McGill University is a public research university in Montreal, Canada. It was established in 1821 by royal charter, granted by King George IV; the university bears the name of James McGill, a Montreal merchant from Scotland whose bequest in 1813 formed the university's precursor, McGill College. McGill's main campus is at Mount Royal in downtown Montreal, with the second campus situated in Sainte-Anne-de-Bellevue on the Montreal Island, 30 kilometres west of the main campus; the university is one of two universities outside the United States who are members of the Association of American Universities and it is the only Canadian member of the Global University Leaders Forum within the World Economic Forum. McGill offers degrees and diplomas in over 300 fields of study, with the highest average admission requirements of any Canadian university. Most students are enrolled in the five largest faculties, namely Arts, Medicine and Management. McGill counts among its alumni 12 Nobel laureates and 145 Rhodes Scholars, both the most of any university in Canada, as well as five astronauts, the incumbent prime minister and two former prime ministers of Canada, the incumbent Governor General of Canada, 14 justices of the Canadian Supreme Court, at least eight foreign leaders, 28 foreign ambassadors, over eight dozen members of the Canadian Parliament, United States Congress, British Parliament, other national legislatures, several billionaires, nine Academy Award winners, 11 Grammy Award winners, four Pulitzer Prize winners, two Presidential Medal of Freedom recipients, at least 16 Emmy Award winners, 28 Olympic medalists, all of varying nationalities.
McGill alumni were instrumental in inventing or organizing football and ice hockey. McGill University or its alumni founded several major universities and colleges, including the Universities of British Columbia and Alberta, the Schulich School of Medicine & Dentistry, the Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Dawson College; the Royal Institution for the Advancement of Learning was created in 1801 under an Act of the Legislative Assembly of Lower Canada, An Act for the establishment of Free Schools and the Advancement of Learning in this Province. In 1816 the RIAL was authorized to operate two new Royal Grammar Schools, in Quebec City and in Montreal; this was a turning point for public education in Lower Canada as the schools were created by legislation, the District Public Schools Act of 1807, which showed the government's willingness to support the costs of education and the salary of a schoolmaster. This was an important first step in the creation of nondenominational schools; when James McGill died in 1813 his bequest was administered by the RIAL.
Of the original two Royal Grammar Schools, in 1846 one closed and the other merged with the High School of Montreal. By the mid-19th century the RIAL had lost control of the other eighty-two grammar schools it had administered. However, in 1853 it took over the High School of Montreal from the school's board of directors and continued to operate it until 1870. Thereafter, its sole remaining purpose was to administer the McGill bequest on behalf of the private college; the RIAL continues to exist today. Since the revised Royal Charter of 1852, The Trustees of the RIAL comprise the Board of Governors of McGill University. James McGill, born in Glasgow, Scotland on 6 October 1744, was a successful merchant in Quebec, having matriculated into the University of Glasgow in 1756. Soon afterwards, McGill left for North America to explore the business opportunities there. Between 1811 and 1813, he drew up a will leaving his "Burnside estate", a 19-hectare tract of rural land and 10,000 pounds to the Royal Institution for the Advancement of Learning.
On McGill's death in December 1813, the Royal Institution for the Advancement of Learning, established in 1801 by an Act of the Legislative Assembly of Lower Canada, added the establishing of a University pursuant to the conditions of McGill's will to its original function of administering elementary education in Lower Canada. As a condition of the bequest, the land and funds had to be used for the establishment of a "University or College, for the purposes of Education and the Advancement of Learning in the said Province." The will specified a private, constituent college bearing his name would have to be established within 10 years of his death. On March 31, 1821, after protracted legal battles with the Desrivières family, McGill College received a royal charter from King George IV; the Charter provided the College should be deemed and taken as a University, with the power of conferring degrees. Although McGill College received its Royal Charter in 1821, it was inactive until 1829 when the Montreal Medical Institution, founded in 1823, became the college's first academic unit and Canada's first medical school.
