Issy-les-Moulineaux is a commune in the southwestern suburban area of Paris, lying on the left bank of the river Seine. It is one of Paris entrances and is located 6.6 km from Notre-Dame Church, on 1 January 2010, Issy-les-Moulineaux became part of the Communauté dagglomération Grand Paris Seine Ouest. Originally, Issy-les-Moulineaux was simply called Issy, in 1893 Issy officially became Issy-les-Moulineaux. Les Moulineaux was the name of a hamlet on the territory of the commune, the town was once the location of the Château dIssy, destroyed in 1871, former home of the Princes of Conti. On 1 January 1860, the city of Paris was enlarged by annexing neighboring communes, on that occasion, about a third of the commune of Issy-les-Moulineaux was annexed to Paris, and forms now the neighborhood of Javel, in the 15th arrondissement of Paris. Issy-les-Moulineaux is home to a community of 5,000 Armenians that have established themselves in the area since the 1930s, Issy-les-Moulineaux became twin cities with Echmiadzin, Armenia in December 1989.
The airfield of Issy-les-Moulineaux was the point of the 1911 Paris to Madrid air race. One of the planes crashed into the audience during take-off. It hosted the trap shooting events for the 1924 Summer Olympics, most of Voisins manufacturing facilities were relocated in neighboring Issy-les-Moulineaux. Avions Voisin closed its doors in 1940, the last fixed wing flight occurred in 1953, after which the aerodrome handled only helicopters, it continues to do this, with the ICAO code LFPI. It is operated by Aeroports de Paris, since the French canton reorganisation which came into effect in March 2015, Issy forms one canton, Canton of Issy-les-Moulineaux. Multiple RATP bus lines have stops or their arrival/departure station in the city, multiple Vélib and Autolib stations allow subscribers of those services to share bicycles or electric cars. There was a cable car project, abandoned in February 2008, the commune has 17 public preschools,16 public elementary schools. Four public junior high schools, one senior high school.
Junior high schools, Collège de la Paix Collège Henri Matisse Collège Georges Mandel Collège Victor Hugo Lycée Eugène-Ionesco is the public senior high school. The island is divided into two parts, the urban side includes the offices and a residential area, the other side includes a park with the Tour aux Figures by Jean Dubuffet. Musée Français de la Carte à Jouer, a museum of playing cards Communes of the Hauts-de-Seine department List of works by Auguste Carli INSEE Issy City Hall Issy Tourism Office Issy TV
The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom or Britain, is a sovereign country in western Europe. Lying off the north-western coast of the European mainland, the United Kingdom includes the island of Great Britain, Northern Ireland is the only part of the United Kingdom that shares a land border with another sovereign state—the Republic of Ireland. The Irish Sea lies between Great Britain and Ireland, with an area of 242,500 square kilometres, the United Kingdom is the 78th-largest sovereign state in the world and the 11th-largest in Europe. It is the 21st-most populous country, with an estimated 65.1 million inhabitants, this makes it the fourth-most densely populated country in the European Union. The United Kingdom is a monarchy with a parliamentary system of governance. The monarch is Queen Elizabeth II, who has reigned since 6 February 1952, other major urban areas in the United Kingdom include the regions of Birmingham, Glasgow and Manchester.
The United Kingdom consists of four countries—England, Wales, the last three have devolved administrations, each with varying powers, based in their capitals, Edinburgh and Belfast, respectively. The relationships among the countries of the UK have changed over time, Wales was annexed by the Kingdom of England under the Laws in Wales Acts 1535 and 1542. A treaty between England and Scotland resulted in 1707 in a unified Kingdom of Great Britain, which merged in 1801 with the Kingdom of Ireland to form the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland. Five-sixths of Ireland seceded from the UK in 1922, leaving the present formulation of the United Kingdom of Great Britain, there are fourteen British Overseas Territories. These are the remnants of the British Empire which, at its height in the 1920s, British influence can be observed in the language and legal systems of many of its former colonies. The United Kingdom is a country and has the worlds fifth-largest economy by nominal GDP. The UK is considered to have an economy and is categorised as very high in the Human Development Index.
