Canal Park, Duluth
Canal Park is a tourist and recreation-oriented district of Duluth, United States. Situated across the Interstate 35 freeway from Downtown Duluth, it is connected by the famous Aerial Lift Bridge to the Park Point sandbar and neighborhood. Canal Park Drive and Lake Avenue South serve as the main routes in Canal Park. Canal Park is a conversion of an old warehouse district into restaurants, cafés, hotels; this conversion began in the 1980s as an attempt to use Duluth's rich industrial past, the decline of which had left the city in economic turmoil at the time, as an asset in a prospective tourist industry. The Duluth Entertainment Convention Center now connected to the new Amsoil Arena and the area's prominent entertainment venue, is located in the district; the DECC provides an indoor connection to the skywalk system in Downtown Duluth. Many annual events such as the Bayfront Blues Festival, held in Bayfront Festival Park; some of Canal Park's attractions include a 4.2 mile long lakewalk, a lighthouse pier, the Lake Superior Maritime Visitor Center, the Great Lakes Aquarium, the William A. Irvin floating ship museum.
Those interested in boats will enjoy watching vessels from around the world enter Duluth's port. Until January 2017, Canal Park was the home of broadcast studios for four Red Rock Radio stations; the Duluth NBC affiliate KBJR is still located in Canal Park. Downtown Duluth Duluth, Minnesota Park Point
Lake Superior Maritime Visitor Center
The Lake Superior Maritime Visitor Center is a museum in Duluth, operated by the United States Army Corps of Engineers. The museum is in Duluth's Canal Park near the Aerial Lift Bridge and overlooks the entrance to the Duluth-Superior harbor; the museum and grounds are all property of the U. S. federal government. All visitors are welcome to visit this museum without paying. Donations are accepted by the Lake Superior Marine Museum Association, support general maintenance and upkeep of the building, new exhibit development and acquisition, staffing. Exhibits demonstrate the history and operations of upper Great Lakes commercial shipping and the Aerial Lift Bridge. Many visitors enjoy the three accurate replica cabins and a pilothouse from typical ships which plowed the waves of Lake Superior in years past. A three-story steam engine, 50 scale models and many interactive displays are available for visitors to explore. Thousand-foot-long freighters pass within 200 feet of the building, underneath the Aerial Lift Bridge, which lifts up to allow them to pass through.
List of museums in Minnesota Lake Superior Marine Museum Association - official site Duluth Seaway Port Authority Article
The National Broadcasting Company is an American English-language commercial terrestrial television network, a flagship property of NBCUniversal, a subsidiary of Comcast. The network is headquartered at 30 Rockefeller Plaza in New York City, with additional major offices near Los Angeles and Philadelphia; the network is one of the Big Three television networks. NBC is sometimes referred to as the "Peacock Network", in reference to its stylized peacock logo, introduced in 1956 to promote the company's innovations in early color broadcasting, it became the network's official emblem in 1979. Founded in 1926 by the Radio Corporation of America, NBC is the oldest major broadcast network in the United States. At that time the parent company of RCA was General Electric. In 1930, GE was forced to sell the companies as a result of antitrust charges. In 1986, control of NBC passed back to General Electric through its $6.4 billion purchase of RCA. Following the acquisition by GE, Bob Wright served as chief executive officer of NBC, remaining in that position until his retirement in 2007, when he was succeeded by Jeff Zucker.
In 2003, French media company Vivendi merged its entertainment assets with GE, forming NBC Universal. Comcast purchased a controlling interest in the company in 2011, acquired General Electric's remaining stake in 2013. Following the Comcast merger, Zucker left NBCUniversal and was replaced as CEO by Comcast executive Steve Burke. NBC has thirteen owned-and-operated stations and nearly 200 affiliates throughout the United States and its territories, some of which are available in Canada and/or Mexico via pay-television providers or in border areas over-the-air. During a period of early broadcast business consolidation, radio manufacturer Radio Corporation of America acquired New York City radio station WEAF from American Telephone & Telegraph. Westinghouse, a shareholder in RCA, had a competing outlet in Newark, New Jersey pioneer station WJZ, which served as the flagship for a loosely structured network; this station was transferred from Westinghouse to RCA in 1923, moved to New York City. WEAF acted as a laboratory for AT&T's manufacturing and supply outlet Western Electric, whose products included transmitters and antennas.