The Faculty of Medicine granted its first degree, a Doctorate of Medicine and Surgery, in 1833. The Faculty of Medicine remained the school's only functioning faculty until 1843, when the Faculty of Arts commenced teaching in the newly constructed Arts Building and East Wing; the university historically has strong links with the Canadian Grenadier Guards, a military regiment in which James McGill served as Lieutenant-Colonel. This title is m
University of Toronto
The University of Toronto is a public research university in Toronto, Canada, located on the grounds that surround Queen's Park. It was founded by royal charter in 1827 as King's College, the first institution of higher learning in the colony of Upper Canada. Controlled by the Church of England, the university assumed the present name in 1850 upon becoming a secular institution; as a collegiate university, it comprises eleven colleges, which differ in character and history, each with substantial autonomy on financial and institutional affairs. It has two satellite campuses in Mississauga; the university is ranked as the best Canadian university, according to various major publications. Academically, the University of Toronto is noted for influential movements and curricula in literary criticism and communication theory, known collectively as the Toronto School; the university was the birthplace of insulin and stem cell research, was the site of the first practical electron microscope, the development of deep learning, multi-touch technology, the identification of the first black hole Cygnus X-1, the development of the theory of NP-completeness.
By a significant margin, it receives the most annual scientific research funding of any Canadian university. It is one of two members of the Association of American Universities outside the United States, the other being McGill University in Montreal, Canada; the Varsity Blues are the athletic teams that represent the university in intercollegiate league matches, with long and storied ties to gridiron football and ice hockey. The earliest recorded college football game was played in the University of Toronto's University College in the 1860s; the university's Hart House is an early example of the North American student centre serving cultural and recreational interests within its large Gothic-revival complex. The University of Toronto has educated three Governors General of Canada, four Prime Ministers of Canada, four foreign leaders, fourteen Justices of the Supreme Court; as of March 2019, ten Nobel laureates, five Turing Award winners, 94 Rhodes Scholars, one Fields Medalist have been affiliated with the university.
The founding of a colonial college had long been the desire of John Graves Simcoe, the first Lieutenant-Governor of Upper Canada. As an Oxford-educated military commander who had fought in the American Revolutionary War, Simcoe believed a college was needed to counter the spread of republicanism from the United States; the Upper Canada Executive Committee recommended in 1798 that a college be established in York, the colonial capital. On March 15, 1827, a royal charter was formally issued by King George IV, proclaiming "from this time one College, with the style and privileges of a University... for the education of youth in the principles of the Christian Religion, for their instruction in the various branches of Science and Literature... to continue for to be called King's College." The granting of the charter was the result of intense lobbying by John Strachan, the influential Anglican Bishop of Toronto who took office as the college's first president. The original three-storey Greek Revival school building was built on the present site of Queen's Park.
Under Strachan's stewardship, King's College was a religious institution aligned with the Church of England and the British colonial elite, known as the Family Compact. Reformist politicians opposed the clergy's control over colonial institutions and fought to have the college secularized. In 1849, after a lengthy and heated debate, the newly elected responsible government of Upper Canada voted to rename King's College as the University of Toronto and severed the school's ties with the church. Having anticipated this decision, the enraged Strachan had resigned a year earlier to open Trinity College as a private Anglican seminary. University College was created as the nondenominational teaching branch of the University of Toronto. During the American Civil War, the threat of Union blockade on British North America prompted the creation of the University Rifle Corps, which saw battle in resisting the Fenian raids on the Niagara border in 1866; the Corps was part of the Reserve Militia lead by Professor Henry Croft.
Established in 1878, the School of Practical Science was precursor to the Faculty of Applied Science and Engineering, nicknamed Skule since its earliest days. While the Faculty of Medicine opened in 1843, medical teaching was conducted by proprietary schools from 1853 until 1887, when the faculty absorbed the Toronto School of Medicine. Meanwhile, the university continued to confer medical degrees; the university opened the Faculty of Law in 1887, followed by the Faculty of Dentistry in 1888, when the Royal College of Dental Surgeons became an affiliate. Women were first admitted to the university in 1884. A devastating fire in 1890 gutted the interior of University College and destroyed 33,000 volumes from the library, but the university restored the building and replenished its library within two years. Over the next two decades, a collegiate system took shape as the university arranged federation with several ecclesiastical colleges, including Strachan's Trinity College in 1904; the university operated the Royal Conservatory of Music from 1896 to 1991 and the Royal Ontario Museum from 1912 to 1968.
