, he underwent basic flight training at CFB Portage la Prairie. In 1983, he took honours as the top graduate from Basic Jet Training at CFB Moose Jaw, went on to train as a tactical fighter pilot with 410 Tactical Fighter Operational Training Squadron at CFB Cold Lake, flying the Canadair CF-116 Freedom Fighter and the McDonnell Douglas CF-18 Hornet. After completing his fighter training, Hadfield flew CF-18 Hornets with 425 Tactical Fighter Squadron, flying intercept missions for NORAD, he was the first CF-18 pilot to intercept a Soviet Tupolev Tu 95 long-range bomber in the Canadian Arctic.
In the late 1980s, Hadfield attended the US Air Force Test Pilot School at Edwards Air Force Base and served as an exchange officer with the US Navy at Strike Test Directorate at the Patuxent River Naval Air Station. His accomplishments from 1989 to 1992 included testing the McDonnell Douglas F/A-18 Hornet and LTV A-7 Corsair II aircraft. In May 1992, Hadfield graduated with a master's degree in aviation systems from the University of Tennessee Space Institute, where his thesis concerned high-angle attack aerodynamics of the F/A-18 Hornet fighter jet. In total, Hadfield has flown over 70 different types of aircraft. Hadfield was selected to become one of four new Canadian astronauts from a field of 5,330 applicants in June 1992. Three of those four have flown in space, he was assigned by the Canadian Space Agency to the NASA Johnson Space Center in Houston, Texas in August, where he addressed technical and safety issues for Shuttle Operations Development, contributed to the development of the glass shuttle cockpit, supported shuttle launc