The Bell System, AT&T's telephone utility, was developing technologies to transmit voice- and music-grade audio over short and long distances, using both wireless and wired methods. The 1922 creation of WEAF offered a research-and-development center for those activities. WEAF maintained a regular schedule of radio programs, including some of the first commercially sponsored programs, was an immediate success. In an early example of "chain" or "networking" broadcasting, the station linked with Outlet Company-owned WJAR in Providence, Rhode Island. C. WCAP. New parent RCA saw an advantage in sharing programming, after getting a license for radio station WRC in Washington, D. C. in 1923, attempted to transmit audio between cities via low-quality telegraph lines. AT&T refused outside companies access to its high-quality phone lines; the early effort fared poorly, since the uninsulated telegraph lines were susceptible to atmospheric and other electrical interference. In 1925, AT&T decided that WEAF and its embryonic network were incompatible with the company's primary goal of providing a telephone service.
AT&T offered to sell the station to RCA in a deal that included the right to lease AT&T's phone lines for network transmission. RCA spent $1 million to purchase WEAF and Washington sister station WCAP, shut down the latter station, merged its facilities with surviving station WRC; the division's ownership was split among RCA, its founding corporate parent General Electric and Westinghouse. NBC started broadcasting on November 15, 1926. WEAF and WJZ, the flagships of the two earlier networks, were operated side-by-side for about a year as part of the new NBC. On January 1, 1927, NBC formally divided their respective marketing strategies: the "Red Network" offered commercially sponsored entertainment and music programming. Various histories of NBC suggest the color designations for the two networks came from the color of the pushpins NBC engineers used to designate affiliate stations of WEAF and WJZ, or from the use of double-ended red and blue colored pencils. On April 5, 1927, NBC expanded to the West Coast with the launch of the NBC Orange Network known as the Pacific Coast Network.
This was followed by the debut of the NBC Gold Network known as the Pacific Gold Network, on October 18, 1931. The Orange Network carried Red Network programming, the Gold Network carried programming from the Blue Network; the Orange Network recreated Eastern Red Network programming for West Coast stations at KPO in San Francisco. In 1936, the Orange Network affiliate stations became part of the Red Network, at the same time the Gold Network became part of the Blue Network. In the 1930s, NBC developed a network for shortwave radio stations, called the NBC White Network. In 1927, NBC moved its operations to 711 Fifth Avenue in Manhattan, occupying the upper floors of a building de
University of Minnesota Duluth
The University of Minnesota Duluth is a public university in Duluth, Minnesota. It is part of the University of Minnesota system and offers 15 bachelor's degrees in 84 majors, graduate programs in 26 different fields, a two-year program at the School of Medicine and a four-year College of Pharmacy program. Although the University of Minnesota Duluth didn’t make its appearance until 1947, plans for a college in the Duluth area were first made in the 1890s; the state legislature planned for a teaching school for women and in 1895 they announced the formation of the Duluth Normal School. In 1896, the City of Duluth donated 6 acres of land to serve as a foundation for the Duluth Normal School, the state legislature donated additional funds for the construction costs for the main building, built in 1900. In February 1901, a fire caused extensive damage to the school and the following year, the school was rebuilt. In April 1901, Eugene W. Bohannon was appointed president of the Duluth Normal School.
In 1902 the school first opened for enrollment. The first students, all women, came to the school to be trained for a degree in education. By 1903, the first seven women received their diplomas from Duluth Normal School. In 1906, the first dormitories were opened. Room and board were offered between fourteen and fifteen dollars a month. Throughout the next few years, more dormitories, two new wings, an auditorium were added to the school. Requirements, such as having a high school diploma, were instituted. Students who signed a pledge to teach after graduation attended for free; the 1906 Bulletin of the State Normal School describes the school at that time: The building is modern in construction and equipment. It is located in one of the most attractive parts of the city, overlooking the waters of Lake Superior from a height of more than three hundred feet; the laboratories are well arranged. The furniture and apparatus are excellent in every way; the present equipment of the several laboratories represents an expenditure of not less than $7,500, is adequate for the needs of the school.
A large and well-lighted room has been equipped for manual training. It is supplied with twenty benches of the most approved make and all of the necessary tools and instruments; the Duluth State Normal School Complex are listed with the National Register of Historic Places. Enrollment for 1903 was 127 and by 1906 it had increased to 202. A Model School with kindergarten through grade eight was maintained for "practice teaching"; the 1906 bulletin reports, "At the opening of the school four years ago it was somewhat doubtful whether the number of children to attend would be sufficient to constitute a model school in any proper sense. Only three teachers were needed to take charge of the pupils at that time, while five are required now and the number of children seeking admission is in excess of the limit fixed for the several grades. In 1921, the Duluth Normal School was renamed Duluth State Teachers College or DSTC; the change in status allowed bachelor's degrees and four-year degree programs to be added to the school.
