19th arrondissement of Paris
The 19th arrondissement of Paris is one of the 20 arrondissements of the capital city of France. In spoken French, this arrondissement is referred to as dix-neuvième; the arrondissement, known as Butte-Chaumont, is situated on the right bank of the River Seine. It is crossed by two canals, the Canal Saint-Denis and the Canal de l'Ourcq, which meet near the Parc de la Villette; the 19th arrondissement includes two public parks: the Parc des Buttes Chaumont, located on a hill, the Parc de la Villette, home to the Cité des Sciences et de l'Industrie, a museum and exhibition centre, the Conservatoire de Paris, one of the most renowned music schools in Europe, the Philharmonie de Paris, both part of the Cité de la Musique. The land area of the arrondissement is 6.786 km2. The population of the 19th arrondissement is still increasing. At the last census, in 1999, the population was 172,730 inhabitants; as of the same census, 68,101 people worked in the arrondissement. This sector has become the home for many immigrants to France from North Africa.
Parc des Buttes Chaumont Parc de la Villette Parc de la Butte-du-Chapeau-Rouge The Cent Quatre arts centre 19th arrondissement travel guide from Wikivoyage
Musée d'art et d'histoire de Saint-Denis
The Musée d'Art et d'Histoire, is a museum located in the historical city of Saint-Denis, France, in the northern outskirts of Paris. The museum, established in 1982, is located in an ancient cloister of the order of the Carmelites, founded in 1625, not far from the Basilique Saint-Denis; the museum holds displays about the Carmelites, the Paris Commune and the surrealist poet, Paul Éluard. There is an archaeological department focusing on the ancient finds in and around the Basilique Saint-Denis. From September to December 2007, the museum had a display about the Silk Road, entitled "Marco Polo et le Livre des Merveilles". Recommended access is underground Metro station Saint-Denis Porte de Paris, on Line 13, located about 100 meters south of the museum
Bassin de la Villette
The Bassin de la Villette is the largest artificial lake in Paris. It was filled with water on 2 December 1808. Located in the 19th arrondissement of the capital, it links the Canal de l'Ourcq to the Canal Saint-Martin, it represents one of the elements of the Réseau des Canaux Parisiens, a public-works authority operated by the city; the other components of the network are the Canal de l'Ourcq, the Canal Saint-Denis, the Canal Saint-Martin, the Bassin de l'Arsenal. Together, these canals and basins extend 130 kilometres. Rectangular, eight hundred metres in length and seventy metres in width, it begins at the Rue de Crimée lifting bridge, the last bridge in Paris that can be raised and lowered hydraulically to permit the passage of ship and barge traffic beneath it, it ends at the Place de la Bataille-de-Stalingrad near the Rotunda de la Villette. River cruise boats tie-up here and the shores of the basin are the location of the MK2 Quai de Loire and MK2 Quai de Seine theatre complexes which are the most modern in France.
A small electric passenger ferry, the Zéro de conduite, is available for transporting people from one side of the basin to the other. The basin is bordered in the north by the Quai de la Seine and in the south by the Quai de la Loire, which are linked in the middle of the basin by a footbridge, the Passerelle de la Moselle; the first Bassin de la Villette is 70 metres wide. It has served several functions, its original function was to serve as a reserve of drinking water for Parisians. Its secondary function, in association with the second basin, was to provide water for navigation on the canals of Saint-Denis and Saint-Martin. At the beginning of the 19th century the first basin was surrounded by gardens where Parisians came to spend pleasant interludes, but the industrial era of the 1850s saw the disappearance of this aspect of recreation. Goods depots were built on the banks. In 1832 Paris was hit by a great epidemic of cholera. Parisians using water from the Bassin de la Villette were less affected than those using water from the Seine because of waste waters being discharged into the river by the city - the waste of the Hôtel-Dieu de Paris, where there were many sick, which spanned the small arm of the river between the Ile de la Cité and the left bank.
In the late 19th century, commercial activities developed at the basin. In the same period the Moselle footbridge was built by Armand Moisant, it was decorated with a clock 3 metres in diameter. This bridge was replaced in 1966; the Lifting bridge of the Rue de Crimée or Pont de Flandre, a lifting bridge weighing 85 tons built in 1885, separates the two basins. It allows traffic on the Rue de Crimée to cross the canal and connects the Quai de l'Oise on the north-west side to the Quai de la Marne on the south-east side; when the bridge is raised pedestrian traffic can still continue on a fixed elevated walkway. At the time of its construction it was the third largest lifting bridge to be built in France, it is registered as an historical monument. The second basin measures 730 m long; this basin, prematurely named the Canal de l'Ourcq ran along the back of the old village of La Villette. At its northern end is the "roundabout of canals" where the Bassin de la Villette converges with the Canal de l'Ourcq and the Saint-Denis canal which, with a length of 6,647.50 m and a slope of 28.45 m, joins the Seine at Saint-Denis, as well as the small Darse du fond de Rouvray canal.
