The Sun Tower is a 17 storey 82 m Beaux-Arts building at 128 West Pender Street in Vancouver, British Columbia. It is known for its faux-patina steel dome painted to imitate copper cladding. Nine nude muses, the "nine maidens" supporting the cornice line can be seen; the terracotta for this building, including the ladies, was made in Tamworth, England by Gibbs and Canning Limited. The Sun Tower was commissioned by L. D. Taylor to house The Vancouver World; the intention was that the building would be visible throughout the World's circulation area as the tallest building in the city. John Coughland and Sons of Vancouver had 1,250 tons of steel fabricated for construction; when it was completed in 1912, it was called the World Building and was the tallest building in Vancouver at 82 m, surpassing the previous record-holder, the Dominion Building located just around the corner. For one year, it was the tallest building in the Canada, until Toronto's 85 metre Canadian Pacific Building opened in 1913.
In 1918, droves of Vancouverites turned out to watch as Harry Gardiner, the "Human Fly", scaled the outside of the building. When The Vancouver Sun bought the building in 1937, it was renamed. Although The Sun newspaper has long since relocated, first to South Granville to Granville Square, the building has retained the name; the exterior of the Sun Tower is used as the Watchtower in Smallville. The tower has been digitally enhanced to look taller. In certain shots, the tower is the highest building in Metropolis. 100 West Pender St, the City of Vancouver renumbered the street address of the Sun Tower to 128 West Pender in 2011 in accordance with its strict street numbering bylaw when a new building was constructed on the vacant lot at the south west corner of West Pender and Abbott Streets. The Sun Tower was designed by architect William Tuff Whiteway, who designed the original Woodward's building nearby; the building takes the form of an eight-storey, L-shaped block, surmounted by a nine-storey hexagonal-section tower.
The tower is capped by cupola. The structure of the tower is steel, dominantly clad in a combination of terracotta tiles and rusticated brickwork; the dome itself, although painted to resemble patinated copper, is steel. The exterior is adorned with nine terracotta caryatids supporting the cornice, sculpted by Charles Marega; these caused a minor scandal among some of Vancouver's citizenry at the building's opening, as the female figures are depicted clothed, with naked breasts, were considered to be adopting "sensuous" poses. Further decorative detailing is provided by carved stone sills under all windows, manufactured from local volcanic andesite from Haddington Island. Haddington Island andesite is used for some of the decorative carvings near the top of the tower, that feature animal skulls surrounded by garlands of fruit and flowers. 1912-1917 The Vancouver World 1924-1937 Bekins Moving and Storage 1937-1965 The Vancouver Sun 1968-1996 Geological Survey of Canada 2001-2005 Navarik 2009–2016 Victory Square Law Office LLP 2016-present IT Glue Software It was announced on March 19, 2008 that the Sun Tower had been sold to new owners on March 17.
The purchase price was not announced. The new owners promised to restore the heritage building. List of heritage buildings in Vancouver List of old Canadian buildings List of tallest buildings in Vancouver History of Metropolitan Vancouver Discover Vancouver
The Toronto–Dominion Centre, or TD Centre, is a cluster of buildings in downtown Toronto, Ontario owned by Cadillac Fairview. It has a pavilion covered in bronze-tinted glass and black painted steel, it serves as the global headquarters of the Toronto-Dominion Bank, provides office and retail space for many other businesses. About 21,000 people work in the complex; the project was the inspiration of Allen Lambert, former President and Chairman of the Board of the Toronto-Dominion Bank. Phyllis Lambert recommended Ludwig Mies van der Rohe as design consultant to the architects, John B. Parkin and Associates and Bregman + Hamann, the Fairview Corporation as the developer; the towers were completed between 1967 and 1991. An additional building was built outside the campus and purchased in 1998. Part of the complex, described by Philip Johnson as "the largest Mies in the world", was designated under the Ontario Heritage Act in 2003 and received an Ontario Heritage Trust plaque in 2005; as Ludwig Mies van der Rohe was given "virtually a free hand to create Toronto-Dominion Centre", the complex, as a whole and in its details, is a classic example of his unique take on the International style and represents the end evolution of Mies's North American period, which began with his 1957 Seagram Building in New York City.