It was the worlds first industrialised country and the worlds foremost power during the 19th, the UK remains a great power with considerable economic, military and political influence internationally. It is a nuclear weapons state and its military expenditure ranks fourth or fifth in the world. The UK has been a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council since its first session in 1946 and it has been a leading member state of the EU and its predecessor, the European Economic Community, since 1973. However, on 23 June 2016, a referendum on the UKs membership of the EU resulted in a decision to leave. The Acts of Union 1800 united the Kingdom of Great Britain, Scotland and Northern Ireland have devolved self-government
Tinker Tailor Soldier Spy (film)
Tinker Tailor Soldier Spy is a 2011 Cold War espionage film directed by Tomas Alfredson. The screenplay was written by Bridget OConnor and Peter Straughan, based on John le Carrés 1974 novel of the same name, the film was produced through the British company Working Title Films and financed by Frances StudioCanal. It premiered in competition at the 68th Venice International Film Festival and it was a critical and commercial success, and was the highest-grossing film at the British box office for three consecutive weeks. It won the BAFTA Award for Best British Film, the film received three Academy Awards nominations, Best Adapted Screenplay, Best Original Score, and for Oldman, Best Actor. The novel had previously adapted into the award-winning BBC TV miniseries Tinker Tailor Soldier Spy. In October 1973, head of British intelligence, sends agent Jim Prideaux to Budapest to meet a Hungarian general wishing to defect. Prideaux is shot and captured and amidst the international incident that follows and his right-hand man George Smiley are forced into retirement, percy Alleline becomes the new Chief, Bill Haydon his deputy and Roy Bland and Toby Esterhase as lieutenants.
Smiley chooses a trustworthy agent, Peter Guillam and retired Special Branch officer Mendel to help him and he interviews former Circus analyst Connie Sachs, who was sacked by Alleline after deducing that Alexei Polyakov, a Soviet cultural attaché in London, was a spy. Tarr tells Smiley that on a mission to Istanbul, he had an affair with Irina, concluding that the mole had intercepted his message, Tarr went into hiding, suspected of defecting and murdering the British station chief. Smiley sends Guillam to steal the Circus logbook for the night Tarr had called and he finds the pages for that night have been cut out, Smiley interviews Prideaux, who after brutal interrogation was exchanged by the Soviets but sacked from the service. Prideaux says the purpose of the mission to Hungary was to get the name of the mole, Control had codenamed the suspects Tinker, Soldier and Beggarman. Smiley blackmails the location of the house out of Esterhase, whose exile status makes him vulnerable to deportation.
Smiley has Tarr appear at the Paris office, implying he knows who the mole is, the mole meets Polyakov at the safe house, where Smiley arrests him. The project was initiated by Peter Morgan when he wrote a draft of the screenplay, Morgan dropped out as the writer for personal reasons but still served as an executive producer. Following Morgans departure as writer, Working Title hired Peter Straughan, park Chan-wook considered directing the film, but ultimately turned it down. Tomas Alfredson was confirmed to direct on 9 July 2009, the production is his first English language film. The film was backed financially by Frances StudioCanal and had a budget corresponding to $21 million, the film is dedicated to OConnor, who died of cancer during production. The director cast Gary Oldman in the role of George Smiley, and described the actor as having a great face and the quiet intensity and intelligence thats needed
Television or TV is a telecommunication medium used for transmitting moving images in monochrome, or in color, and in two or three dimensions and sound. The term can refer to a set, a television program. Television is a medium for entertainment, news, gossip. Television became available in experimental forms in the late 1920s. After World War II, a form of black-and-white TV broadcasting became popular in the United States and Britain, and television sets became commonplace in homes, businesses. During the 1950s, television was the medium for influencing public opinion. In the mid-1960s, color broadcasting was introduced in the US, for many reasons, the storage of television and video programming now occurs on the cloud. At the end of the first decade of the 2000s, digital television transmissions greatly increased in popularity, another development was the move from standard-definition television to high-definition television, which provides a resolution that is substantially higher. HDTV may be transmitted in various formats, 1080p, 1080i, in 2013, 79% of the worlds households owned a television set.
