Troyes is a commune and the capital of the department of Aube in the Grand Est region of north-central France. It is located on the Seine river about 150 km southeast of Paris. Troyes is situated within the Champagne wine region and is near to the Orient Forest Regional Natural Park. Many half-timbered houses survive in the old town. Troyes has been in existence since the Roman era, as Augustobona Tricassium, which stood at the hub of numerous highways the Via Agrippa. For the ecclesiastical history, see bishopric of TroyesThe geographical location of Celtic grave-mounts around Troyes and the finding of Celtic artifacts in the City grounds suggest that Troyes as a settlement may originate from the Celts as early as 600 BC. Troyes has been in existence since the Roman era, as Augustobona Tricassium, which stood at the hub of numerous highways the Via Agrippa which led north to Reims and south to Langres and to Milan, it was the civitas of the Tricasses, separated by Augustus from the Senones. Of the Gallo-Roman city of the early Empire, some scattered remains have been found, but no public monuments, other than traces of an aqueduct.
By the Late Empire the settlement was reduced in extent, referred to as Tricassium or Tricassae, the origin of French Troyes. The city was the seat of a bishop from the fourth century – the legend of its bishop Lupus, who saved the city from Attila by offering himself as hostage is hagiographic rather than historical – though it was several centuries before it gained importance as a medieval centre of commerce; the Battle of the Catalaunian Plains called The Battle of Troyes was fought nearby in 451 AD, between the Roman general Flavius Aetius and the Visigothic king Theodoric I against Attila. In the early cathedral on the present site, Louis the Stammerer in 878 received at Troyes the imperial crown from the hands of Pope John VIII. At the end of the ninth century, following depredations to the city by Normans, the counts of Champagne chose Troyes as their capital; the Abbey of Saint-Loup developed a renowned scriptorium. During the Middle Ages, it was an important trading town, gave its name to troy weight.
The Champagne cloth fairs and the revival of long-distance trade and new extension of coinage and credit were the real engines that drove the medieval economy of Troyes. In 1285, when Philip the Fair united Champagne to the royal domain, the town kept a number of its traditional privileges. John the Fearless, Duke of Burgundy and ally of the English, aimed in 1417 at making Troyes the capital of France, he came to an understanding with Isabeau of Bavaria, wife of Charles VI of France, that a court and parlement with comptroller's offices should be established at Troyes, it was at Troyes in the hands of the Burgundians, that on 21 May 1420, the Treaty of Troyes was signed by which Henry V of England was betrothed to Catherine, daughter of Charles VI, by terms of which he was to succeed Charles, to the detriment of the Dauphin. The high-water mark of Plantagenet hegemony in France was reversed when the Dauphin, afterwards Charles VII, Joan of Arc recovered the town of Troyes in 1429. In medieval times Troyes was an important international trade centre.
The name troy weight for gold derives from the standard of measurement. The great fire of 1524 destroyed much of the medieval city, in spite of the city's numerous canals. * Many half-timbered houses survive in the old town Hôtels Particuliers of the old town The Hôtel de Ville, Place Alexandre Israël, is an urbane example of the style Louis XIII. On the central corps de logis which contains the main reception rooms, its cornice is rhythmically broken forward over paired Corinthian columns which are supported below by strong clustered pilasters. Above the entrance door the statue of Louis XIV was pulled out of its niche and smashed in 1793, during the Reign of Terror at the height of the French Revolution. Museum of Modern Art Maison de l'outil et de la pensée ouvrière Vauluisant Museum: Historical museum of Troyes and Champagne-Ardenne Museum of hosiery Hôtel-Dieu-Lecomte apothecary Saint-Loup Museum Di Marco Museum Not having suffered from the last wars, Troyes has a high density of old religious buildings grouped close to the city centre.
They include: Saint-Pierre-et-Saint-Paul Cathedral Saint-Nizier Church, in Gothic and Renaissance style, with remarkable sculptures. Classified Monument Historique in 1840; the Gothic Saint-Urbain Basilica, with a roofing covered by polished tiles. Proclaimed basilica in 1964, it was built by Jacques Pantaléon, elected pope in 1261, under the name of Urbain IV, on grounds where the workshop of his father was. Classified Monument Historique in 1840. Sainte-Madeleine Church. Early Gothic, with east end rebuilt around 1500. Remarkably elaborate stone rood screen of 1508-17 in Flamboyant Gothic style, sculpted by Jean Gailde, with a statue of Saint Martha. Fine Renaissance stained glass. Saint Jean district. Classified Monument historique in 1840; the Saint-Jean Church, with a Renaissance chancel, tabernacle of the high altar by Giraudon