As with the Seagram Building and a number of Mies's subsequent projects, the Toronto–Dominion Centre follows the theme of the darkly coloured, rigidly ordered and glass edifice set in an open plaza, itself surrounded by a dense and erratic, pre-existing urban fabric. The TD Centre, comprises a collection of structures spread across a granite plinth, all regulated in three dimensions and from the largest scale to the smallest, by a mathematically ordered, 1.5 m2 grid. Three structures were conceived: a low banking pavilion anchoring the site at the corner of King and Bay Streets, the main tower in the centre of the site, another tower in the northwest corner, each structure offset to the adjacent by one bay of the governing grid, allowing views to "slide" open or closed as an observer moves across the court; the rectilinear pattern of Saint-Jean granite pavers follows the grid, serving to organize and unify the complex, the plaza's surface material extends through the glass lobbies of the towers and the banking pavilion, blurring the distinction between interior and exterior space.
The remaining voids between the buildings create space for a formal plaza to the north, containing Al McWilliam's Bronze Arc, an expanse of lawn to the south, featuring Joe Fafard's sculpture The Pasture. Phyllis Lambert wrote of the centre and the arrangement of its elements within the site: With the Toronto-Dominion Centre, Mies realized an architecture of movement, yet at the same time, through proportional relations among parts and whole, through the restrained use of fine materials, this is an architecture of repose; the light as it moves across the building surfaces, playing the mullions like stringed instruments, the orchestration of the various buildings are together paradigmatically symphonic. More towers were added over the ensuing decades, outside the periphery of the original site—as they were not part of Mies's master plan for the TD Centre—but still positioned close enough, in such locations, as to visually impact the sense of space within areas of the centre, forming Miesian western and southern walls to the lawn and a tall eastern flank to the plaza.
The height of each of Mies's two towers is proportioned to its width and depth, though they, as well as those based on his style, are of different heights. All, save for 95 Wellington Street West, are of a similar construction and appearance: the frame is of structural steel, including the core, floor plates are of concrete poured on steel deck; the lobby is a double height space on the ground floor, articulated by large sheets of plate glass held back from the exterior column line, providing for an overhang around the perimeter of the building, behind which the travertine-clad elevator cores are the only elements to touch the ground plane. Above the lobby, the building envelope is curtain wall made of bronze coloured glass in a matte-black painted steel frame, with exposed I-sections attached to the vertical mullions and structural columns. On the topmost accessible floor of the Toronto-Dominion Bank Tower was a large indoor observation platform; as the tower was, when completed, the tallest in the city, this promontory once allowed uninterrupted views of the quickly developing downtown core and of Lake Ontario to the south.
This floor has since been converted to leased office space. On the level below is a restaurant on the south side and the Toronto-Dominion Bank corporate offices and boardroom are on the north; the interiors of the latter spaces were designed by Mies and included his signature broad planes of rich, unadorned wood panelling, freestanding cabinets as partitions, wood slab desks, some of his furniture pieces, such as the Barcelona chair, Barcelona ottoman, Brno chair. Adjacent to the main boardroom at the northeast corner of the floor plate and the Thompson Room at the northwest corner, service areas are concealed within the wood panelled walls behind secret panels; the Ernst & Young Tower contains in its base the former Toronto Stock Exchange building, built in 1937. The new edifice deviates from the strict Miesian aesthetic of all the previous
Union Station (Toronto)
Union Station is a major railway station and intermodal transportation hub in Toronto, Canada. It is located on Front Street West, on the south side of the block bounded by Bay Street and York Street in downtown Toronto; the City of Toronto owns the station building while the commuter rail operator GO Transit owns the train shed and trackage. Union Station has been a National Historic Site of Canada since 1975, a Heritage Railway Station since 1989, it is operated by the Toronto Terminals Railway, a joint venture of the Canadian National Railway and Canadian Pacific Railway that directs and controls train movement along the Union Station Rail Corridor, the largest and busiest rail corridor in Canada. Its central position in Canada's busiest inter-city rail service area, "The Corridor", as well as being the central hub of GO Transit's commuter rail service, makes Union Station Canada's busiest transportation facility and second-busiest in North America, serving over 250,000 passengers a day.
