Strasbourg is the capital and largest city of the Grand Est region of France and is the official seat of the European Parliament. Located at the border with Germany in the historic region of Alsace, it is the capital of the Bas-Rhin department. In 2016, the city proper had 279,284 inhabitants and both the Eurométropole de Strasbourg and the Arrondissement of Strasbourg had 491,409 inhabitants. Strasbourg's metropolitan area had a population of 785,839 in 2015, making it the ninth largest metro area in France and home to 13% of the Grand Est region's inhabitants; the transnational Eurodistrict Strasbourg-Ortenau had a population of 915,000 inhabitants in 2014. Strasbourg is one of the de facto capitals of the European Union, as it is the seat of several European institutions, such as the Council of Europe and the Eurocorps, as well as the European Parliament and the European Ombudsman of the European Union; the city is the seat of the Central Commission for Navigation on the Rhine and the International Institute of Human Rights.
Strasbourg's historic city centre, the Grande Île, was classified a World Heritage Site by UNESCO in 1988, the first time such an honour was placed on an entire city centre. Strasbourg is immersed in Franco-German culture and although violently disputed throughout history, has been a cultural bridge between France and Germany for centuries through the University of Strasbourg the second largest in France, the coexistence of Catholic and Protestant culture, it is home to the largest Islamic place of worship in France, the Strasbourg Grand Mosque. Economically, Strasbourg is an important centre of manufacturing and engineering, as well as a hub of road and river transportation; the port of Strasbourg is the second largest on the Rhine after Germany. Before the 5th century, the city was known as Argantorati, a Celtic Gaulish name Latinized first as Argentorate, as Argentoratum; that Gaulish name is a compound of -rati, the Gaulish word for fortified enclosures, cognate to the Old Irish ráth, arganto-, the Gaulish word for silver, but any precious metal gold, suggesting either a fortified enclosure located by a river gold mining site, or hoarding gold mined in the nearby rivers.
After the 5th century, the city became known by a different name Gallicized as Strasbourg. That name is of Germanic origin and means "Town of roads"; the modern Stras- is cognate to the German Straße and English street, all of which are derived from Latin strata, while -bourg is cognate to the German Burg and English borough, all of which are derived from Proto-Germanic *burgz. Gregory of Tours was the first to mention the name change: in the tenth book of his History of the Franks written shortly after 590 he said that Egidius, Bishop of Reims, accused of plotting against King Childebert II of Austrasia in favor of his uncle King Chilperic I of Neustria, was tried by a synod of Austrasian bishops in Metz in November 590, found guilty and removed from the priesthood taken "ad Argentoratensem urbem, quam nunc Strateburgum vocant", where he was exiled. Strasbourg is situated at the eastern border of France with Germany; this border is formed by the Rhine, which forms the eastern border of the modern city, facing across the river to the German town Kehl.
The historic core of Strasbourg however lies on the Grande Île in the river Ill, which here flows parallel to, 4 kilometres from, the Rhine. The natural courses of the two rivers join some distance downstream of Strasbourg, although several artificial waterways now connect them within the city; the city lies in the Upper Rhine Plain, at between 132 metres and 151 metres above sea level, with the upland areas of the Vosges Mountains some 20 km to the west and the Black Forest 25 km to the east. This section of the Rhine valley is a major axis of north–south travel, with river traffic on the Rhine itself, major roads and railways paralleling it on both banks; the city is some 397 kilometres east of Paris. The mouth of the Rhine lies 450 kilometres to the north, or 650 kilometres as the river flows, whilst the head of navigation in Basel is some 100 kilometres to the south, or 150 kilometres by river. In spite of its position far inland, Strasbourg's climate is classified as oceanic, but a "semicontinental" climate with some degree of maritime influence in relation to the mild patterns of Western and Southern France.
The city has warm sunny summers and cool, overcast winters. Precipitation is elevated from mid-spring to the end of summer, but remains constant throughout the year, totaling 631.4 mm annually. On average, snow falls 30 days per year; the highest temperature recorded was 38.5 °C in August 2003, during the 2003 European heat wave. The lowest temperature eve
Canals, or navigations, are human-made channels, or artificial waterways, for water conveyance, or to service water transport vehicles. In most cases, the engineered works will have a series of dams and locks that create reservoirs of low speed current flow; these reservoirs are referred to as slack water levels just called levels. A canal is known as a navigation when it parallels a river and shares part of its waters and drainage basin, leverages its resources by building dams and locks to increase and lengthen its stretches of slack water levels while staying in its valley. In contrast, a canal cuts across a drainage divide atop a ridge requiring an external water source above the highest elevation. Many canals have been built at elevations towering over valleys and other water ways crossing far below. Canals with sources of water at a higher level can deliver water to a destination such as a city where water is needed; the Roman Empire's aqueducts were such water supply canals. A navigation is a series of channels that run parallel to the valley and stream bed of an unimproved river.