There are two buildings at the end of the Bassin de la Villette that were built between 1845 and 1853 as commercial warehouses, but which had a certain utilitarian beauty. They were known as "general merchandise warehouses" and they were first used to store grain and flour, their design and placement were based on the urban plans conceived by Claude Nicolas Ledoux in the eighteenth century, they operated in perfect symmetry at the Bassin de la Villette, one on the Quai de la Seine side, one on the Quai de la Loire side. They lost their original purpose and at the end of the 20th century were transformed into artists' studios and workshops, small offices, other small enterprises. In 1990 the building on the Quai de la Seine side was burned beyond repair. For security reasons the storehouse on the quai de la Loire side was closed; these warehouses have now been replaced by the MK2 cinema complexes. Intensive freight and port activity developed around the canals from the second quarter of the 19th century.
In the last half of the same century there was a great deal of industrialization in Paris in the area of the present Seine-Saint-Denis. At the same time port traffic in the Bassin de la Villette was at its peak and equal to the port of Bordeaux. During the 20th century this freight traffic experienced significant peaks related to construction activity after the world wars. Declining since the middle of the 20th century this traffic disappeared for the Bassin de La Villette and is at its lowest level in history for all Parisian canals. At the same time tourism-related passengers from the Bassin de la Villette began to increase. Barges are moored along the banks of the basin throughout the year offering cultural activities such as theatre, concerts, etc. In summer the banks of the basin are used by fishermen, bowls players, picnickers. On summer evenings it is not unusual for the left bank (exposed longer to the sun
Seine-Saint-Denis is a French department located in the Île-de-France region. Locally, it is referred to colloquially as quatre-vingt treize or neuf trois, after its official administrative number, 93; the learned and used demonym for the inhabitants is Séquano-Dionysiens. Seine-Saint-Denis is located to the northeast of Paris, it has a surface area of only 236 km², making it one of the smallest departments in France. Seine-Saint-Denis and two other small departments, Hauts-de-Seine and Val-de-Marne, form a ring around Paris, known as the Petite Couronne. Since 1 January 2016, together with Paris, they form the area of Greater Paris. Seine-Saint-Denis is made up of three departmental arrondissements and 40 communes: Seine-Saint-Denis was created in January 1968, through the implementation of a law passed in July 1964, it was formed from the part of the Seine department to the north and north-east of the Paris ring road, together with a small slice taken from Seine-et-Oise. Seine-Saint-Denis has a history as a veritable left-wing stronghold, belonging to the ceinture rouge of Paris.
The French Communist Party has maintained a continued strong presence in the department, still controls the city councils in cities such as Saint-Denis, Montreuil and La Courneuve. Until 2008, Seine-Saint-Denis and Val-de-Marne were the only departments where the Communist Party had a majority in the general councils but the 2008 cantonal elections saw the socialists become the strongest group at the Seine-Saint-Denis general council. A commune of Seine-Saint-Denis, Clichy-sous-Bois, was the scene of the death of two youths which sparked the nationwide riots of autumn 2005. In October and November, 9,000 cars were burned and 3,000 rioters were arrested. In 2018, the department had the highest crime rate in metropolitan France. In 2017, the area was the theatre of 18% of all drug offences in metropolitan France. Seine-Saint-Denis is the French department with the highest proportion of immigrants: 21.7% at the 1999 census. This figure does not include the children of immigrants born on French soil as well as some native elites from former French colonies and people who came from overseas France.