Most TV sets sold in the 2000s were flat-panel, mainly LEDs, major manufacturers announced the discontinuation of CRT, DLP, and even fluorescent-backlit LCDs by the mid-2010s. In the near future, LEDs are gradually expected to be replaced by OLEDs, major manufacturers have announced that they will increasingly produce smart TVs in the mid-2010s. Smart TVs with integrated Internet and Web 2.0 functions became the dominant form of television by the late 2010s, Television signals were initially distributed only as terrestrial television using high-powered radio-frequency transmitters to broadcast the signal to individual television receivers. Alternatively television signals are distributed by cable or optical fiber, satellite systems and. Until the early 2000s, these were transmitted as analog signals, a standard television set is composed of multiple internal electronic circuits, including a tuner for receiving and decoding broadcast signals. A visual display device which lacks a tuner is correctly called a video monitor rather than a television, the word television comes from Ancient Greek τῆλε, meaning far, and Latin visio, meaning sight.
The Anglicised version of the term is first attested in 1907 and it was. formed in English or borrowed from French télévision. In the 19th century and early 20th century, other. proposals for the name of a technology for sending pictures over distance were telephote. The abbreviation TV is from 1948, the use of the term to mean a television set dates from 1941
A film, called a movie, motion picture, theatrical film or photoplay, is a series of still images which, when shown on a screen, creates the illusion of moving images due to the phi phenomenon. This optical illusion causes the audience to perceive continuous motion between separate objects viewed rapidly in succession, the process of filmmaking is both an art and an industry. The word cinema, short for cinematography, is used to refer to the industry of films. Films were originally recorded onto plastic film through a photochemical process, the adoption of CGI-based special effects led to the use of digital intermediates. Most contemporary films are now fully digital through the process of production, distribution. Films recorded in a form traditionally included an analogous optical soundtrack. It runs along a portion of the film exclusively reserved for it and is not projected, Films are cultural artifacts created by specific cultures. They reflect those cultures, and, in turn, affect them, Film is considered to be an important art form, a source of popular entertainment, and a powerful medium for educating—or indoctrinating—citizens.
The visual basis of film gives it a power of communication. Some films have become popular worldwide attractions by using dubbing or subtitles to translate the dialog into the language of the viewer, some have criticized the film industrys glorification of violence and its potentially negative treatment of women. The individual images that make up a film are called frames, the perception of motion is due to a psychological effect called phi phenomenon. The name film originates from the fact that film has historically been the medium for recording and displaying motion pictures. Many other terms exist for a motion picture, including picture, picture show, moving picture, photoplay. The most common term in the United States is movie, while in Europe film is preferred. Terms for the field, in general, include the big screen, the screen, the movies, and cinema. In early years, the sheet was sometimes used instead of screen. Preceding film in origin by thousands of years, early plays and dances had elements common to film, sets, production, actors, storyboards, much terminology used in film theory and criticism apply, such as mise en scène.
Owing to the lack of any technology for doing so, the moving images, the magic lantern, probably created by Christiaan Huygens in the 1650s, could be used to project animation, which was achieved by various types of mechanical slides
Ireland is an island in the North Atlantic. It is separated from Great Britain to its east by the North Channel, the Irish Sea, Ireland is the second-largest island of the British Isles, the third-largest in Europe, and the twentieth-largest on Earth. Politically, Ireland is divided between the Republic of Ireland, which covers five-sixths of the island, and Northern Ireland, in 2011, the population of Ireland was about 6.4 million, ranking it the second-most populous island in Europe after Great Britain. Just under 4.6 million live in the Republic of Ireland, the islands geography comprises relatively low-lying mountains surrounding a central plain, with several navigable rivers extending inland. The island has lush vegetation, a product of its mild, thick woodlands covered the island until the Middle Ages. As of 2013, the amount of land that is wooded in Ireland is about 11% of the total, there are twenty-six extant mammal species native to Ireland. The Irish climate is moderate and classified as oceanic.
