Canadian Radio-television and Telecommunications Commission
The Canadian Radio-television and Telecommunications Commission is a public organization in Canada with mandate as a regulatory agency for broadcasting and telecommunications. It was created in 1976. Prior to 1976, it was known as the Canadian Radio and Television Commission, established in 1968 by the Parliament of Canada to replace the Board of Broadcast Governors, its headquarters is located in the Central Building of Les Terrasses de la Chaudière in Gatineau, Quebec. The CRTC was known as the Canadian Radio-Television Commission. In 1976, jurisdiction over telecommunications services, most of which were delivered by monopoly common carriers, was transferred to it from the Canadian Transport Commission although the abbreviation CRTC remained the same. On the telecom side, the CRTC regulated only held common carriers: BC Tel, which served British Columbia, in which a U. S. company held a substantial stake Bell Canada, which served much of Ontario and Quebec, the eastern part of the Northwest Territories telephone operations owned by crown corporation Canadian National Railways in Newfoundland, the Northwest Territories and northern B.
C.. Other telephone companies, many of which were publicly owned and within a province's borders, were regulated by provincial authorities until court rulings during the 1990s affirmed federal jurisdiction over the sector, which included some fifty small independent incumbents, most of them in Ontario and Quebec. Notable in this group were: Newfoundland Telephone Maritime Telegraph and Telephone Island Telephone New Brunswick Telephone Manitoba Telephone System SaskTel Alberta Government Telephones Northern Telephone Télébec municipal telephone services in Prince Rupert, B. C. and Thunder Bay The CRTC regulates all Canadian broadcasting and telecommunications activities and enforces rules it creates to carry out the policies assigned to it. The CRTC reports to the Parliament of Canada through the Minister of Canadian Heritage, responsible for the Broadcasting Act, has an informal relationship with Industry Canada, responsible for the Telecommunications Act. Provisions in these two acts, along with less-formal instructions issued by the federal cabinet known as orders-in-council, represent the bulk of the CRTC's jurisdiction.
In many cases, such as the cabinet-directed prohibition on foreign ownership for broadcasters and the legislated principle of the predominance of Canadian content, these acts and orders leave the CRTC less room to change policy than critics sometimes suggest, the result is that the commission is the lightning rod for policy criticism that could arguably be better directed at the government itself. Complaints against broadcasters, such as concerns around offensive programming, are dealt with by the Canadian Broadcast Standards Council, an independent broadcast industry association, rather than by the CRTC, although CBSC decisions can be appealed to the CRTC if necessary. However, the CRTC is sometimes erroneously criticized for CBSC decisions — for example, the CRTC was erroneously criticized for the CBSC's decisions pertaining to the airing of Howard Stern's terrestrial radio show in Canada in the late 1990s, as well as the CBSC's controversial ruling on the Dire Straits song "Money for Nothing".
The commission is not equivalent to the U. S. Federal Communications Commission, which has additional powers over technical matters, in broadcasting and other aspects of communications, in that country. In Canada, Innovation and Economic Development Canada is responsible for allocating frequencies and call signs, managing the broadcast spectrum, regulating other technical issues such as interference with electronics equipment; the CRTC has in the past regulated the prices cable television broadcast distributors are allowed to charge. In most major markets, prices are no longer regulated due to increased competition for broadcast distribution from satellite television; the CRTC regulates which channels broadcast distributors must or may offer. Per the Broadcasting Act the commission gives priority to Canadian signals—many non-Canadian channels which compete with Canadian channels are thus not approved for distribution in Canada; the CRTC argues that allowing free trade in television stations would overwhelm the smaller Canadian market, preventing it from upholding its responsibility to foster a national conversation.
Some people, consider this tantamount to censorship. The CRTC's simultaneous substitution rules require that when a Canadian network licences a television show from a US network and shows it in the same time slot, upon request by the Canadian broadcaster, Canadian broadcast distributors must replace the show on the US channel with the broadcast of the Canadian channel, along with any overlays and commercials; as Grey's Anatomy is on ABC, but is carried in Canada on CTV at the same time, for instance, the cable, satellite, or other broadcast distributor must send the CTV feed over the signal of the carried ABC affiliate where the ABC version is somehow different commercials. Viewers via home antenna who receive both Amer