The University of Toronto Press was founded in 1901 as Canada's first academic publishing house. The Faculty of Forestry, founded in 1907 with Bernhard Fernow as dean, was Canada's first university faculty devoted to forest science. In 1910, the Faculty of Education opened its laboratory school, the University of Toro
Civil engineering is a professional engineering discipline that deals with the design and maintenance of the physical and built environment, including public works such as roads, canals, airports, sewerage systems, structural components of buildings, railways. Civil engineering is traditionally broken into a number of sub-disciplines, it is considered the second-oldest engineering discipline after military engineering, it is defined to distinguish non-military engineering from military engineering. Civil engineering takes place in the public sector from municipal through to national governments, in the private sector from individual homeowners through to international companies. Civil engineering is the application of physical and scientific principles for solving the problems of society, its history is intricately linked to advances in the understanding of physics and mathematics throughout history; because civil engineering is a wide-ranging profession, including several specialized sub-disciplines, its history is linked to knowledge of structures, materials science, geology, hydrology, environment and other fields.
Throughout ancient and medieval history most architectural design and construction was carried out by artisans, such as stonemasons and carpenters, rising to the role of master builder. Knowledge was retained in guilds and supplanted by advances. Structures and infrastructure that existed were repetitive, increases in scale were incremental. One of the earliest examples of a scientific approach to physical and mathematical problems applicable to civil engineering is the work of Archimedes in the 3rd century BC, including Archimedes Principle, which underpins our understanding of buoyancy, practical solutions such as Archimedes' screw. Brahmagupta, an Indian mathematician, used arithmetic in the 7th century AD, based on Hindu-Arabic numerals, for excavation computations. Engineering has been an aspect of life since the beginnings of human existence; the earliest practice of civil engineering may have commenced between 4000 and 2000 BC in ancient Egypt, the Indus Valley Civilization, Mesopotamia when humans started to abandon a nomadic existence, creating a need for the construction of shelter.
During this time, transportation became important leading to the development of the wheel and sailing. Until modern times there was no clear distinction between civil engineering and architecture, the term engineer and architect were geographical variations referring to the same occupation, used interchangeably; the construction of pyramids in Egypt were some of the first instances of large structure constructions. Other ancient historic civil engineering constructions include the Qanat water management system the Parthenon by Iktinos in Ancient Greece, the Appian Way by Roman engineers, the Great Wall of China by General Meng T'ien under orders from Ch'in Emperor Shih Huang Ti and the stupas constructed in ancient Sri Lanka like the Jetavanaramaya and the extensive irrigation works in Anuradhapura; the Romans developed civil structures throughout their empire, including aqueducts, harbors, bridges and roads. In the 18th century, the term civil engineering was coined to incorporate all things civilian as opposed to military engineering.
The first self-proclaimed civil engineer was John Smeaton. In 1771 Smeaton and some of his colleagues formed the Smeatonian Society of Civil Engineers, a group of leaders of the profession who met informally over dinner. Though there was evidence of some technical meetings, it was little more than a social society. In 1818 the Institution of Civil Engineers was founded in London, in 1820 the eminent engineer Thomas Telford became its first president; the institution received a Royal Charter in 1828, formally recognising civil engineering as a profession. Its charter defined civil engineering as:the art of directing the great sources of power in nature for the use and convenience of man, as the means of production and of traffic in states, both for external and internal trade, as applied in the construction of roads, aqueducts, river navigation and docks for internal intercourse and exchange, in the construction of ports, moles and lighthouses, in the art of navigation by artificial power for the purposes of commerce, in the construction and application of machinery, in the drainage of cities and towns.