As a result, winters are milder than expected for such a northerly area, summers are cooler than those in Continental Europe. Rainfall and cloud cover are abundant, the earliest evidence of human presence in Ireland is dated at 10,500 BC. Gaelic Ireland had emerged by the 1st century CE, the island was Christianised from the 5th century onward. Following the Norman invasion in the 12th century, England claimed sovereignty over Ireland, English rule did not extend over the whole island until the 16th–17th century Tudor conquest, which led to colonisation by settlers from Britain. In the 1690s, a system of Protestant English rule was designed to materially disadvantage the Catholic majority and Protestant dissenters, with the Acts of Union in 1801, Ireland became a part of the United Kingdom. Northern Ireland saw much civil unrest from the late 1960s until the 1990s and this subsided following a political agreement in 1998. In 1973 the Republic of Ireland joined the European Economic Community while the United Kingdom, Irish culture has had a significant influence on other cultures, especially in the fields of literature.
Alongside mainstream Western culture, an indigenous culture exists, as expressed through Gaelic games, Irish music. The culture of the island shares many features with that of Great Britain, including the English language, and sports such as association football, horse racing. The name Ireland derives from Old Irish Eriu and this in turn derives from Proto-Celtic *Iveriu, which is the source of Latin Hibernia. Iveriu derives from a root meaning fat, during the last glacial period, and up until about 9000 years ago, most of Ireland was covered with ice, most of the time
3D television is television that conveys depth perception to the viewer by employing techniques such as stereoscopic display, multi-view display, 2D-plus-depth, or any other form of 3D display. Most modern 3D television sets use an active shutter 3D system or a polarized 3D system, 3D TV are to be discontinued in 2017 due to low consumer demand. LG and Sony were the last manufacturers to build the product, however, 4K TVs with 3D capability still exist. The stereoscope was first invented by Sir Charles Wheatstone in 1838 and it showed that when two pictures are viewed stereoscopically, they are combined by the brain to produce 3D depth perception. The stereoscope was improved by Louis Jules Duboscq, and a picture of Queen Victoria was displayed at The Great Exhibition in 1851. In 1855 the Kinematoscope was invented, in the late 1890s, the British film pioneer William Friese-Greene filed a patent for a 3D movie process. Stereoscopic 3D television was demonstrated for the first time on 10 August 1928, by John Logie Baird in his companys premises at 133 Long Acre, Baird pioneered a variety of 3D television systems using electro-mechanical and cathode-ray tube techniques.
The first 3D TV was produced in 1935, and stereoscopic 3D still cameras for personal use had become fairly common by the Second World War. Many 3D movies were produced for release in the US during the 1950s just when television started to become popular. The first such movie was Bwana Devil from United Artists that could be seen all across the US in 1952, one year later, in 1953, came the 3D movie House of Wax which featured stereophonic sound. Alfred Hitchcock produced his film Dial M for Murder in 3D, in 1946 the Soviet Union developed 3D films, with Robinzon Kruzo being its first full-length 3D movie. People were excited to view the 3D movies, but were put off by their poor quality, because of this, their popularity declined quickly. There was another attempt in the 1970s and 80s to make 3D movies more mainstream with the releases of Friday the 13th Part III, 3D showings became more popular throughout the 2000s, culminating in the success of 3D presentations of Avatar in December 2009 and January 2010.
According to DisplaySearch, 3D television shipments totaled 41.45 million units in 2012, in late 2013, the number of 3D TV viewers started to decline, and as of 2016, development of 3D TV is limited to a few premium models. There are several techniques to produce and display 3D moving pictures, the following are some of the technical details and methodologies employed in some of the more notable 3D movie systems that have been developed. The future of 3D television is emerging as time progresses, New technology like WindowWalls and Visible light communication are being implemented into 3D television as the demand for 3D TV increases. Scott Birnbaum, vice president of Samsungs LCD business, says that the demand for 3D TV will skyrocket in the couple of years. The basic requirement is to display offset images that are filtered separately to the left, besides Hitachi, Sony is working on similar technologies
Filmmaking is the process of making a film. Filmmaking takes place in places around the world in a range of economic and political contexts. Typically, it involves a number of people, and can take from a few months to several years to complete. Film production consists of five stages, The first stage in which the ideas for the film are created, rights to books/plays are bought etc. Financing for the project has to be sought and greenlit, pre-production, Preparations are made for the shoot, in which cast and film crew are hired, locations are selected and sets are built. Production, The raw elements for the film are recorded during the film shoot, post-production, The images and visual effects of the recorded film are edited. Distribution, The finished film is distributed and screened in cinemas and released to home video. In this stage, the project producer selects a story, which may come from a book, another film, true story, video game, comic book, graphic novel, or an original idea, etc. After identifying a theme or underlying message, the works with writers to prepare a synopsis.