More than half of all Canadian inter-city passengers and 91% of Toronto commuter train passengers travel through Union Station. Via Rail and Amtrak provide inter-city train services while GO Transit operates regional rail services; the station is connected to the subway and streetcar system of the Toronto Transit Commission at its adjacent namesake subway station. GO Transit's Union Station Bus Terminal, across Bay Street from the station building, is connected by the trainshed; the Union Pearson Express, the train service to Toronto Pearson International Airport, platform is a short walk west of the main station building, accessible by the SkyWalk. Toronto's Union Station is located at 61 Front Street West, between Bay and York Streets in Toronto's business district, with Toronto's entertainment district beginning across Bay Street, it is at the city's east-west centre. It is close to Lake Ontario, which marks Toronto's southern boundary; the southernmost part of the Gardiner Expressway, which lies between Union Station and Lake Ontario, provides easy core access to GO Transit buses.
Union Station's columned façade and main entrance faces north, towards downtown Toronto. The Fairmont Royal York Hotel, a former railway hotel, is directly across Front Street from Union Station and can be accessed from the station both at street level and underground via the PATH; the Dominion Public Building, another building from the same era, is just to the east of the station, at the corner of Front and Bay Streets. Other major buildings near Union Station are Brookfield Place. Brookfield Place is home to the Allen Lambert Galleria, a six story high pedestrian thoroughfare, as well as the Hockey Hall of Fame, which holds the Stanley Cup; the Scotiabank Arena, Rogers Centre, Metro Toronto Convention Centre, the CN Tower are all close by, can be seen from some parts of the station. Like Union Station, these structures were built on former Railway Lands. All of them can be accessed directly from Union Station via the Skywalk; the land around the CN Tower has been converted to a public park. Toronto's Union Station is Canada's largest and most opulent railway station.
The Montreal architecture firm of Ross and Macdonald designed the building in the Beaux-Art style as a joint venture between the Grand Trunk Railway and the Canadian Pacific Railway, with help from CPR architect Hugh Jones and Toronto architect John M. Lyle. In 1975, the Historic Sites and Monuments Board of Canada cited its design as being of "national architectural significance as one of the finest examples of Beaux-Arts railway station design in Canada"; the bilaterally symmetrical building comprises three connecting box masses facing Front Street West, with the main structure in the middle. Together, the three parts measure 752 feet long and occupy the entire south side of the block between Bay Street in the east and York Street in the west; the exterior Front Street façade is laid out in an ashlar pattern, constructed with smooth beige Indiana and Queenston limestone. The colonnaded loggia which faces Front Street features 22 spaced Roman Tuscan columns made from Bedford limestone, each 40 feet high and weighing 75 tons.
Fourteen three-storey bays, each with delineated fenestration, form the façade on either side of the central colonnade for a total of 28 bays. The structures at either end have an additional ten bays. Three rectangular windows fill each bay. However, the building's external profile is hard and flat, with a line of huge columns, heavy ornamentation and strong symmetry; the recessed main entrance is framed by two sets of four columns, with relief wreaths carved into the entablature above the columns. These columns are composed of three separate segments on top of an incongruous octagonal plinth, implying an Ionic order or Corinthian order; these columns appear to be unfinished. The original plan for the columns is not known. A wraparound dentil cornice and a recessed peaked hipped roof creates the illusion of a flat roof, just like a palazzo. On either side of the main entrance, a blind arch with an ornamental keystone contains a set of three steel-framed doors, along with a large arched window. Decorative friezes separate the arched window from the doors.
When these entryway elements are combined, they create a processional experience through the entryway into the grand interior space. The flat-roof illusion, together with the axial symmetry, classical detailing in both structural and decorative elements, heavy ornamentation, formal setting is typical of the Beaux-Arts style; the station housed a gun range on the seventh floor from 1927 until 2008. The range was operated for "Canadian Pacific Railway and Canadian National R
Toronto is the provincial capital of Ontario and the most populous city in Canada, with a population of 2,731,571 in 2016. Current to 2016, the Toronto census metropolitan area, of which the majority is within the Greater Toronto Area, held a population of 5,928,040, making it Canada's most populous CMA. Toronto is the anchor of an urban agglomeration, known as the Golden Horseshoe in Southern Ontario, located on the northwestern shore of Lake Ontario. A global city, Toronto is a centre of business, finance and culture, is recognized as one of the most multicultural and cosmopolitan cities in the world. People have travelled through and inhabited the Toronto area, situated on a broad sloping plateau interspersed with rivers, deep ravines, urban forest, for more than 10,000 years. After the broadly disputed Toronto Purchase, when the Mississauga surrendered the area to the British Crown, the British established the town of York in 1793 and designated it as the capital of Upper Canada. During the War of 1812, the town was the site of the Battle of York and suffered heavy damage by United States troops.
