The Canadian University Society for Intercollegiate Debate is the national organization which governs all competitive university debating and public speaking in Canada. It sanctions several official annual tournaments and represents Canadian debating domestically and abroad, its membership consists of student debating unions, sanctioned by their respective universities, from across Canada. CUSID has been described as "a student-run, parliamentary debate league with close ties to the American Parliamentary Debate Association". Many prominent Canadians were university debaters, including Prime Ministers Justin Trudeau, Joe Clark and Brian Mulroney, MP John Godfrey, Canadian Supreme Court justices Ian Binnie and Morris Fish, songwriter Leonard Cohen, entrepreneur Moses Znaimer, environmentalist David Suzuki, journalist Ian Hanomansing. CUSID debaters have gone on to notable careers in law, business and academia and the presidency of the organization is a sought-after position. CUSID was founded in 1978, although it held its first annual tournament in 1977.
The regular tournaments held under its auspices, such as those at the University of Toronto, McGill University, the University of Western Ontario, Queen's University, the University of Ottawa predate CUSID's formation by many decades. Founded as a national organization with strong central Canadian region roots, over the years, individual regional differences—particularly the separate identities of "CUSID East" and "CUSID West"—have become more pronounced. One of its primary functions is facilitating communications between its members institutions. In recent years, those communications have been through their online forum, CUSIDnet, first set up in 1994, as the first online student debating forum in the world. Annual invitational tournaments held in Canada include the McGill University Winter Carnival, the Queen's University Chancellor's Cup and Sutherland IV, the Carleton University Lord Dorchester Cup, the University of Toronto Hart House IV, the University of Ottawa Father Guindon Cup, the Wilfrid Laurier University/University of Waterloo Seagram Cup.
CUSID is subdivided into three regional bodies, representing each region of Canada: CUSID Central, for Ontario and Quebec, which sponsors the Central Canadian Debating Championship CUSID Atlantic, for the Atlantic Provinces, which sponsors the Atlantic Canadian Debating Championship CUSID West, for the Western Provinces and the U. S. state of Alaska, which sponsors the Western Canadian Debating Championship CUSID nationally and internationally sanctions several official championship tournaments, including: Canadian Parliamentary National Debating Championship British Parliamentary Debating Championship Canadian National French Debating Championship Central Canadian Debating Championship Western Canadian Debating Championship Atlantic Canadian Debating Championship North American Debating Championship World Universities Debating Championship The president of CUSID is the head of the organization and leads an elected executive team of six national and regional officers. He or she represents CUSID and Canadian debating interests inside and outside of Canada, is the Canadian representative on the World Universities Debating Council.
He or she is elected annually by the member institutions at the National Championships. There have been five CUSID Presidents who won the National Championships during their term as President: Jason Brent, Gerald Butts, Robert Silver, Vinay Mysore, Louis Tsilivis, Harar Hall. Matthew Mendelsohn Todd Swift Gerald Butts Shuman Ghosemajumder Many CUSID tournaments are held in the Canadian Parliamentary Style of debate; this style emphasizes argumentation and rhetoric, rather than research and detailed factual knowledge. Each round consists of two teams – the government team and the opposition team – each of which consists of two debaters. Teams alternate between opposition at tournaments; the speaking times in CUSID Central and East are: Prime Minister: 7 minutes Member of Opposition: 7 minutes Minister of the Crown: 7 minutes Leader of Opposition: 10 minutes Prime Minister: 3 minutesA new modification to the above times was introduced at the 2003 McGill University Winter Carnival Invitational called the Prime Minister's Rebuttal Extension.
The PMRE allows the government team the option to take a 6-minute PMC and 4-minute PMR and was designed to help compensate for the alleged inherent advantage to the opposition side. In most rounds, the resolution is "squirrelable", meaning that the government team can propose any topic it wants for debate; the Prime Minister Constructive lays out the topic for debate and presents arguments in favor of its position. The opposition team must immediately present opposing arguments. New arguments can be presented in the first four speeches. "Points of Information" are permitted and expected in the standard Canadian Parliamentary style. With POIs, debaters may rise and attempt to ask a question of an opposing debater, who can choose whether to accept or refuse the question, it is considered good form to accept at least a few questions during a speech. Tournaments are otherwise held in British Parliamentary, sometimes known as WUDC style. Presently, all tournaments for the first semester of the academic year, September-December, use British Parliamentary as the format.