The first private college to teach civil engineering in the United States was Norwich University, founded in 1819 by Captain Alden Partridge. The first degree in civil engineering in the United States was awarded by Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute in 1835; the first such degree to be awarded to a woman was granted by Cornell University to Nora Stanton Blatch in 1905. In the UK during the early 19th century, the division between civil engineering and military engineering, coupled with the demands of the Industrial Revolution, spawned new engineering education initiatives: the Class of Civil Engineering and Mining was founded at King's College London in 1838 as a response to the growth of the railway system and the need for more qualified engineers, the private College for Civil Engineers in Putney was established in 1839, the UK's first Chair of Engineering was established at the University of Glasgow in 1840. Civil engineers possess an academic degree in civil engineering; the length of study is three to five years, the completed degree is designated as a bachelor
University of British Columbia
The University of British Columbia is a public research university with campuses in Vancouver and Kelowna, British Columbia. Established in 1908, UBC is British Columbia's oldest university; the university is ranked among the top 20 public universities worldwide and among the top three in Canada. With an annual research budget of $600 million, UBC funds over 8,000 projects a year; the Vancouver campus is situated about 10 km west of Downtown Vancouver. UBC is home to TRIUMF, Canada's national laboratory for particle and nuclear physics, which houses the world's largest cyclotron. In addition to the Peter Wall Institute for Advanced Studies and Stuart Blusson Quantum Matter Institute, UBC and the Max Planck Society collectively established the first Max Planck Institute in North America, specializing in quantum materials. One of the largest research libraries in Canada, the UBC Library system has over 9.9 million volumes among its 21 branches. The Okanagan campus, acquired in 2005, is located in Kelowna, British Columbia.
As of 2017, eight Nobel laureates, 71 Rhodes scholars, 65 Olympians, eight Fellows in both American Academy of Arts & Sciences and the Royal Society, 208 Fellows to the Royal Society of Canada have been affiliated with UBC. Three Canadian prime ministers, including Canada's first female prime minister Kim Campbell and current prime minister Justin Trudeau have been educated at UBC. In 1877, six years after British Columbia joined Canada, the Superintendent of Education, John Jessop, submitted a proposal for the formation of a provincial university; the provincial legislature passed An Act Respecting the University of British Columbia in 1890, but disagreements arose over whether to build the university on Vancouver Island or the mainland. The British Columbia University Act of 1908 formally called a provincial university into being, although its location was not specified; the governance was modelled on the provincial University of Toronto Act of 1906 which created a bicameral system of university government consisting of a senate, responsible for academic policy, a board of governors exercising exclusive control over financial policy and having formal authority in all other matters.
The president, appointed by the board, was to provide a link between the two bodies and to perform institutional leadership. The Act constituted a twenty-one member senate with Francis Carter-Cotton of Vancouver as chancellor. Before the University Act, there had been several attempts at creating a degree-granting university with help from the Universities of Toronto and McGill. Columbian College in New Westminster, through its affiliation with Victoria College of the University of Toronto, began to offer university-level credit at the turn-of-the-century, but McGill came to dominate higher education in the early 1900s. Building on a successful affiliation between Vancouver and Victoria high schools with McGill University, Henry Marshall Tory helped establish the McGill University College of British Columbia. From 1906 to 1915, McGill BC operated as a private institution providing the first few years toward a degree at McGill University or elsewhere; the Henry Marshall Tory Medal was established in 1941 by Tory, founding president of the University of Alberta and of the National Research Council of Canada, a co-founder of Carleton University.
In the meantime, appeals were made to the government to revive the earlier legislation for a provincial institution, leading to the University Endowment Act in 1907, the University Act in 1908. In 1910 the Point Grey site was chosen, the government appointed Dr. Frank Fairchild Wesbrook as president in 1913, Leonard Klinck as dean of Agriculture in 1914. A declining economy and the outbreak of war in August 1914 compelled the University to postpone plans for building at Point Grey, instead the former McGill University College site at Fairview became home to the University until 1925. On the first day of lectures was September 30, 1915, the new independent university absorbed McGill University College; the University of British Columbia awarded its first degrees in 1916, Klinck became the second president in 1919, serving until 1940. World War I dominated campus life, the student body was "decimated" by enlistments for active service, with three hundred UBC students in Company "D" alone. By the war's end, 697 members of the University had enlisted.