York was incorporated in 1834 as the city of Toronto. It was designated as the capital of the province of Ontario in 1867 during Canadian Confederation; the city proper has since expanded past its original borders through both annexation and amalgamation to its current area of 630.2 km2. The diverse population of Toronto reflects its current and historical role as an important destination for immigrants to Canada. More than 50 percent of residents belong to a visible minority population group, over 200 distinct ethnic origins are represented among its inhabitants. While the majority of Torontonians speak English as their primary language, over 160 languages are spoken in the city. Toronto is a prominent centre for music, motion picture production, television production, is home to the headquarters of Canada's major national broadcast networks and media outlets, its varied cultural institutions, which include numerous museums and galleries and public events, entertainment districts, national historic sites, sports activities, attract over 25 million tourists each year.
Toronto is known for its many skyscrapers and high-rise buildings, in particular the tallest free-standing structure in the Western Hemisphere, the CN Tower. The city is home to the Toronto Stock Exchange, the headquarters of Canada's five largest banks, the headquarters of many large Canadian and multinational corporations, its economy is diversified with strengths in technology, financial services, life sciences, arts, business services, environmental innovation, food services, tourism. When Europeans first arrived at the site of present-day Toronto, the vicinity was inhabited by the Iroquois, who had displaced the Wyandot people, occupants of the region for centuries before c. 1500. The name Toronto is derived from the Iroquoian word tkaronto, meaning "place where trees stand in the water"; this refers to the northern end of what is now Lake Simcoe, where the Huron had planted tree saplings to corral fish. However, the word "Toronto", meaning "plenty" appears in a 1632 French lexicon of the Huron language, an Iroquoian language.
It appears on French maps referring to various locations, including Georgian Bay, Lake Simcoe, several rivers. A portage route from Lake Ontario to Lake Huron running through this point, known as the Toronto Carrying-Place Trail, led to widespread use of the name. In the 1660s, the Iroquois established two villages within what is today Toronto, Ganatsekwyagon on the banks of the Rouge River and Teiaiagon on the banks of the Humber River. By 1701, the Mississauga had displaced the Iroquois, who abandoned the Toronto area at the end of the Beaver Wars, with most returning to their base in present-day New York. French traders abandoned it in 1759 during the Seven Years' War; the British defeated the French and their indigenous allies in the war, the area became part of the British colony of Quebec in 1763. During the American Revolutionary War, an influx of British settlers came here as United Empire Loyalists fled for the British-controlled lands north of Lake Ontario; the Crown granted them land to compensate for their losses in the Thirteen Colonies.
The new province of Upper Canada was being needed a capital. In 1787, the British Lord Dorchester arranged for the Toronto Purchase with the Mississauga of the New Credit First Nation, thereby securing more than a quarter of a million acres of land in the Toronto area. Dorchester intended the location to be named Toronto. In 1793, Governor John Graves Simcoe established the town of York on the Toronto Purchase lands, naming it after Prince Frederick, Duke of York and Albany. Simcoe decided to move the Upper Canada capital from Newark to York, believing that the new site would be less vulnerable to attack by the United States; the York garrison was constructed at the entrance of the town's natural harbour, sheltered by a long sand-bar peninsula. The town's settlement formed at the eastern end of the harbour behind the peninsula, near the present-day intersection of Parliament Street and Front Street. In 1813, as part of the War of 1812, the Battle of York ended in the town's capture and plunder by United States forces.
