Cultural protectionism in Canada has, since the mid-20th century, taken the form of conscious, interventionist attempts on the part of various Governments of Canada to promote Canadian cultural production and limit the effect of foreign culture on the domestic audience. Sharing a large border and a common language with the United States, Canadian politicians have perceived the need to preserve and support a culture separate from US-based North American culture in the globalized media arena. Canada's efforts to maintain its cultural differences from the US and Mexico have been balanced by countermeasures in trade arrangements, including the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade and the North American Free Trade Agreement. One of the first such responses to perceived American cultural invasion in the half of the 20th century was through the National Film Act of 1950, which increased the authority of the government's National Film Board to finance and promote Canadian culture; the Royal Commission on National Development in the Arts and Sciences known as the Massey Commission, was released in 1951.
It advocated the creation of a government sponsored organization that would finance Canadian artists. This organization, the Canada Council for the Arts, is responsible for the distribution of large sums of money to individuals or groups that promote what it defines as Canadian culture; the Council had a greater impact than its parent, continues to support emerging Canadian cultural talent that it approves of. The Commission works to foster a general sense that Canada risks being swamped by an invasion of foreign culture; this led to an increased fear that Canada might well lose a distinct, national culture. In 1955, with this fear in mind, the government appointed Robert Fowler to chair a Royal Commission, known as the Fowler Commission; the Fowler Commission reported that the majority of Canadian stations, including the Canadian Broadcasting Corporation, used not Canadian material, but American. It was the Commission's belief that a quota system should be enacted to protect Canadian content on the airwaves.
This recommendation, passed in 1956, affirmed the CBC as Canada's official broadcasting station and initiated the quota system. In its inception, the quota system said that 45% of all content broadcast on the airwaves must be Canadian in origin. While this number has fluctuated over the years, it has required that half of all programming on Canadian airwaves be Canadian in origin. However, Canadian content includes not only arts and drama, but news and sports, most private broadcast networks skew towards the latter rather than the former, to allow for large quantities of foreign dramas. To the dismay of many Canadians, this leaves more "culturally" oriented Canadian programming off the major-network airwaves. Cultural protectionism by the Canadian government gave preference through tax rebates and lower postal rates to magazines published and printed in Canada; this limited the options of American publishing companies to sell magazines in Canada. Some Reader's Digest and Time magazines, got around the restrictions by publishing "split runs", that is, printing "Canadian editions" of American magazines, rather than publishing uniquely Canadian magazines.
In 1998, after the Canadian government attempted to outlaw these types of magazines, the publishers of American magazines, including Sports Illustrated and Time Magazine pressured the Canadian government to back down, citing World Trade Organization rules and threatening a NAFTA lawsuit. The effectiveness of the cultural protectionism measures have been somewhat uneven. T. B. Symons, shortly after the Fowler report's installation in Canadian law, released a report entitled "To Know Ourselves"; the report looked at Canadian high-school history books and found that while the Winnipeg General Strike went without mention, the books contained two chapters on Abraham Lincoln. The report looked at Canadian children's general knowledge of their government and most could not identify the Canadian head of state and the basis for Canada's law and founding. In 1969 Prime Minister Pierre Trudeau said he felt that: "Living next to you is in some ways like sleeping with an elephant. No matter how friendly or temperate the beast, one is affected by every twitch and grunt."By the 1990s, the great majority of television, music and magazines consumed by Canadians continued to be produced outside the country.
Creators of Canadian rap music in 2000 complained that many radio stations did not include rap in their Canadian music content, television stations aired few rap music videos and news stories, yet the CRTC was slow to grant broadcast licenses for urban music radio stations. In recent years the advent of online music and video has allowed international content providers to bypass CRTC regulations in many cases, although existing private contracts keep certain international content providers, such as Hulu, out of Canada entirely. Royal Commission on National Development in the Arts and Sciences Massey Report, 1951 Culture of Canada Cultural imperialism Canadian nationalism Cultural exception Multiculturalism in Canada
The rufous-crowned eremomela is a species of bird placed in the "Old World warbler" assemblage, but now placed in the family Cisticolidae. It is found in Angola, Cameroon, Central African Republic, Republic of the Congo, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Ivory Coast, Equatorial Guinea, Ghana, Liberia, Sierra Leone, South Sudan and Uganda, its natural habitats are subtropical or tropical dry forest and subtropical or tropical moist lowland forest
Cesare Manzella was a traditional Mafia capo, who sat on the first Sicilian Mafia Commission. He was the head of the Mafia family in Cinisi, a small seaside town near the Punta Raisi Airport; as the airport was in their territory it was an invaluable asset for the import and export of contraband, including narcotics. His deputy was Gaetano Badalamenti. After a stay in the United States, where he had spent many years organising gambling houses in Chicago, Manzella settled back in Cinisi after he was expelled by US authorities in 1947. In Cinisi he owned an extensive citrus plantation. Manzella was described by the local Carabinieri. “He is cunning and has a well-developed organisational ability, which enables him to enjoy an undisputed ascendancy over local criminals and mafiosi.” Not only in Cinisi, but in the surrounding communities Carini, Terrasini, Partinico and Camporeale. He was a member of the first Sicilian Mafia Commission, established in 1958. Manzella loved to show off as a benefactor.
As he strolled down the narrow streets of Cinisi, wearing his wide-brimmed American-style hat, he would hand out pocketfuls of sweets to orphans and street rascals. He devoted a proportion of his illicit profits to building an orphanage, his charity was rewarded by his election as president of the Azione Cattolica in Cinisi. Manzella was involved in cigarette smuggling and heroin trafficking, he was a protagonist in the First Mafia War. The conflicted erupted over an underweight shipment of heroin; the shipment was financed by Manzella, the Greco cousins from Ciaculli and the La Barbera brothers from Palermo Centre. Suspicion fell on Calcedonio Di Pisa, who had collected the heroin for Manzella from the Corsican supplier, Pascal Molinelli, had organised the transport to Manzella’s partners in New York; the case was brought before the Mafia Commission, but disagreement on how to handle it led to a bloody conflict, known as the First Mafia War, between the Grecos, headed by Salvatore "Ciaschiteddu" Greco, the La Barberas – in particular when Di Pisa was killed on December 26, 1962.
Manzella became the target of the rival faction. Manzella was killed on April 1963, when he was blown to pieces by a car bomb. Pieces of Manzella's body were found stuck to lemon trees hundreds of meters from the crater where the car had been. Manzella was an uncle by marriage of Giuseppe Impastato, the Anti-mafia activist, murdered by the Mafia in 1978. Peppino Impastato's Anti-mafia activity might have been triggered by the brutal murder of Manzella, when Peppino was 15 years old. Peppino was traumatized by the event, saying: "Is this Mafia? If this is Mafia I will fight it for the rest of my life…." Dickie, John. Cosa Nostra. A history of the Sicilian Mafia, London: Coronet, ISBN 0-340-82435-2 Gambetta, Diego; the Sicilian Mafia: The Business of Private Protection, New York: Harvard University Press, ISBN 0-674-80742-1 Lewis, Norman. Honoured Society: The Sicilian Mafia Observed, London: Eland, ISBN 0-907871-48-8 Shawcross, Tim & Martin Young. Men Of Honour: The Confessions Of Tommaso Buscetta, London: Collins ISBN 0-00-217589-4