A navigation always shares the drainage basin of the river. A vessel uses the calm parts of the river itself as well as improvements, traversing the same changes in height. A true canal is a channel that cuts across a drainage divide, making a navigable channel connecting two different drainage basins. Most commercially important canals of the first half of the 19th century were a little of each, using rivers in long stretches, divide crossing canals in others; this is true for many canals still in use. Both navigations and canals use engineered structures to improve navigation: weirs and dams to raise river water levels to usable depths. Since they cut across drainage divides, canals are more difficult to construct and need additional improvements, like viaducts and aqueducts to bridge waters over streams and roads, ways to keep water in the channel. There are two broad types of canal: Waterways: canals and navigations used for carrying vessels transporting goods and people; these can be subdivided into two kinds:Those connecting existing lakes, other canals or seas and oceans.
Those connected in a city network: such as the Canal Grande and others of Venice Italy. Aqueducts: water supply canals that are used for the conveyance and delivery of potable water for human consumption, municipal uses, hydro power canals and agriculture irrigation. Canals were of immense importance to commerce and the development and vitality of a civilization. In 1855 the Lehigh Canal carried over 1.2 million tons of anthracite coal. The few canals still in operation in our modern age are a fraction of the numbers that once fueled and enabled economic growth, indeed were a prerequisite to further urbanization and industrialization – for the movement of bulk raw materials such as coal and ores are difficult and marginally affordable without water transport; such raw materials fueled the industrial developments and new metallurgy resulting of the spiral of increasing mechanization during 17th–20th century, leading to new research disciplines, new industries and economies of scale, raising the standard of living for any industrialized society.
The surviving canals, including most ship canals, today service bulk cargo and large ship transportation industries, whereas the once critical smaller inland waterways conceived and engineered as boat and barge canals have been supplanted and filled in, abandoned and left to deteriorate, or kept in service and staffed by state employees, where dams and locks are maintained for flood control or pleasure boating. Their replacement was gradual, beginning first in the United States in the mid-1850s where canal shipping was first augmented by began being replaced by using much faster, less geographically constrained & limited, cheaper to maintain railways. By the early 1880s, canals which had little ability to economically compete with rail transport, were off the map. In the next couple of decades, coal was diminished as the heating fuel of choice by oil, growth of coal shipments leveled off. After World War I when motor-trucks came into their own, the last small U. S. barge canals saw a steady decline in cargo ton-miles alongside many railways, the flexibility and steep slope climbing capability of lorries taking over cargo hauling as road networks were improved, which had the freedom to make deliveries well away from rail lined road beds or ditches in the dirt which couldn't operate in the winter.
Canals are built in one of three ways, or a combination of the three, depending on available water and available path: Human made streamsA canal can be created where no stream presently exists. Either the body of the canal is dug or the sides of the canal are created by making dykes or levees by piling dirt, concrete or other building materials; the finished shape of the canal as seen in cross section is known as the canal prism. The water for the canal must be provided like streams or reservoirs. Where the new waterway must change elevation engineering works like locks, lifts or elevators are constructed to raise and lower vessels. Examples include canals that connect valleys over a higher body of land, like Canal du Midi, Canal de Briare and the Panama Canal. A canal can be constructed by dredging a channel in the bottom of an existing lake; when the channel is complete, the lake is drained and the channel becom
Petite France, Strasbourg
La Petite France is a historic quarter of the city of Strasbourg in eastern France. It is located at the western end of the Grande Île, which contains the historical centre of the city. At Petite France, the River Ill splits up into a number of channels that cascade through an area that was, in the Middle Ages, home to the city's tanners and fishermen, is now one of Strasbourg's main tourist attractions. Petite France forms part of the UNESCO World Heritage Site of Grande Île, designated in 1988. Just upstream of Petite France, the River Ill flows through the Barrage Vauban, a defensive structure built at the end of the 17th century. Downstream of this, the river splits into the Canal du Faux-Rempart, which flows to the north of the Grande Île, four channels which flow through the Petite France quarter before reuniting in the main channel of the river, flowing to the south of the Grande Île; these four channels are spanned by the Ponts Couverts, an earlier defensive structure of three bridges and four towers that, despite its name, has not been covered since the 18th century.