The ratio of ethnic minorities is difficult to estimate as French law prohibits the collection of ethnic data for census taking purposes. In 2005, 56.7% of young people under 18 were of foreign origin including 38% of African origin. In 2018, the poverty rate was twice the national average at 28%, the unemployment rate was 3 percentage above the national average and 4 percentage points above the Île-de-France average at 12.7%. In 2018, it was estimated. Brittany M. Hughes of MRCTV estimates that there are more than 300,000 illegal immigrants in Seine-Saint-Denis. An education study confirmed falling levels of literacy in the area, where the fraction of pupils who had 25 errors or more increased from 5.4% in 1987 to 19.8% in 2015. Bédarida, Catherine. "Seine-Saint-Denis, naissance d'un ghetto". Le Monde. Kefi, Ramses. "Pourquoi toujours le 9-3 ?". L'Obs. Seine-Saint-Denis General Council Prefecture website Seine-Saint-Denis Tourist Board
Basilica of Saint-Denis
The Basilica of Saint-Denis is a large medieval abbey church in the city of Saint-Denis, now a northern suburb of Paris. The building is of singular importance and architecturally as its choir, completed in 1144, shows the first use of all of the elements of Gothic architecture; the site originated as a Gallo-Roman cemetery in late Roman times. The archeological remains still lie beneath the cathedral. Around 475 St. Genevieve built Saint-Denys de la Chapelle. In 636 on the orders of Dagobert I the relics of Saint Denis, a patron saint of France, were reinterred in the basilica; the relics of St-Denis, transferred to the parish church of the town in 1795, were brought back again to the abbey in 1819. The basilica became a place of pilgrimage and the burial place of the French Kings with nearly every king from the 10th to the 18th centuries being buried there, as well as many from previous centuries. "Saint-Denis" soon became the abbey church of a growing monastic complex. In the 12th century the Abbot Suger rebuilt portions of the abbey church using innovative structural and decorative features.
In doing so, he is said to have created the first Gothic building. The basilica's 13th-century nave is the prototype for the Rayonnant Gothic style, provided an architectural model for many medieval cathedrals and abbeys of northern France, England and a great many other countries; the abbey church became a cathedral in 1966 and is the seat of the Bishop of Saint-Denis, Pascal Michel Ghislain Delannoy. Although known as the "Basilica of St Denis", the cathedral has not been granted the title of Minor Basilica by the Vatican. Saint Denis, a patron saint of France, became the first bishop of Paris, he was decapitated on the hill of Montmartre in the mid-third century with two of his followers, is said to have subsequently carried his head to the site of the current church, indicating where he wanted to be buried. A martyrium was erected on the site of his grave, which became a famous place of pilgrimage during the fifth and sixth centuries. Dagobert, the king of the Franks, refounded the church as the Abbey of Saint Denis, a Benedictine monastery.
Dagobert commissioned a new shrine to house the saint's remains, created by his chief councillor, Eligius, a goldsmith by training. An early vita of Saint Eligius describes the shrine: Above all, Eligius fabricated a mausoleum for the holy martyr Denis in the city of Paris with a wonderful marble ciborium over it marvelously decorated with gold and gems, he composed a crest and a magnificent frontal and surrounded the throne of the altar with golden axes in a circle. He placed golden apples there and jeweled, he made a roof for the throne of the altar on silver axes. He made a covering in the place before the tomb and fabricated an outside altar at the feet of the holy martyr. So much industry did he lavish there, at the king's request, poured out so much that scarcely a single ornament was left in Gaul and it is the greatest wonder of all to this day. None of this work survives; the Basilica of St Denis ranks as an architectural landmark—as the first major structure of which a substantial part was designed and built in the Gothic style.
Both stylistically and structurally, it heralded the change from Romanesque architecture to Gothic architecture. Before the term "Gothic" came into common use, it was known as the "French Style"; as it now stands, the church is a large cruciform building of "basilica" form. It has an additional aisle on the northern side formed of a row of chapels; the west front has three portals, a rose one tower, on the southern side. The eastern end, built over a crypt, is apsidal, surrounded by an ambulatory and a chevet of nine radiating chapels; the basilica retains stained glass of many periods, including exceptional modern glass, a set of twelve misericords. The basilica measures 108 meters long, its width is 39 meters. Little is known about the earliest buildings on the site; the first church mentioned in the chronicles was begun in 754 under Pepin the Short and completed under Charlemagne, present at its consecration in 775. By 832 the Abbey had been granted a remunerative whaling concession on the Cotentin Peninsula.
Most of what is now known about the Carolingian church at St Denis resulted from a lengthy series of excavations begun under the American art historian Sumner McKnight Crosby in 1937. The building was about 60m long, with a monumental westwork, single transepts, a crossing tower and a lengthy eastern apse over a large crypt. According to one of the Abbey's many foundation myths a leper, sleeping in the nearly completed church the night before its planned consecration, witnessed a blaze of light from which Christ, accompanied by St Denis and a host of angels, emerged to conduct the consecration ceremony himself. Before leaving, Christ healed the leper, tearing off his diseased skin to reveal a perfect complexion underneath. A misshapen patch on a marble column was said to be the leper's former skin, which stuck there when Christ discarded it. Having been consecrated by Christ, the fabric of the bui
Cité de la Musique
The Cité de la Musique known as Philharmonie 2, is a group of institutions dedicated to music and situated in the Parc de la Villette, 19th arrondissement of Paris, France. It was designed with the nearby Conservatoire de Paris by the architect Christian de Portzamparc and opened in 1995. Part of François Mitterrand's Grands Projets, the Cité de la Musique reinvented La Villette – the former slaughterhouse district, it consists of an amphitheater, a concert hall that can accommodate an audience of 800–1,000, a music museum containing an important collection of classical music instruments dating from the fifteenth- to twentieth-century, a music library, exhibition halls and workshops. In 2015 it was renamed Philharmonie 2 as part of the Philharmonie de Paris when a larger symphony hall was built by Jean Nouvel and named Philharmonie 1, its official address is Avenue Jean Jaurès, 75019 Paris. Philharmonie 1, a new 2400-seat symphony hall, is a project whose construction had been postponed for about twenty years, to complete the Cité de la Musique.