109 students graduated in the three war-time congregations, all but one in the Faculty of Arts and Science. By 1920, the university had only three faculties: Arts, Applied Science, Agriculture, it only awarded the degrees of Bachelor of Arts, Bachelor of Applied Science, Bachelor of Science in Agriculture. There were 576 male students and 386 female students in the 1920–21 winter session, but only 64 academic staff, including 6 women. In the early part of the 20th century, professional education expanded beyond the traditional fields of theology and medicine. Although UBC did not offer degrees in these fields, it began to offer degrees in new professional areas such as engineering, agriculture and school teaching, it introduced graduate training based on the German-inspired American model of specialized course work and the completion of a research thesis, with students completing M. A. degrees in natural sciences, social sciences and humanities. In 1922, the twelve-hundred-strong student body embarked on a "Build the University" campaign.
Students marched through the streets of Vancouver to draw attention to their plight, enlist popular support, embarrass the government. Fifty-six thousand signatures were presented at legislature in support of the campaign, which
Geotechnical engineering is the branch of civil engineering concerned with the engineering behavior of earth materials. Geotechnical engineering is important in civil engineering, but has applications in military, mining and other engineering disciplines that are concerned with construction occurring on the surface or within the ground. Geotechnical engineering uses principles of soil mechanics and rock mechanics to investigate subsurface conditions and materials. A typical geotechnical engineering project begins with a review of project needs to define the required material properties. Follows a site investigation of soil, fault distribution and bedrock properties on and below an area of interest to determine their engineering properties including how they will interact with, on or in a proposed construction. Site investigations are needed to gain an understanding of the area in or on which the engineering will take place. Investigations can include the assessment of the risk to humans and the environment from natural hazards such as earthquakes, sinkholes, soil liquefaction, debris flows and rockfalls.
A geotechnical engineer determines and designs the type of foundations, and/or pavement subgrades required for the intended man-made structures to be built. Foundations are designed and constructed for structures of various sizes such as high-rise buildings, medium to large commercial buildings, smaller structures where the soil conditions do not allow code-based design. Foundations built for above-ground structures include deep foundations. Retaining structures include retaining walls. Earthworks include embankments, tunnels and levees, reservoirs, deposition of hazardous waste and sanitary landfills. Geotechnical engineers are extensively involved in earthen and concrete dam projects, evaluating the subsurface conditions at the dam site and the side slopes of the reservoir, the seepage conditions under and around the dam and the stability of the dam under a range of normal and extreme loading conditions. Geotechnical engineering is related to coastal and ocean engineering. Coastal engineering can involve the design and construction of wharves and jetties.
Ocean engineering can involve foundation and anchor systems for offshore structures such as oil platforms. The fields of geotechnical engineering and engineering geology are related, have large areas of overlap. However, the field of geotechnical engineering is a specialty of engineering, where the field of engineering geology is a specialty of geology. Coming from the fields of engineering and science the two may approach the same subject, such as soil classification, with different methods. Humans have used soil as a material for flood control, irrigation purposes, burial sites, building foundations, as construction material for buildings. First activities were linked to irrigation and flood control, as demonstrated by traces of dykes and canals dating back to at least 2000 BCE that were found in ancient Egypt, ancient Mesopotamia and the Fertile Crescent, as well as around the early settlements of Mohenjo Daro and Harappa in the Indus valley; as the cities expanded, structures were erected supported by formalized foundations.
Until the 18th century, however, no theoretical basis for soil design had been developed and the discipline was more of an art than a science, relying on past experience. Several foundation-related engineering problems, such as the Leaning Tower of Pisa, prompted scientists to begin taking a more scientific-based approach to examining the subsurface; the earliest advances occurred in the development of earth pressure theories for the construction of retaining walls. Henri Gautier, a French Royal Engineer, recognized the "natural slope" of different soils in 1717, an idea known as the soil's angle of repose. A rudimentary soil classification system was developed based on a material's unit weight, no longer considered a good indication of soil type; the application of the principles of mechanics to soils was documented as early as 1773 when Charles Coulomb developed improved methods to determine the earth pressures against military ramparts. Coulomb observed that, at failure, a distinct slip plane would form behind a sliding retaining wall and he suggested that the maximum shear stress on the slip plane, for design purposes, was the sum of the soil cohesion, c, friction σ tan , where σ is the normal stress on the slip plane and ϕ is the friction angle of the soil.