Downstream of the Ponts Couverts, the four channels flow through an area of half-timbered buildings which, together with the narrow lanes and footbridges that connect them date from the 16th and 17th centuries. The sloping roofs of many of the buildings include open lofts. Three of the four channels flowing through the quarter run over weirs that once drove mills and other industries, whilst the northernmost channel is navigable; this passes through a lock and the Pont du Faisan swing bridge in the centre of the quarter, is used by passenger trip boats. On the north bank of the Ill at the heart of the quarter is the Maison des Tanneurs, home of the Tanner's Guild, Place Benjamin-Zix. From this square lead several streets, including the Rue du Bain-aux-Plantes and the Rue des Dentelles lined by half-timbered houses. To the east these lead to the Saint-Thomas church, the city’s main Lutheran church, to the west back to the Pont Couverts and to the Saint-Pierre-le-Vieux church two churches in the same building.
The name Petite-France was not given for architectural reasons. It comes from the "hospice of the syphilitic", built in the late fifteenth century on this island, to cure persons with syphilis called Franzosenkrankheit in German
Grande Île (Strasbourg)
The Grande Île is an island that lies at the historic centre of the city of Strasbourg in France. Its name means "Large Island", derives from the fact that it is surrounded on one side by the main channel of the Ill River and on the other side by the Canal du Faux-Rempart, a canalised arm of that river. Grand Île was named a UNESCO World Heritage Site in 1988. At the time, the International Council on Monuments and Sites noted that Grand Île is "an old quarter that exemplifies medieval cities". Grande Île is sometimes referred to as "ellipse insulaire" because of its shape, it measures some 1.25 kilometres by 0.75 kilometres at broadest. At the centre of the island lies Place Kléber, the city's central square. Further south is Strasbourg Cathedral, the world's fourth-tallest church and an ornate example of 15th-century Gothic architecture. At the western end of the island is the quarter of Petite France, the former home of the city's tanners and fishermen, now one of Strasbourg's main tourist attractions.
The Grande Île houses the former fluvial customs house Ancienne Douane. Besides the cathedral, the Grande Île is home to four other centuries-old churches: St. Thomas, St. Pierre-le-Vieux, St. Pierre-le-Jeune, St. Étienne. Being the historical center of Strasbourg and the seat of local secular power, it houses the city's most imposing 18th-century hôtels particuliers and palaces, including the Palais Rohan, the Hôtel de Hanau, Hôtel des Deux-Ponts, Hôtel de Klinglin, Hôtel d'Andlau-Klinglin, Hôtel de Neuwiller, among many others; the island is home to the Episcopal palace of the Archdiocese of Strasbourg. To mark Grande Île's status as a World Heritage Site, 22 brass plates were placed on the bridges giving access to the island. UNESCO
The Ill is a river in Alsace, in north-eastern France. It is western, tributary of the Rhine, it starts down from its source near the village of Winkel, in the Jura mountains, with a resurgence near Ligsdorf, turns around Ferrette on its east side, runs northward through Alsace, flowing parallel to the Rhine. Taking apart the Largue coming from the Jura mountains near Illfurth, it receives several tributaries from the west bank Vosges mountains after passing through Altkirch: the Doller in Mulhouse, the Thur near Ensisheim, the Lauch in Colmar, the Fecht in Illhaeusern, the Giessen in Sélestat, the Andlau near Fegersheim, the Ehn near Geispolsheim, the Bruche next to Strasbourg and the Souffel upstream from La Wantzenau before meeting with the Rhine downstream from Gambsheim's lock; as the Ill nears the city of Mulhouse, most of its flow is diverted into a discharge channel leading to the Doller, protecting the historical center of the town from floods. Flowing through the city of Strasbourg, the river forms part of the 17th-century fortifications and passes through a series of locks and channels in the picturesque old town, including the Petite France quarter, where its waters were once used to power mills and tanneries.
One of these channels is the Canal du Faux-Rempart that, together with the main channel of the Ill, surrounds the Grande Île or historic centre of Strasbourg. The Ill is navigable from a junction with the Canal de la Marne au Rhin for a distance of just under 10 kilometres upstream to a head of navigation at Nachtweid; this stretch of river passes through the centre of Strasbourg, makes connection with the Canal du Faux-Rempart, the Canal du Rhone au Rhine and the, no longer navigable, Canal de la Bruche. There is a single lock, in the Petite France quarter of central Strasbourg. Navigation through the section of the central part of this section, through Petite France, is restricted to small pleasure craft in the downstream direction only. Passenger trip boats use this section in the opposite direction, completing their loop via the Canal du Faux-Rempart, closed to all other traffic. Other stretches of the Ill, downstream of the Canal de la Marne au Rhin to the confluence with the Rhine, upstream of Nachtweid, are not navigable by powered craft, although they may be used by canoes and similar craft.