The surrender of the town was negotiated by John Strachan. American soldiers destroyed much of the garrison and set fire to the parliament buildings during their five-day occupation; because of the sacking of York, British troops retaliated in the war with the Burning of Wa
Sterling Tower is a twenty one storey art deco skyscraper at 372 Bay Street at Richmond Street in Toronto, Canada. Designed by Chapman and Oxley, completed in 1928, the building was the tallest in the city for one year, until the construction of the Royal York Hotel. Henry Falk, a New York entrepreneur, was the builder responsible for Sterling Tower's construction along with local firm Yolles & Rotenberg; the Sterling Tower was part of Toronto's late 1920s building boom. On 18 August 1976, Sterling Tower was adopted by the City Council of Toronto as an architectural/contextual Heritage Property. Sterling Towers at UrbanDB
New York Life Insurance Building (Montreal)
Montreal's New York Life Insurance Building is an office building at Place d'Armes in what is now known as Old Montreal, erected in 1887-1889. At the time of its completion, it was the tallest commercial building in Montreal with the first eight floors were designed for retail office space, that filled with the city's best lawyers and financiers; when the clock tower was completed, the owner filled the ninth and tenth floors with the largest legal library in the entire country as a gift to tenants. The building is next to Aldred Building; the New York Life Insurance Building was built by architects Babb and Willard and contractor Peter Lyall for the New York Life Insurance Company as its office in Canada. The final cost was $750,000; the Old Red Sandstone used in the construction was imported from Scotland. New York Life selected the site on Place D'Armes. Before construction began, crews demolished l’Hotel Compain and another 2 story building that occupied the lots; the building first appeared on 1890 insurance map.
Quebec Bank purchased the building in 1909 and occupied the ground floor before being absorbed into the Royal Bank of Canada in 1917. The structure still bears the bank's name carved over the entrance; the building is near Place-d'Armes Metro, is adjacent to other prominent Montreal landmarks, such as the Aldred Building, the Bank of Montreal Building, the Place d'Armes Hotel, Notre-Dame Basilica and 500 Place D'Armes. The New York Life Building was inspired by Italian Renaissance and buildings in New York and was one of the first major Montreal buildings which did not use the local grey stone but instead used imported red sandstone; the stone required cutting, done in Lyall workshop located on Bishop Street. The building has a “hybrid structure combining a frame - iron beams and two sets of columns per floor - and bearing walls brick.” Architects used steel to construct the floors and the roof but employed masonry walls to support the structure. Henry Beaumont carved the significant external decorative elements such as the arabesque in the entrance archway, spandrel panels and pilaster capitals.
The ornamental iron gate is by the E. Chanteloup workshop in Montreal; the building has a height of 46.3 metres including the clock tower. It has a quasi-rectangular shape and has a land area of 705 m2 Total floor area including all floors is 6,890 m2 Interior walls in the small vestibule and the halls are covered in marble and the celling has a decorative plaster resembling Renaissance ornamentation; the staircase railing consists of ornamental iron with a finished wood banister. The office building is located on a corner lot and has façade on Place D’Armes as well as on rue Saint-Jacques; the original address was 13 Place d’Armes Hills but was changed to its current address 511 Place D’Armes. Owners modernized the third and fifth floors in 1952, renovated the basement in 1970. In 1971, they added stairs between the roof. Subsequent owners completed further renovations in the 1980s and undertook an additional restoration project in 2006-2007 which included adding two residential penthouses on the roof.
One of these is occupied by the current building owner. The building's original name was New York Life Building but in 1909; the building was known as Bank of Quebec building and Montreal Trust building but still is referred to by its original name. The building has changed hands many times and had a number of notable tenants, including the Montreal Real Trust Company and Lancashire Insurance Co. the National Bank of Canada and the Société de Fiducie du Quebec. The Société de Fiducie du Quebec occupied the building for six years and sold it to Les immeubles Bona Ltée who performed many upgrades to the building. Bechara Helal is the current. Rémillard, François, Old Montreal — A Walking Tour, Ministère des Affaires culturelles du Québec, 1992 Demchinskey, Bryan. Montreal. Montreal: The Gazette, 1985. Forget, Madeleine. Gratte-Ciel de Montreal. Montreal: Editions du Meridien, 1990. Grande Bibliothèque "Bibliothèque et archives nationales du Québec.” Grande Bibliothèque HUSTAK, ALAN. "Montreal's First Skyscraper is Still in use."