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The Dead is a novel written by Charlie Higson. The book, published by Puffin Books in the UK on 16 September 2010, is the second book in a seven-book series, titled The Enemy; the Dead takes place in London, a year before the events in the previous book, two weeks after a worldwide sickness has infected adults turning them into something related to voracious, cannibalistic zombies. Puffin Books released the third novel in the series, titled The Fear, on 15 September 2011. Disney Hyperion released Higson's short story companion book in the series, titled Geeks vs. Zombies, on 5 June 2012; the Dead begins a year before the events in The Enemy, where an unnamed user posts a video on Youtube titled "The Scared Kid". In it, a boy frantically talks to the camera about how his friends Danny and Eve have been killed by "Mothers and fathers", shows them standing outside his window, he suffers a nervous breakdown and ends the video. The video goes viral, with people not knowing; the video is taken down from Youtube, followed by the site itself, followed by the internet, electricity entirely.
This marks the point that people realized that something bad was going on, the start of the apocalypse. Two weeks into the apocalypse, two 14-year-old boys, named Jack and Ed are trapped with a group of other schoolboys in the Rowhurst boarding school where they are defending themselves from their now zombified teachers. After escaping from the adult siege of their school with the help of a rugby player named Bam, Jack and Ed rescue their French teacher's daughter and make their way to a nearby chapel, where a group of people led by a boy named Matt barricaded themselves inside a few days prior. Alarmed by the lack of a reply from inside the church, they break in and find that the boys hiding inside have either fallen unconscious or died from carbon monoxide poisoning; the group of boys manage to revive the survivors, Matt appears to have suffered brain damage from the poisoning. He believes himself to be the messenger of a being called the Lamb, who he explains will come down to earth and cleanse it of "Non believers".
He is convinced he must go to St Paul's Cathedral in London to fulfil the needs of his "god". The group splits, with Matt and some people he has brought into his religion (now calling themselves his "acolytes", attempting to go to London with Jack, the rest deciding to go deeper into the countryside. Ed's group is ambushed by older, infected teenagers shortly after parting from the rest, who kill half the group, including Malik, they are saved by the timely arrival of a motor coach driven by an adult named Greg Thorne, a butcher who claims he is immune to the disease. With his young son Liam, Greg has acquired a bus and is collecting children to transport them all to London, he and Liam want to visit Arsenal Stadium, unaware. On the bus, Ed's group meet three girls, Aleisha and Brooke. Brooke develops a crush on Ed, whilst Greg catches up with Jack and the Lamb of God believers, who are all still journeying towards London. After finding the others and picking them up, Greg explains that, before the epidemic, he was staying with a farmer and his family, but he had had to kill the father and the older children.
He says a younger child, who'd gone crazy after losing his family, "didn't make it", indirectly revealing that he had killed the boy and made him into the dried meat he was seen eating, but which Liam refused. After a close call where Greg nearly leaves Jack and Frederique behind to a group of zombies, the bus stops for the night on the outskirts of London. Liam finds out that Greg is infected, knowing that he cannot protect him any more, Greg strangles and kills him; the next morning, Ed finds Greg inexplicably wearing Liam's glasses. Jack and Ed confront Greg about Liam's death; this causes him to succumb to the virus, revealed after Jack, who gets mad at the discovery, attempts to disarm a shotgun that Greg is wielding. The arm-to-the-face maneuver that he inflicted causes Greg to lose control, crash the bus, which he was driving erratically due to succumbing to the disease, out of anger wanted to get everyone on board to their destination. Afterward, he succumbs to the virus and attack the kids, whilst the bus is assaulted by several adults.