Http://www.geoportail.fr The Ill at the Sandre database
Lock (water navigation)
A lock is a device used for raising and lowering boats and other watercraft between stretches of water of different levels on river and canal waterways. The distinguishing feature of a lock is a fixed chamber. Locks are used to make a river more navigable, or to allow a canal to cross land, not level. Canals used more and larger locks to allow a more direct route to be taken. Since 2016, the largest lock worldwide is the Kieldrecht Lock in the Port of Belgium. A pound lock is a type of lock, used exclusively nowadays on canals and rivers. A pound lock has a chamber with gates at both ends. In contrast, an earlier design with a single gate was known as a flash lock. Pound locks were first used in medieval China during the Song Dynasty, having been pioneered by the Song politician and naval engineer Qiao Weiyue in 984, they replaced earlier double slipways that had caused trouble and are mentioned by the Chinese polymath Shen Kuo in his book Dream Pool Essays, described in the Chinese historical text Song Shi: The distance between the two locks was rather more than 50 paces, the whole space was covered with a great roof like a shed.
The gates were'hanging gates'. The water level could differ by 4 feet or 5 feet at each lock and in the Grand Canal the level was raised in this way by 138 feet. In medieval Europe a sort of pound lock was built in 1373 at Netherlands; this pound lock serviced many ships at once in a large basin. Yet the first true pound lock was built in 1396 at Damme near Belgium; the Italian Bertola da Novate constructed 18 pound locks on the Naviglio di Bereguardo between 1452 and 1458. When a stretch of river is made navigable, a lock is sometimes required to bypass an obstruction such as a rapid, dam, or mill weir – because of the change in river level across the obstacle. In large scale river navigation improvements and locks are used together. A weir will increase the depth of a shallow stretch, the required lock will either be built in a gap in the weir, or at the downstream end of an artificial cut which bypasses the weir and a shallow stretch of river below it. A river improved by these means is called a Waterway or River Navigation.
Sometimes a river is made non-tidal by constructing a sea lock directly into the estuary. In more advanced river navigations, more locks are required. Where a longer cut bypasses a circuitous stretch of river, the upstream end of the cut will be protected by a flood lock; the longer the cut, the greater the difference in river level between start and end of the cut, so that a long cut will need additional locks along its length. At this point, the cut is, in effect, a canal. Early artificial canals, across flat countryside, would get round a small hill or depression by detouring around it; as engineers became more ambitious in the types of country they felt they could overcome, locks became essential to effect the necessary changes in water level without detours that would be uneconomic both in building costs and journey time. Still, as construction techniques improved, engineers became more willing to cut directly through and across obstacles by constructing long tunnels, aqueducts or embankments, or to construct more technical devices such as inclined planes or boat lifts.
However, locks continued to be built to supplement these solutions, are an essential part of the most modern navigable waterways. All pound locks have three elements: A watertight chamber connecting the upper and lower canals, large enough to enclose one or more boats; the position of the chamber is fixed. A gate at each end of the chamber. A gate is opened to allow a boat to leave the chamber. A set of lock gear to fill the chamber as required; this is a simple valve which allows water to drain into or out of the chamber. The principle of operating a lock is simple. For instance, if a boat travelling downstream finds the lock full of water: The entrance gates are opened and the boat moves in; the entrance gates are closed. A valve is opened, this lowers the boat by draining water from the chamber; the exit gates are opened and the boat moves out. If the lock were empty, the boat would have had to wait 5 to 10 minutes. For a boat travelling upstream, the process is reversed; the whole operation will take between 10 and 20 minutes, depending on the size of the lock and whether the water in the lock was set at the boat's level.
Boaters approaching a lock are pleased to meet another boat coming towards them, because this boat will have just exited the lock on their level and therefore set the lock in their favour – saving about 5 to 10 minutes. However, this is not true for staircase locks, where it is quicker for boats to go through
Jean Frederick Turckheim
Jean Frederick Turckheim, conducted a thwarted campaign for deputy, 27 February 1824, in the 4th electoral district of Bas-Rhin against Georges Humann, the banker and financier, he was elected in the Grand college in the same department. He was one of four sons of Bernard Turckheim and Lili Schönenmann: Jean-Frédéric, Jean-Charles, Frédéric-Guillaume and Henri, his mother, had been engaged to Johann Wolfgang von Goethe in 1775, but married Bernard Turckheim on 25 August 1778