Anatomical terminology is a form of scientific terminology used by anatomists and health professionals such as doctors. Anatomical terminology uses many unique terms and prefixes deriving from Ancient Greek and Latin; these terms can be confusing to those unfamiliar with them, but can be more precise, reducing ambiguity and errors. Since these anatomical terms are not used in everyday conversation, their meanings are less to change, less to be misinterpreted. To illustrate how inexact day-to-day language can be: a scar "above the wrist" could be located on the forearm two or three inches away from the hand or at the base of the hand. By using precise anatomical terminology such ambiguity is eliminated. An international standard for anatomical terminology, Terminologia Anatomica has been created. Anatomical terminology has quite regular morphology, the same prefixes and suffixes are used to add meanings to different roots; the root of a term refers to an organ or tissue. For example, the Latin names of structures such as musculus biceps brachii can be split up and refer to, musculus for muscle, biceps for "two-headed", brachii as in the brachial region of the arm.
The first word describes what is being spoken about, the second describes it, the third points to location. When describing the position of anatomical structures, structures may be described according to the anatomical landmark they are near; these landmarks may include structures, such as the umbilicus or sternum, or anatomical lines, such as the midclavicular line from the centre of the clavicle. The cephalon or cephalic region refers to the head; this area is further differentiated into the cranium, frons, auris, nasus and mentum. The neck area is called cervical region. Examples of structures named according to this include the frontalis muscle, submental lymph nodes, buccal membrane and orbicularis oculi muscle. Sometimes, unique terminology is used to reduce confusion in different parts of the body. For example, different terms are used when it comes to the skull in compliance with its embryonic origin and its tilted position compared to in other animals. Here, Rostral refers to proximity to the front of the nose, is used when describing the skull.
Different terminology is used in the arms, in part to reduce ambiguity as to what the "front", "back", "inner" and "outer" surfaces are. For this reason, the terms below are used: Radial referring to the radius bone, seen laterally in the standard anatomical position. Ulnar referring to the ulna bone, medially positioned when in the standard anatomical position. Other terms are used to describe the movement and actions of the hands and feet, other structures such as the eye. International morphological terminology is used by the colleges of medicine and dentistry and other areas of the health sciences, it facilitates communication and exchanges between scientists from different countries of the world and it is used daily in the fields of research and medical care. The international morphological terminology refers to morphological sciences as a biological sciences' branch. In this field, the form and structure are examined as well as the changes or developments in the organism, it is functional.
It covers the gross anatomy and the microscopic of living beings. It involves the anatomy of the adult, it includes comparative anatomy between different species. The vocabulary is extensive and complex, requires a systematic presentation. Within the international field, a group of experts reviews and discusses the morphological terms of the structures of the human body, forming today's Terminology Committee from the International Federation of Associations of Anatomists, it deals with the anatomical and embryologic terminology. In the Latin American field, there are meetings called Iberian Latin American Symposium Terminology, where a group of experts of the Pan American Association of Anatomy that speak Spanish and Portuguese and studies the international morphological terminology; the current international standard for human anatomical terminology is based on the Terminologia Anatomica. It was developed by the Federative Committee on Anatomical Terminology and the International Federation of Associations of Anatomists and was released in 1998.
It supersedes Nomina Anatomica. Terminologia Anatomica contains terminology for about 7500 human gross anatomical structures. For microanatomy, known as histology, a similar standard exists in Terminologia Histologica, for embryology, the study of development, a standard exists in Terminologia Embryologica; these standards specify accepted names that can be used to refer to histological and embryological structures in journal articles and other areas. As of September 2016, two sections of the Terminologia Anatomica, including central nervous system and peripheral nervous system, were merged to form the Terminologia Neuroanatomica; the Terminologia Anatomica has been perceived with a considerable criticism regarding its content including coverage and spelling mistakes and errors. Anatomical terminology is chosen to highlight the relative location of body structures. For instance, an anatomist might describe one band of tissue as "inferior to" another or a physician might describe a tumor as "superficial to" a deeper body structure.