The Gazette, 2 January 1992. London, Mark. "Essence of City's Evolution is found in Place d'Armes." The Gazette, 12 July 1986. Pinard, Guy. Montreal: Son Histoire Son Architecture tome1. Montreal: La Presse, 1987. Répertoire d’architecture tradiotonnelle sur le territore de la Communaute urbaine de Montreal. Montreal: Communaute urbaine de Montreal, Service de la planification du territoire, 1983. Ville De Montreal. "La Place d’Armes.” Vieux Montreal. 31 May 2010. Ville De Montreal. "Evaluation Foncière” Ville De Montreal. 02 Mar, 2012. Ville De Montreal. "The rewards of a job well done Opération patrimoine architectural de Montréal.” Vieux Montreal. Wolfe and Cecile Grenier. Discover Montreal. Montreal: Libre Expression, 1991. Gazette article, "The tallest of them all"
Ontario is one of the 13 provinces and territories of Canada and is located in east-central Canada. It is Canada's most populous province accounting for 38.3 percent of the country's population, is the second-largest province in total area. Ontario is fourth-largest jurisdiction in total area when the territories of the Northwest Territories and Nunavut are included, it is home to the nation's capital city and the nation's most populous city, Ontario's provincial capital. Ontario is bordered by the province of Manitoba to the west, Hudson Bay and James Bay to the north, Quebec to the east and northeast, to the south by the U. S. states of Minnesota, Ohio and New York. All of Ontario's 2,700 km border with the United States follows inland waterways: from the west at Lake of the Woods, eastward along the major rivers and lakes of the Great Lakes/Saint Lawrence River drainage system; these are the Rainy River, the Pigeon River, Lake Superior, the St. Marys River, Lake Huron, the St. Clair River, Lake St. Clair, the Detroit River, Lake Erie, the Niagara River, Lake Ontario and along the St. Lawrence River from Kingston, Ontario, to the Quebec boundary just east of Cornwall, Ontario.
There is only about 1 km of land border made up of portages including Height of Land Portage on the Minnesota border. Ontario is sometimes conceptually divided into Northern Ontario and Southern Ontario; the great majority of Ontario's population and arable land is in the south. In contrast, the larger, northern part of Ontario is sparsely populated with cold winters and heavy forestation; the province is named after Lake Ontario, a term thought to be derived from Ontarí:io, a Huron word meaning "great lake", or skanadario, which means "beautiful water" in the Iroquoian languages. Ontario has about 250,000 freshwater lakes; the province consists of three main geographical regions: The thinly populated Canadian Shield in the northwestern and central portions, which comprises over half the land area of Ontario. Although this area does not support agriculture, it is rich in minerals and in part covered by the Central and Midwestern Canadian Shield forests, studded with lakes and rivers. Northern Ontario is subdivided into two sub-regions: Northeastern Ontario.
The unpopulated Hudson Bay Lowlands in the extreme north and northeast swampy and sparsely forested. Southern Ontario, further sub-divided into four regions. Despite the absence of any mountainous terrain in the province, there are large areas of uplands within the Canadian Shield which traverses the province from northwest to southeast and above the Niagara Escarpment which crosses the south; the highest point is Ishpatina Ridge at 693 metres above sea level in Temagami, Northeastern Ontario. In the south, elevations of over 500 m are surpassed near Collingwood, above the Blue Mountains in the Dundalk Highlands and in hilltops near the Madawaska River in Renfrew County; the Carolinian forest zone covers most of the southwestern region of the province. The temperate and fertile Great Lakes-Saint Lawrence Valley in the south is part of the Eastern Great Lakes lowland forests ecoregion where the forest has now been replaced by agriculture and urban development. A well-known geographic feature is part of the Niagara Escarpment.
The Saint Lawrence Seaway allows navigation to and from the Atlantic Ocean as far inland as Thunder Bay in Northwestern Ontario. Northern Ontario occupies 87 percent of the surface area of the province. Point Pelee is a peninsula of Lake Erie in southwestern Ontario, the southernmost extent of Canada's mainland. Pelee Island and Middle Island in Lake Erie extend farther. All are south of 42°N – farther south than the northern border of California; the climate of Ontario varies by location. It is affected by three air sources: cold, arctic air from the north; the effects of these major air masses on temperature and precipitation depend on latitude, proximity to major bodies of water and to a small extent, terrain relief. In general, most of Ontario's climate is classified as humid continental. Ontario has three main climatic regions; the surrounding Great Lakes influence the climatic region of southern Ontario. During the fall and winter months, heat stored from the lakes is released, moderating the climate near the shores of the lakes.
This gives some parts of southern Ontario milder winters than mid-continental areas at lower latitudes. Parts of Southwestern Ontario have a moderate humid continental climate, similar to that of the inland Mid-Atlantic states and the Great Lakes portion of the Midwestern United States; the region has warm to cold winters. Annual precipitation is well distributed throughout the year. Most of this region lies in the lee of the Great Lakes. In December 2010, the snowbelt set a new record when it was h