On 6 March 2006 the French minister of Culture and communication Renaud Donnedieu de Vabres, the mayor of Paris Bertrand Delanoë, the director of the Cité de la Musique, Laurent Bayle, announced the beginning of the construction at a press conference concerning the reopening of the Salle Pleyel, now associated with the Museum. The cost of construction was expected to be 170 million euros, will be shared by the national government, the Ville de Paris, the Région Île-de-France, but the cost in the end is expected to be €381 million In April 2007 Jean Nouvel won the design competition for the auditorium. He brought in Brigitte Métra as his partner, along with Marshall Day Acoustics and Nagata Acoustics; the hall opened on 14 January 2015 with a performance by the Orchestre de Paris of Faure's Requiem to honour the victims of the Charlie Hebdo shootings, which had taken place in the city a week earlier. The opening concert was attended by the President of France; the first season of the Philharmonie de Paris started in January 2015.
The purpose of the season was to reach out to new audiences by providing musical creation and varied repertory in classical music, jazz, world music and contemporary music. On weekends, a diverse program of affordably-priced events and activities was offered each with a theme; the Musée de la Musique features a collection of about 8,390 items, comprising around 4,442 musical instruments, 1,097 instrument elements or 939 pieces of art collected by the Conservatoire de Paris since 1793 as well as some archives and a library of 110,000 written and audiovisual documents. The museum's collection, which opened to the public in 1864 and was relocated at the Cité de la musique in 1997, contains instruments used in classical and popular music from the sixteenth century to the present time including lutes, archlutes 200 classical guitars, violins by Italian luthiers Antonio Stradivari, the Guarneri family, Nicolò Amati; the instruments are exhibited in 5 departments by type. Audio devices are provided at the entrance allowing visitors to hear commentary and excerpts of music played on the instruments, complemented by video screens and scale models along the visit.
List of music museums Cité des Sciences et de l'Industrie, in Parc de la Villette La Géode, an IMAX domed theatre in Parc de la Villette Le Zénith, a concert arena in Parc de la Villette Kim Eling, The Politics of Cultural Policy in France, Chapter 3: "La Cité de la Musique", Macmillan, 1999, pages 38–61. ISBN 0-312-21974-1. Cité de la Musique official website Médiathèque de la Cité de la musique – Listen to excerpts of concerts
Air draft is the distance from the surface of the water to the highest point on a vessel. This is similar to the "deep draft" of a vessel, measured from the surface of the water to the deepest part of the hull below the surface, but air draft is expressed as a height, not a depth; the vessel's "clearance" is the distance in excess of the air draft which allows a vessel to pass safely under a bridge or obstacle such as power lines, etc. A bridge's "clearance below" is most noted on charts as measured from the surface of the water to the under side of the bridge at Mean Highest High Water, the most restrictive clearance; the height of the tide at any time below its highest point at MHHW will increase the clearance under the bridge. In 2014, the United States Coast Guard reported that 1.2% of the collisions it investigated in the recent past were due to vessels attempting to pass underneath structures with insufficient clearance. At several bridges, such as the Gerald Desmond Bridge in Long Beach, California, NOAA has installed an "Air Gap" measuring device that measures the distance from its sensor on the bridge to the water surface and can be accessed by marine pilots and ship's masters to aid them in making real time determination of clearance.
The Bridge of the Americas in Panama limits which ships can traverse the Panama Canal due to its height at 61.3 m above the water. The world's largest cruise ships, Oasis of the Seas, Allure of the Seas and the Harmony of the Seas will fit within the canal's new widened locks, but they are too tall to pass under the Bridge of the Americas at low tide, unless the Bridge of the Americas is raised or replaced in the future. New ships are built not clearing 65 m; the Suez Canal Bridge has a 70-metre clearance over the canal, 8.7 m higher than Panama. The Bayonne Bridge is an arch bridge connecting New Jersey with New York City, the roadbed was raised to 66 m, a height suitable for larger container ships to pass, the modification cost $1.32 billion. Structural clearance Structure gauge Tower Bridge Cargo ship Size categories Chart datum