Next they produce an outline, which breaks the story down into one-paragraph scenes that concentrate on dramatic structure. Then, they prepare a treatment, a 25-to-30-page description of the story, its mood and this usually has little dialogue and stage direction, but often contains drawings that help visualize key points. Another way is to produce a scriptment once a synopsis is produced, next, a screenwriter writes a screenplay over a period of several months. The screenwriter may rewrite it several times to improve dramatization, structure, dialogue, producers often skip the previous steps and develop submitted screenplays which investors and other interested parties assess through a process called script coverage. A film distributor may be contacted at a stage to assess the likely market. All these factors imply a certain appeal of the film to a possible audience, not all films make a profit from the theatrical release alone, so film companies take DVD sales and worldwide distribution rights into account.
The producer and screenwriter prepare a film pitch, or treatment and they will pitch the film to actors and directors in order to attach them to the project. Many projects fail to move beyond this stage and enter so-called development hell, if a pitch succeeds, a film receives a green light, meaning someone offers financial backing, typically a major film studio, film council, or independent investor. The parties involved negotiate a deal and sign contracts, once all parties have met and the deal has been set, the film may proceed into the pre-production period
Paris is the capital and most populous city of France. It has an area of 105 square kilometres and a population of 2,229,621 in 2013 within its administrative limits, the agglomeration has grown well beyond the citys administrative limits. By the 17th century, Paris was one of Europes major centres of finance, fashion and the arts, and it retains that position still today. The aire urbaine de Paris, a measure of area, spans most of the Île-de-France region and has a population of 12,405,426. It is therefore the second largest metropolitan area in the European Union after London, the Metropole of Grand Paris was created in 2016, combining the commune and its nearest suburbs into a single area for economic and environmental co-operation. Grand Paris covers 814 square kilometres and has a population of 7 million persons, the Paris Region had a GDP of €624 billion in 2012, accounting for 30.0 percent of the GDP of France and ranking it as one of the wealthiest regions in Europe. The city is a rail and air-transport hub served by two international airports, Paris-Charles de Gaulle and Paris-Orly.
Opened in 1900, the subway system, the Paris Métro. It is the second busiest metro system in Europe after Moscow Metro, Paris Gare du Nord is the busiest railway station in the world outside of Japan, with 262 millions passengers in 2015. In 2015, Paris received 22.2 million visitors, making it one of the top tourist destinations. The association football club Paris Saint-Germain and the rugby union club Stade Français are based in Paris, the 80, 000-seat Stade de France, built for the 1998 FIFA World Cup, is located just north of Paris in the neighbouring commune of Saint-Denis. Paris hosts the annual French Open Grand Slam tennis tournament on the red clay of Roland Garros, Paris hosted the 1900 and 1924 Summer Olympics and is bidding to host the 2024 Summer Olympics. The name Paris is derived from its inhabitants, the Celtic Parisii tribe. Thus, though written the same, the name is not related to the Paris of Greek mythology. In the 1860s, the boulevards and streets of Paris were illuminated by 56,000 gas lamps, since the late 19th century, Paris has been known as Panam in French slang.
Inhabitants are known in English as Parisians and in French as Parisiens and they are pejoratively called Parigots. The Parisii, a sub-tribe of the Celtic Senones, inhabited the Paris area from around the middle of the 3rd century BC. One of the areas major north-south trade routes crossed the Seine on the île de la Cité, this place of land and water trade routes gradually became a town
2010 FIFA World Cup
The 2010 FIFA World Cup was the 19th FIFA World Cup, the world championship for mens national association football teams. It took place in South Africa from 11 June to 11 July 2010, the matches were played in 10 stadiums in nine host cities around the country, with the final played at the Soccer City stadium in South Africas largest city, Johannesburg. Thirty-two teams were selected for participation via a qualification tournament that began in August 2007. In the first round of the tournament finals, the competed in round-robin groups of four teams for points. These 16 teams advanced to the stage, where three rounds of play decided which teams would participate in the final. In the final, the European champions, defeated the Netherlands 1–0 after extra time, as a result of their win, Spain represented the World in the 2013 FIFA Confederations Cup. Host nation South Africa,2006 champions Italy and 2006 runners-up France were all eliminated in the first round of the tournament and it was the first time that the hosts had been eliminated in the first round.