By combining Coulomb's theory with Christian Otto Mohr's 2D stress state, the theory became known as Mohr-Coulomb theory. Although it is now recognized that precise determination of cohesion is impossible because c is not a fundamental soil property, the Mohr-Coulomb theory is still used in practice today. In the 19th century Henry Darcy developed what is now known as Darcy's Law describing the flow of fluids in porous media. Joseph Boussinesq developed theories of stress distribution in elastic solids that pr
Geomatics is defined in the ISO/TC 211 series of standards as the "discipline concerned with the collection, storage, processing, presentation of geographic data or geographic information". Under another definition it "consists of products and tools involved in the collection and management of geographic data", it is related to geospatial science. Michel Paradis, a French-Canadian surveyor, introduced geomatics as a new scientific term in an article published in 1981 in The Canadian Surveyor and in a keynote address at the centennial congress of the Canadian Institute of Surveying in April 1982, he claimed that at the end of the 20th century the needs for geographical information would reach a scope without precedent in history and in order to address these needs, it was necessary to integrate in a new discipline both the traditional disciplines of land surveying and the new tools and techniques of data capture, manipulation and diffusion. Geomatics includes the tools and techniques used in land surveying, remote sensing, geographic information systems, global-navigation satellite systems, geophysics and related forms of earth mapping.
The term was used in Canada, because it is similar in origin to both French and English, but has since been adopted by the International Organization for Standardization, the Royal Institution of Chartered Surveyors, many other international authorities, although some have shown a preference for the term geospatial technology. The related field of hydrogeomatics covers the area associated with surveying work carried out on, above or below the surface of the sea or other areas of water; the older term of hydrographics was considered too specific to the preparation of marine charts, failed to include the broader concept of positioning or measurements in all marine environments. A geospatial network is a network of collaborating resources for sharing and coordinating geographical data and data tied to geographical references. One example of such a network is the Open Geospatial Consortium's efforts to provide ready global access to geographic information. A number of university departments which were once titled "surveying", "survey engineering" or "topographic science" have re-titled themselves using the terms "geomatics" or "geomatic engineering".
The rapid progress and increased visibility of geomatics since the 1990s has been made possible by advances in computer hardware, computer science, software engineering, as well as by airborne and space observation remote-sensing technologies. The science of deriving information about an object using a sensor without physically contacting it is called remote sensing, a part of geomatics. Geospatial science is an academic discipline incorporating fields such as surveying, geographic information systems and cartography. Spatial science is concerned with the measurement, management and display of spatial information describing the Earth, its physical features and the built environment; the term spatial science or spatial sciences is used in Australia. Australian universities which offer degrees in spatial science include Curtin University, the University of Tasmania, the University of Adelaide,Melbourne University and RMIT University. In the U. S. Texas A&M University offers a bachelor's degree in Spatial Sciences and is home to its own Spatial Sciences Laboratory.
Beginning in 2012, the University of Southern California started to place more emphasis on the spatial science branch of its geography department, with traditional human and physical geography courses and concentrations either not being offered on a regular basis or phased out. In place, the university now offers graduate programs related to spatial science and its geography department offers a spatial science minor rather than the original geography major. Spatial information practitioners within the Asia-Pacific region are represented by the professional body called the Surveying and Spatial Sciences Institute. Geomatics Engineering, Geomatic Engineering, Geospatial Engineering is a developing engineering discipline that focuses on spatial information; the location is the primary factor used to integrate a wide range of data for spatial analysis and visualization. Geomatics engineers apply engineering principles to spatial information and implement relational data structures involving measurement sciences, thus using geomatics and acting as spatial information engineers.
Geomatics engineers manage local, regional and global spatial data infrastructures. Geomatics Engineering involves aspects of Computer Engineering, Software Engineering and Civil Engineering. Geomatics is a field that incorporates several others such as the older field of land surveying engineering along with many other aspects of spatial data management ranging from data science and cartography to geography. Following the advanced developments in digital data processing, the nature of the tasks required of the professional land surveyor has evolved and the term "surveying" no longer covers the whole range of tasks that the profession deals with; as our societies become more complex, information with a spatial position associated with it becomes more critical to decision-making, both from a personal and a business perspective, from a community and a large-scale governmental viewpoint. Therefore, the geomatics engineer can be involved in an wide variety of information gathering activities and applications.