In 1929 the school became co-ed, the first sports teams were instituted, including hockey and basketball. By 1937, the community supported elevating DSTC to a branch campus of the University of Minnesota; as enrollment increased on the University of Minnesota campus in the Twin Cities in the 1940s, higher education leaders began to debate how to address overcrowding on the state's land grant university campus. During this time City leaders and area state legislators formed a plan to advocate for establishing a branch campus of the University of Minnesota in the City of Duluth. After significant lobbying efforts a bill was drafted and submitted to the legislature that would instead take the Duluth State Teachers College, remove it from the Minnesota State Teachers College system and establish a branch of the University of Minnesota in 1947; the Legislature narrowly passed the bill and the marriage of the University of Minnesota to Duluth State Teachers College began. It is at this time; these events were significant statewide as the Duluth State Teachers College was given preference above all of the other state teachers college in 6 other regions of the state to be upgraded to "university" status.
These events led to discord, with Southern Minnesota organizing to request its own university in 1963-1967 as part of efforts to make Mankato State Teachers College into a research university called the University of Southern Minnesota or Minnesota State University. It wouldn't be until 1975-1976 that the others would be allowed to develop comprehensive curriculum and expand as full universities. During these initial years the University of Minnesota Duluth was considered directly a part of the University of Minnesota, not an independent institution; the University of Minnesota Duluth has established itself in a number of research areas including ocean and freshwater sciences. It is the primary sea-grant university for the state of Minnesota and operates the Minnesota Sea Grant Program offices on campus. In addition, in 1972 a two year school of medicine was founded at the university to provide the first two years of medical education in a small urban and rural setting; the medical school was reorganized in 2000 to be a direct component of the University of Minnesota Medical School from the Twin Cities campus and now operates semi-independently from the University of Minnesota Duluth.
Today, the university now educates a medium sized student body
The Downtown of Duluth, United States. The downtown area is accessible from Interstate Highway 35; as in most cities, the downtown area is home to a number of the city's cultural and social attractions, as well as government offices and business centers. Duluth's main library is located in downtown, as is the city's foremost museum, the courthouse, city hall, several local restaurants and bars with live music venues, many of the larger business offices. Stores and places to eat and drink tend to be locally or regionally owned and operated, with most chain and franchise establishments having located themselves in the "Miller Hill area" around the U. S. Highway 53 corridor. Most of the downtown is within walking distance of the touristy Canal Park district. A large portion of the eastern section of downtown is oriented around Essentia Health–St. Mary's Medical Center and Miller-Dwan Medical Center; the downtown area contains a number of historical buildings, many of them dating to the city's peak days in the late 19th century and early 20th.
These include the Romanesque Revival Central High School building, the Duluth Opera House, the Union Depot, among many others. Newly constructed ones are less common than older edifices, although some large newer buildings such as the Tech Village are present. Downtown Duluth is the home of Fond-du-Luth Casino. Streets in Duluth's downtown area features dramatic upward slopes, a feature common to many of Duluth's neighborhoods due to 800 feet elevation difference between the shore and the hilltop; as a part of a beautification project during Duluth's economic crisis of the 1980s, several blacktop streets were converted to brick. Along with this change came the introduction of "old-fashioned" ornamental streetlamps. Due to the city's cold winter temperatures, a network of skywalks was constructed to provide indoor connectivity between most major buildings; the skywalk system is augmented by an over-the-freeway enclosed walkway leading to the Duluth Entertainment Convention Center in the Canal Park district.
Interstate Highway 35 Duluth, Minnesota Canal Park Central Hillside East Hillside Lincoln Park City of Duluth website Greater Downtown Council website
A lighthouse is a tower, building, or other type of structure designed to emit light from a system of lamps and lenses and to serve as a navigational aid for maritime pilots at sea or on inland waterways. Lighthouses mark dangerous coastlines, hazardous shoals, reefs and safe entries to harbors. Once used, the number of operational lighthouses has declined due to the expense of maintenance and use of electronic navigational systems. Before the development of defined ports, mariners were guided by fires built on hilltops. Since raising the fire would improve the visibility, placing the fire on a platform became a practice that led to the development of the lighthouse. In antiquity, the lighthouse functioned more as an entrance marker to ports than as a warning signal for reefs and promontories, unlike many modern lighthouses; the most famous lighthouse structure from antiquity was the Pharos of Alexandria, which collapsed following a series of earthquakes between 956 and 1323. The intact Tower of Hercules at A Coruña, Spain gives insight into ancient lighthouse construction.