New Zealand, with their three draws, were the undefeated team in the tournament, but they were eliminated in the first round. Africa was chosen as the host for the 2010 World Cup as part of a policy, abandoned in 2007. Five African nations placed bids to host the 2010 World Cup, Morocco, South Africa, following the decision of the FIFA Executive Committee not to allow co-hosted tournaments, Tunisia withdrew from the bidding process. The committee decided not to consider Libyas solo bid as it no longer met all the stipulations laid down in the official List of Requirements. South Africa, which had failed to win the right to host the 2006 event, was thus awarded the right to host the tournament. Having successfully campaigned for South Africa to be granted host status, during 2006 and 2007, rumours circulated in various news sources that the 2010 World Cup could be moved to another country. Franz Beckenbauer, Horst R. Schmidt and, some FIFA executives, expressed concern over the planning and pace of South Africas preparations.
Blazer stated, I and others on the Fifa executive committee agreed to accept bribes in conjunction with the selection of South Africa as the host nation for the 2010 World Cup. On 6 June 2015, The Daily Telegraph reported that Morocco had actually won the vote, the qualification draw for the 2010 World Cup was held in Durban on 25 November 2007. As the host nation, South Africa qualified automatically for the tournament, as happened in the previous tournament, the defending champions were not given an automatic berth, and Italy had to participate in qualification. With a pool of entrants comprising 204 of the 208 FIFA national teams at the time, some controversies arose during the qualifications
Stereoscopy is a technique for creating or enhancing the illusion of depth in an image by means of stereopsis for binocular vision. The word stereoscopy derives from Greek στερεός, meaning firm, any stereoscopic image is called a stereogram. Originally, stereogram referred to a pair of images which could be viewed using a stereoscope. Most stereoscopic methods present two offset images separately to the left and right eye of the viewer and these two-dimensional images are combined in the brain to give the perception of 3D depth. Stereoscopy creates the illusion of depth from given two-dimensional images. One of the functions that occur within the brain as it interprets what the eyes see is assessing the relative distances of objects from the viewer, the two images are combined in the brain to give the perception of depth. Although the term 3D is ubiquitously used, the presentation of dual 2D images is distinctly different from displaying an image in three full dimensions. The most notable difference is that, in the case of 3D displays, holographic displays and volumetric display do not have this limitation.
Just as it is not possible to recreate a full 3-dimensional sound field with just two speakers, it is an overstatement to call dual 2D images 3D. The accurate term stereoscopic is more cumbersome than the common misnomer 3D, although most stereoscopic displays do not qualify as real 3D display, all real 3D displays are stereoscopic displays because they meet the lower criteria also. Most 3D displays use this method to convey images. It was first invented by Sir Charles Wheatstone in 1838, but if it be required to obtain the most faithful resemblances of real objects and colouring may properly be employed to heighten the effects. Flowers, busts, instruments of various kinds, Stereoscopy is used in photogrammetry and for entertainment through the production of stereograms. Stereoscopy is useful in viewing images rendered from large data sets such as are produced by experimental data. Modern industrial three-dimensional photography may use 3D scanners to detect and record three-dimensional information, the three-dimensional depth information can be reconstructed from two images using a computer by correlating the pixels in the left and right images.
Solving the Correspondence problem in the field of Computer Vision aims to create meaningful depth information from two images, there are 3 levels of binocular vision required to view stereo images, Simultaneous perception Fusion Stereopsis These functions develop in early childhood. Some people who have strabismus disrupt the development of stereopsis, however orthoptics treatment can be used to improve binocular vision, a persons stereoacuity determines the minimum image disparity they can perceive as depth. It is believed that approximately 12% of people are unable to properly see 3D images, according to another experiment up to 30% of people have very weak stereoscopic vision preventing them from depth perception based on stereo disparity