University of Waterloo
The University of Waterloo is a public research university with a main campus in Waterloo, Canada. The main campus is on 404 hectares of land adjacent to Waterloo Park; the university offers academic programs administered by ten faculty-based schools. The university operates three satellite campuses and four affiliated university colleges. Waterloo is a member of a group of research-intensive universities in Canada; the University of Waterloo is most famous for its cooperative education programs, which allow the students to integrate their education with applicable work experiences. The university operates the largest post-secondary co-operative education program in the world, with over 20, 000 undergraduate students in over 140 co-operative education programs; the institution was established on 1 July 1957 as the Waterloo College Associate Faculties, a semi-autonomous entity of Waterloo College an affiliate of the University of Western Ontario. This entity formally separated from Waterloo College and was incorporated as a university with the passage of the University of Waterloo Act by the Legislative Assembly of Ontario in 1959.
It was established to fill the need to train engineers and technicians for Canada's growing postwar economy. It grew over the next decade, adding a faculty of arts in 1960, the College of Optometry of Ontario, which moved from Toronto in 1967; the university is co-educational, as of 2016 had 30,600 undergraduate and 5,300 postgraduate students. Alumni and former students of the university can be found in over 140 countries. Waterloo's varsity teams, known as the Waterloo Warriors, compete in the Ontario University Athletics conference of the U Sports; the University of Waterloo traces its origins to Waterloo College, the academic outgrowth of Waterloo Lutheran Seminary, affiliated with the University of Western Ontario since 1925. When Gerald Hagey assumed the presidency of Waterloo College in 1953, he made it his priority to procure the funds necessary to expand the institution. While the main source of income for higher education in Ontario at the time was the provincial government, the Ontario government made it clear that it would not contribute to denominational colleges and universities.
Hagey soon became aware of the steps undertaken by McMaster University to make itself eligible for some provincial funding by establishing Hamilton College as a separate, non-denominational college affiliated with the university. Following that method, Waterloo College established the Waterloo College Associate Faculties on 4 April 1956, as a non-denominational board affiliated with the college; the academic structure of the Associated Faculties was focused on co-operative education in the applied sciences—largely built around the proposals of Ira Needles. Needles proposed a different approach towards education, including both studies in the classroom and training in industry that would become the basis of the university's cooperative education program. While the plan was opposed by the Engineering Institute of Canada and other Canadian universities, notably the University of Western Ontario, the Associated Faculties admitted its first students in July 1957. On 25 January 1958, the Associated Faculties announced the purchase of over 74 hectares of land west of Waterloo College.
By the end of the same year, the Associated Faculties opened its first building on the site, the Chemical Engineering Building. In 1959, the Legislative Assembly of Ontario passed an act which formally split the Associated Faculties from Waterloo College, re-established it as the University of Waterloo; the governance was modelled on the University of Toronto Act of 1906, which established a bicameral system of university government consisting of a senate, responsible for academic policy, a board of governors exercising exclusive control over financial policy and having formal authority in all other matters. The president, appointed by the board, was to act as the institution's chief executive officer and act as a liaison between the two groups; the legislative act was the result of a great deal of negotiation between Waterloo College, Waterloo College Associated Faculties, St. Jerome's College, another denominational college in the City of Waterloo. While the agreements sought to safeguard the existence of the two denominational colleges, they aimed at federating them with the newly established University of Waterloo.
Due to disagreements with Waterloo College, the College was not formally federated with the new university. The dispute centred on a controversially worded section of the University of Waterloo Act, 1959, in which the College interpreted certain sections as a guarantee that it would become the Faculty of Art for the new university; this was something. As a result of the controversy, Waterloo College's entire Department of Mathematics broke away from the College to join the newly established University of Waterloo joined by professors from the Economic, Modern Languages, Russian departments. Despite this controversy, until 1960 Hagey hoped that a last-minute compromise between Waterloo College and the university could be achieved. However, the university created its own Faculty of Arts in 1960, it established the first Faculty of Mathematics in North America on 1 January 1967. In 1967, the world's first department of kinesiology was created; the present legislative act which defines how the university should be governed, the University of Waterloo Act, 1972 was passed on 10 May 1972.
A coat of arms ha