Anatomical terms used to describe location
The epoophoron or epoöphoron is a remnant of the mesonephric tubules that can be found next to the ovary and fallopian tube. It may contain 10–15 transverse small ducts or tubules that lead to the Gartner’s duct that represents the caudal remnant of the mesonephric duct and passes through the broad ligament and the lateral wall of the cervix and vagina; the epoophoron is a homologue to the epididymis in the male. While the epoophoron is located in the lateral portion of the mesosalpinx and mesovarium, the paroophoron lies more medially in the mesosalpinx, it has a unique histological profile. Clinically the organ may give rise to adenoma. List of homologues of the human reproductive system Vesicular appendages of epoophoron figures/chapter_35/35-8. HTM: Basic Human Anatomy at Dartmouth Medical School genital-016a—Embryo Images at University of North Carolina Swiss embryology ugenital/genitinterne05
A ligament is the fibrous connective tissue that connects bones to other bones. It is known as articular ligament, articular larua, fibrous ligament, or true ligament. Other ligaments in the body include the: Peritoneal ligament: a fold of peritoneum or other membranes. Fetal remnant ligament: the remnants of a fetal tubular structure. Periodontal ligament: a group of fibers that attach the cementum of teeth to the surrounding alveolar bone. Ligaments are similar to tendons and fasciae; the differences in them are in the connections that they make: ligaments connect one bone to another bone, tendons connect muscle to bone, fasciae connect muscles to other muscles. These are all found in the skeletal system of the human body. Ligaments cannot be regenerated naturally; the study of ligaments is known as desmology. "Ligament" most refers to a band of dense regular connective tissue bundles made of collagenous fibers, with bundles protected by dense irregular connective tissue sheaths. Ligaments connect bones to other bones to form joints.
Some ligaments prevent certain movements altogether. Capsular ligaments are part of the articular capsule, they act as mechanical reinforcements. Extra-capsular ligaments join together in harmony with the other ligaments and provide joint stability. Intra-capsular ligaments, which are much less common provide stability but permit a far larger range of motion. Cruciate ligaments are paired ligaments in the form of a cross. Ligaments are viscoelastic, they strain when under tension and return to their original shape when the tension is removed. However, they cannot retain their original shape when extended past a certain point or for a prolonged period of time; this is one reason why dislocated joints must be set as as possible: if the ligaments lengthen too much the joint will be weakened, becoming prone to future dislocations. Athletes, gymnasts and martial artists perform stretching exercises to lengthen their ligaments, making their joints more supple; the term hypermobility refers to people with more-elastic ligaments, allowing their joints to stretch and contort further.
The consequence of a broken ligament can be instability of the joint. Not all broken ligaments need surgery, but, if surgery is needed to stabilise the joint, the broken ligament can be repaired. Scar tissue may prevent this. If it is not possible to fix the broken ligament, other procedures such as the Brunelli procedure can correct the instability. Instability of a joint can over time lead to wear of the cartilage and to osteoarthritis. One of the most torn ligaments in the body is the anterior cruciate ligament; the ACL is one of the ligaments crucial to knee stability and persons who tear their ACL seek to undergo reconstructive surgery, which can be done through a variety of techniques and materials. One of these techniques is the replacement of the ligament with an artificial material. An artificial ligament is a reinforcing material, used to replace a torn ligament, such as the ACL. Artificial ligaments are a synthetic material composed of a polymer, such as polyacrylonitrile fiber, polypropylene, PET, or polyNaSS poly.
Certain folds of peritoneum are referred to as ligaments. Examples include: The hepatoduodenal ligament, that surrounds the hepatic portal vein and other vessels as they travel from the duodenum to the liver; the broad ligament of the uterus a fold of peritoneum. Certain tubular structures from the fetal period are referred to as ligaments after they close up and turn into cord-like structures: Broström procedure
"Albicans" redirects here. For other uses see All pages with titles containing AlbicansThe corpus albicans is the regressed form of the corpus luteum; as the corpus luteum is being broken down by macrophages, fibroblasts lay down type I collagen, forming the corpus albicans. This process is called "luteolysis"; the remains of the corpus albicans may persist as a scar on the surface of the ovary. During the first few hours after expulsion of the ovum from the follicle, the remaining granulosa and theca interna cells change into lutein cells, they enlarge in diameter two or more times and become filled with lipid inclusions that give them a yellowish appearance. This process is called luteinization, the total mass of cells together is called the corpus luteum. A well-developed vascular supply grows into the corpus luteum; the granulosa cells in the corpus luteum develop extensive intracellular smooth endoplasmic reticula that form large amounts of the female sex hormones progesterone and estrogen.