Coins from Alexandria and Laodicea in Syria exist. The modern era of lighthouses began at the turn of the 18th century, as lighthouse construction boomed in lockstep with burgeoning levels of transatlantic commerce. Advances in structural engineering and new and efficient lighting equipment allowed for the creation of larger and more powerful lighthouses, including ones exposed to the sea; the function of lighthouses shifted toward the provision of a visible warning against shipping hazards, such as rocks or reefs. The Eddystone Rocks were a major shipwreck hazard for mariners sailing through the English Channel; the first lighthouse built there was an octagonal wooden structure, anchored by 12 iron stanchions secured in the rock, was built by Henry Winstanley from 1696 to 1698. His lighthouse was the first tower in the world to have been exposed to the open sea; the civil engineer, John Smeaton, rebuilt the lighthouse from 1756–59. He modelled the shape of his lighthouse on that of an oak tree.
He rediscovered and used "hydraulic lime," a form of concrete that will set under water used by the Romans, developed a technique of securing the granite blocks together using dovetail joints and marble dowels. The dovetailing feature served to improve the structural stability, although Smeaton had to taper the thickness of the tower towards the top, for which he curved the tower inwards on a gentle gradient; this profile had the added advantage of allowing some of the energy of the waves to dissipate on impact with the walls. His lighthouse influenced all subsequent engineers. One such influence was Robert Stevenson, himself a seminal figure in the development of lighthouse design and construction, his greatest achievement was the construction of the Bell Rock Lighthouse in 1810, one of the most impressive feats of engineering of the age. This structure was based upon Smeaton's design, but with several improved features, such as the incorporation of rotating lights, alternating between red and white.
Stevenson worked for the Northern Lighthouse Board for nearly fifty years during which time he designed and oversaw the construction and improvement of numerous lighthouses. He innovated in the choice of light sources, reflector design, the use of Fresnel lenses, in rotation and shuttering systems providing lighthouses with individual signatures allowing them to be identified by seafarers, he invented the movable jib and the balance crane as a necessary part for lighthouse construction. Alexander Mitchell designed the first screw-pile lighthouse – his lighthouse was built on piles that were screwed into the sandy or muddy seabed. Construction of his design began in 1838 at the mouth of the Thames and was known as the Maplin Sands lighthouse, first lit in 1841. Although its construction began the Wyre Light in Fleetwood, was the first to be lit; the source of illumination had been wood pyres or burning coal. The Argand lamp, invented in 1782 by the Swiss scientist, Aimé Argand, revolutionized lighthouse illumination with its steady smokeless flame.
Early models used ground glass, sometimes tinted around the wick. Models used a mantle of thorium dioxide suspended over the flame, creating a bright, steady light; the Argand lamp used whale oil, olive oil or other vegetable oil as fuel, supplied by a gravity feed from a reservoir mounted above the burner. The lamp was first produced by Matthew Boulton, in partnership with Argand, in 1784 and became the standard for lighthouses for over a century. South Foreland Lighthouse was the first tower to use an electric light in 1875; the lighthouse's carbon arc lamps were powered by a steam-driven magneto. John Richardson Wigham was the first to develop a system for gas illumination of lighthouses, his improved gas'crocus' burner at the Baily Lighthouse near Dublin was 13 times more powerful than the most brilliant light known. The vaporized oil burner was invented in 1901 by Arthur Kitson, improved by David Hood at Trinity House; the fuel was vaporized at high pressure and burned to heat the mantle, giving an output of over six times the luminosity of traditional oil lights.
The use of gas as illuminant became available with the invention of the Dalén light by Swedish engineer, Gustaf Dalén. He used Agamassan, a substrate, to absorb the gas allowing safe storage and hence
Great Lakes Aquarium
The Great Lakes Aquarium opened in 2000 and is located on the Duluth waterfront. A 501 private nonprofit, its mission is to inspire people to explore their connection to Lake Superior and waters of the world. Great Lakes Aquarium features animals and habitats found within the Great Lakes basin and other freshwater ecosystems such as the Amazon River; the Aquarium houses 205 different species of fish, reptiles and mammals. It is one of few aquariums in the United States. Many of the main exhibits at 62,000-square-foot Great Lakes Aquarium are based upon actual habitats in the Lake Superior basin. "Slices" of the Saint Louis River, Baptism River, Pictured Rocks National Lakeshore, Kakagon Slough, Isle Royale and Otter Cove can all be viewed up close. The 85,000-US-gallon Isle Royale is the main exhibit located in the center of the building, it extends to both the first and second floors allowing visitors to view it from many different angles, it contains trout and lake sturgeon. Baptism River is a fast-moving exhibit featuring a waterfall.