Most of the group escapes from the bus except for a boy Piers, injured and makes it to the Imperial War Museum in South London. Greg wanders off into the streets of London, whilst the "Bus Party" meets the museums's leader and his second in command Dognut. Jordan refuses to let them stay compromising and letting them stay as long as they collect food for themselves. A group sets off, they explore until they find a Tesco truck full of non-perishable food, with a decomposed corpse inside. Whilst they are attempting to get the truck to run, Frederique is surrounded by several adults; the other kids are surprised to find that Frederique is unharmed. Whilst they are driving the truck back to the museum and Bam tell Ed that they are planning on going to Jack's old house and
Simoom is a strong, dust-laden wind. The word is used to describe a local wind that blows in the Sahara, Jordan and the deserts of Arabian Peninsula, its temperature may exceed 54 °C and the humidity may fall below 10%. Alternative spellings include samoon, samun and simoon. Another name used for this wind is samiel. Simoom winds have an alternative type occurring in the region of Central Asia known as "Garmsil"; the name means "poison wind" and is given because the sudden onset of simoom may cause heat stroke. This is attributed to the fact that the hot wind brings more heat to the body than can be disposed of by the evaporation of perspiration; the Nuttall Encyclopædia described the simoom: The storm moves in cyclone form, carrying clouds of dust and sand, produces on humans and animals a suffocating effect. A 19th-century account of simoom in Egypt reads: Egypt is subject during the spring and summer, to the hot wind called the "samoom,", still more oppressive than the khamasin winds, but of much shorter duration lasting longer than a quarter of an hour or twenty minutes.
It proceeds from the south-east or south-south-east, carries with it clouds of dust and sand. It has been alleged that a "simoom" occurred on June 17, 1859 in Goleta and Santa Barbara, California. Local historian Walker Tompkins wrote that:...during the morning, the temperature hovered around the normal 24 to 27 °C, but around 1pm, strong super hot winds filled with dust began to blow from the direction of the Santa Ynez Mountains to the north. By 2 pm, the temperature reached 56 °C; this temperature was said to have been recorded by an official U. S. coastal survey vessel, operating in the waters just offshore, in the Santa Barbara Channel. At 5 pm, the temperature had dropped to 50 °C, by 7 pm, the temperature was back to a normal 25 °C. Tompkins provided a supposed quote from a U. S. government report saying, "Calves and cattle died on their feet. Fruit fell from trees to the ground scorched on the windward side. A fisherman in a rowboat made it to the Goleta Sandspit with his face and arms blistered as if he had been exposed to a blast furnace."
According to Tompkins, local inhabitants were saved from the heat by seeking shelter in the thick adobe walled houses that were the standard construction at the time. However, experts contest this account. UCSB Professor Joel Michaelsen, for instance, said: I have never found any outside source to validate Tompkins' story, I am skeptical of its veracity. I don't doubt that strong hot, dry downslope winds could kick up lots of dust and produce high temperatures – but in the 110 F – 115 F range at most; the 133 F just isn't physically reasonable, as it would require the creation of an hot air mass somewhere to the northeast. Last Monday's weather was a good strong example of the sort of conditions that would produce such a heat wave, our temperatures topped out at least 20 degrees below Tompkins' figure. Stronger winds could have increased the heating a bit, but not nearly that much. Add to all that meteorologically-based skepticism Tompkins' well-known tendency to mix liberal doses of fiction into his'histories,' and I think you have a strong case for discounting this one.
Meteorologist Christopher C. Burt wrote about the alleged incident: There is no record of who made this measurement or where it was made in Santa Barbara; some sources say it was made on a U. S. coastal geo-survey vessel. If, the case the temperature is not possible since the waters off Santa Barbara in June are never warmer than about 70°F and any wind blowing over the ocean would have its temperature modified by the cool water no matter how hot the air; this report is singular and there is physical evidence that something amazing happened here this day, but the temperature record is impossible to validate." Edgar Allan Poe's short story "MS. Found in a Bottle" features a storm off the coast of Java, wherein "every appearance warranted me in apprehending a Simoom." In the political essay "Chartism", Thomas Carlyle argues that the poorest of men who have resigned themselves to misery and toil cannot resign themselves to injustice because they retain an innate sense that a higher justice must govern the world: "Force itself, the hopelessness of resistance, has doubtless a composing effect against inanimate Simooms, much other infliction of the like sort, we have found it suffice to produce complete composure.
Yet one would say a permanent Injustice from an Infinite Power would prove unendurable by men." Walden, by Henry David Thoreau, references a simoom. "There is no odor so bad as that. It is human, it is carrion. If I knew for a certainty that a man was coming to my house with the conscious design of doing me good, I should run for my life, as from that dry and parching wind of the African deserts called the simoom, which fills the mouth and nose and ears and eyes with dust till you are suffocated, for fear that I should get some of his good done to me – some of its virus mingled with my blood. No – in this case I would rather suffer evil the natural way." In his 1854 novel Hard Times, Charles Dickens in describing the oppressive midsummer heat of the sooty, smoky factories of Coketown, writes, "The atmosphere of those Fairy palaces was like