The theca cells form the androgens androstenedione and testosterone rather than female sex hormones. However, most of these hormones are converted by the enzyme aromatase in the granulosa cells into estrogens, the female hormones; the corpus luteum grows to about 1.5 centimeters in diameter, reaching this stage of development 7 to 8 days after ovulation. It begins to involute and loses its secretory function and its yellowish, lipid characteristic about 12 days after ovulation, becoming the corpus albicans. "corpus albicans", Stedman's Online Medical Dictionary at Lippincott Williams and Wilkins Hiatt, James L.. Color textbook of histology. Philadelphia: W. B. Saunders. ISBN 0-7216-8806-3. Histology image: 97_03 at the University of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center Histology image: 18104loa – Histology Learning System at Boston University Histology at KUMC female-female09
The mesonephric duct is a paired organ found in mammals including humans during embryogenesis. Wolffian structures are male urogenital structures that include the epididymis, vas deferens, seminal vesicles that differentiate from this structure; the mesonephric duct connects the primitive kidney, the mesonephros, to the cloaca and serves as the anlage for certain male reproductive organs. The mesonephric duct connects the primitive kidney, the mesonephros, to the cloaca and serves as the anlage for certain male reproductive organs. In both the male and the female the mesonephric duct develops into the trigone of urinary bladder, a part of the bladder wall. However, further development differentiates between the sexes in the development of the urinary and reproductive organs. In a male, it develops into a system of connected organs between the efferent ducts of the testis and the prostate, namely the epididymis, the vas deferens, the seminal vesicle; the prostate forms from the urogenital sinus and the efferent ducts form from the mesonephric tubules.
For this it is critical. Testosterone binds to and activates androgen receptor, affecting intracellular signals and modifying the expression of numerous genes. In the mature male, the function of this system is to store and mature sperm, provide accessory semen fluid. In the female, with the absence of anti-Müllerian hormone secretion by the Sertoli cells and subsequent Müllerian apoptosis, the Wolffian duct regresses, inclusions may persist; the epoophoron and Skene's glands may be present. Lateral to the wall of the vagina a Gartner's duct or cyst could develop as a remnant, it is named after Caspar Friedrich Wolff who described the mesonephros and its ducts in his dissertation in 1759. Fetal genital development List of homologues of the human reproductive system Masculinization Müllerian duct Sexual differentiation MedicalMnemonics.com: 1266 How the Body Works / Sex Development / Sexual Differentiation / Duct Differentiation - The Hospital for Sick Children
Infundibulum of uterine tube
The second part of the uterine tube is the infundibulum. It is between the fimbriae; the infundibulum terminates with the ostium of Fallopian tube, surrounded by fimbriae, one of, attached to the ovary. Together, the infundibulum and fimbria find the oocyte after ovulation; this article incorporates text in the public domain from page 1257 of the 20th edition of Gray's Anatomy Anatomy photo:43:04-0103 at the SUNY Downstate Medical Center — "The Female Pelvis: The Oviduct"
The cervical canal is the spindle-shaped, flattened canal of the cervix, the neck of the uterus. It communicates with the uterine cavity via the internal orifice of the uterus and with the vagina via the external orifice of the uterus; the internal orifice of the uterus is an interior narrowing of the uterine cavity. It corresponds to a slight constriction known as the isthmus that can be seen on the surface of the uterus about midway between the apex and base; the external orifice of the uterus is a small, somewhat circular opening on the rounded extremity of the cervix, opening to the vagina. Through this aperture, the cervical cavity communicates with that of the vagina; the external orifice is bounded by an anterior and a posterior. The anterior is shorter and thicker, though it projects lower than the posterior because of the slope of the cervix. Both lips are in contact with the posterior vaginal wall. Prior to pregnancy the external orifice has a rounded shape. Following parturition, the orifice takes on an appearance more like a transverse slit or is "H-shaped".
The wall of the canal presents an anterior and a posterior longitudinal ridge, from each of which proceed a number of small oblique columns, the palmate folds, giving the appearance of branches from the stem of a tree. The folds on the two walls are not opposed, but fit between one another so as to close the cervical canal; the endocervical mucosa is a site. Endocervical adenocarcinoma, like cervical cancer arises in the milieu of human papilloma virus infection; as most endometrial cancers are adenocarcinomas, differentiation of endocervical adenocarcinoma and endometrial adenocarcinomas is required, as the treatment differs. Immunohistochemical staining is helpful in this regard, endocervical adenocarcinomas are CEA and p16 positive and estrogen receptor, progesterone receptor and vimentin negative. Cervical pregnancy This article incorporates text in the public domain from page 1260 of the 20th edition of Gray's Anatomy Anatomy figure: 43:05-18 at Human Anatomy Online, SUNY Downstate Medical Center