It contains kamloops and siscowet The Saint Louis River exhibit is a slow-moving river habitat with perch, sturgeon, channel catfish, other native species. Pictured Rocks and Kakagon Slough are inside of a netted area and feature sandstone cliffs, a heron, native turtles Otter Cove is an exhibit featuring two North American river otters and Ore; the female otters, believed to be sisters, arrived at the Aquarium in early 2014. They were captured in live traps near a crayfish farm in Louisiana when they were not yet 2-years-old. Great Lakes Aquarium acquired Agate and Ore through a special program to relocate otters that might otherwise have been exterminated as "nuisance animals". Otter Cove was designed after a cove in Pukaskwa National Park in Ontario. Directly to the left is an exhibit containing a crow named Freeway. Amazing Amazon opened in the summer of 2008, it features freshwater creatures from the largest river in the world. This includes Pacu, Piranha, Electric Eels, Discus. Opened in 2016, Unsalted Seas explores large lakes of the animals that call them home.
The exhibit features the largest sturgeon touchtank in North America with a primary focus on sturgeon from Russian and North Asian waters. Several species of those sturgeon including Beluga, Sevruga and Osetra came from Sturgeon Aquafarms in Florida. 19 satellite tanks are at various locations and contain animals such as fish, frogs and snakes. There is a wide variety of interactive electronic exhibits located throughout the museum. Great Lakes Aquarium features a local history center, a science center and cultural exhibits. In May 2010, Great Lakes Aquarium opened its current rotating exhibit "Masters of Disguise" in the Sandra and Roger Karon Exhibit Hall; this intriguing attraction explores camouflage, coloring and other visual tricks and behaviors that help sea creatures and land animals hide in plain sight. Shape-shifting fish, plant-like insects and color-changing reptiles are among the many new creatures featured. Prior rotating exhibits include "The Abyss: the Great Unknown" which ended in 2010, "Africa's Lake Victoria" which ended in 2003 and "Hunters of the Sky" which ended in September 2001.
The next exhibit was scheduled to open in July 2014. Titled "Shipwrecks Alive!" It will feature. It will profile the wreck of the SS America. Holt Hinshaw had the original vision and Hammel and Abrahamson, Inc. made it a reality. Construction took cost around $34 million. An office area at the rear of the first floor has been cleared out to host conferences, birthday parties and other pre-arranged events. There are other parts of the museum; when visitors enter the museum, they are encouraged to ride the escalator to the upper level first through Sensory Immersion Experience and continue onto the lower level later. The main floor contains the following features: Shipwrecks Alive! Gift Shop Otter Cove American Crow Great Lakes Water Table Isle Royale Wow of Water Amazing Amazon Boardroom Behind the Scenes Unsalted Seas Origins Human Migration Touch Tanks Harbor View Baptism River Isle Royale Saint Louis River Uplands Weather Station Pictured Rocks Kakagon Slough Classrooms The basement of this building is closed to the public.
It contains offices and storage, as well as an animal care area and pumps for the aquarium Great Lakes Aquarium opened its doors on July 29, 2000. It was built with a combination of state and local funds as well more than $6 million in private donations. While well attended in those opening months, construction delays resulted in a loss of around 30% of anticipated revenues that year. In 2002, Mayor Gary Doty appointed a task force to improve the facility's long-term viability; that year the city took over managerial control of the Aquarium and closed it. In May 2003, management of Great Lakes Aquarium was turned over to Ripley's Entertainment, Leisure Entertainment Corporation, best known for its "Believe it or Not" museums; the company eliminated 2/3 of aquarium staff and cut costs, bringing it back from the immediate threat of permanent closure. Under successive declining years of attendance, Ripley's ended its relationship with the Aquarium in 2007. At that time, the board of directors decided to return management of the facility back to local control and recruited Jack LaVoy to serve as executive director.
Since 2008, a philosophy of continuous improvement has been adopted starting with a p