Hermel is a town in Baalbek-Hermel Governorate, Lebanon. It is the capital of Hermel District. Hermel is home to a Lebanese Red Cross First Aid Center. Hermel's inhabitants are predominantly Shia Muslims. There is an ancient pyramid known as Kamouh el Hermel located about 6 kilometres south of the town, a popular attraction for local tourists; the Hermel plains are an area of low hills around Hermel, through which runs the Orontes river and several wadis, which drain into the Homs basin. The area reaches north to the border with Syria. A curious and unpublished archaeological industry exists from finds of stone tools in this area, it consists of small tools whose typology is limited. It was termed the Shepherd Neolithic industry by Henri Fleisch. Hermel I or Mrah Abbas was discovered by P. Billaux and Maurice Tallon and is 5 kilometres north northeast of Hermel, 1 kilometre before reaching Mrah Abbas, next to the road, it is located on an uncultivated sloping plain leading down 2 kilometres from the Orontes.
The garden revealed the remains of ten dolmens, most of which were built on a larger foundation than the covered chamber. Some were not covered by tumuli and a few were evidently not built to have cap-stones on top. Hermel II or Jisr el Aassi is 2 kilometres east of Hermel I near the gorge through which the Orontes river flows, it was found by P. Billaux and mentioned by Maurice Tallon in 1958 who made a lengthy description of the largest tumulus in 1959; the lithic industry at the site was discussed by Henri Fleisch in 1966. Several dolmens were found around the village of Choueighir, around 1 kilometre north of the bridge over the Orontes, in and around the village extending about 2 kilometres to the north along the track next to the river; some of the dolmen are inclined inwards forming a pyramid shape. There is a large tumulus north of the village, composed of massive blocks where pottery was found and dated to the Early Bronze Age III by Tallon. Henri Fleisch found a collection of Shepherd Neolithic flints around these dolmen.
Hermel III or Choueighir is a village on the left bank of the Orontes and an archaeological site was found by P. Billaux 2 kilometres to the north of it. Flint material was described to be of the Shepherd Neolithic type and similar to that of Maakne and el Qaa by Henri Fleisch in 1966, it is held in the Museum of Lebanese Prehistory. Hermel IV or Wadi el Joz is a collection of megaliths that are 1.5 kilometres east of Hermel Attika, southeast of Hermel on dry terraces that slope towards the channel of the Orontes. It was found by Mohammed Hamadé, surveyed by P. Billaux and published by Maurice Tallon in 1959. A number of tumuli were discovered in this area which covered chambers on rectangular foundation platforms, they were orientated east to west with some remnants of walls constructed of megalithic stones. Maurice Tallon made collectins of pottery from the area dating to various periods; these included an incised sherd and a tanged scraper from the earliest Neolithic times, an Early Bronze Age flat scraper along with Middle Bronze Age and Iron Age material
Lebanon known as the Lebanese Republic, is a country in Western Asia. It is bordered by Syria to the north and east and Israel to the south, while Cyprus is west across the Mediterranean Sea. Lebanon's location at the crossroads of the Mediterranean Basin and the Arabian hinterland facilitated its rich history and shaped a cultural identity of religious and ethnic diversity. At just 10,452 km2, it is the smallest recognized sovereign state on the mainland Asian continent; the earliest evidence of civilization in Lebanon dates back more than seven thousand years, predating recorded history. Lebanon was the home of the Canaanites/Phoenicians and their kingdoms, a maritime culture that flourished for over a thousand years. In 64 BC, the region came under the rule of the Roman Empire, became one of the Empire's leading centers of Christianity. In the Mount Lebanon range a monastic tradition known as the Maronite Church was established; as the Arab Muslims conquered the region, the Maronites held onto their identity.
However, a new religious group, the Druze, established themselves in Mount Lebanon as well, generating a religious divide that has lasted for centuries. During the Crusades, the Maronites re-established contact with the Roman Catholic Church and asserted their communion with Rome; the ties they established with the Latins have influenced the region into the modern era. The region was ruled by the Ottoman Empire from 1516 to 1918. Following the collapse of the empire after World War I, the five provinces that constitute modern Lebanon came under the French Mandate of Lebanon; the French expanded the borders of the Mount Lebanon Governorate, populated by Maronites and Druze, to include more Muslims. Lebanon gained independence in 1943, establishing confessionalism, a unique, Consociationalism-type of political system with a power-sharing mechanism based on religious communities. Bechara El Khoury, President of Lebanon during the independence, Riad El-Solh, first Lebanese prime minister and Emir Majid Arslan II, first Lebanese minister of defence, are considered the founders of the modern Republic of Lebanon and are national heroes for having led the country's independence.
Foreign troops withdrew from Lebanon on 31 December 1946, although the country was subjected to military occupations by Syria that lasted nearly thirty years before being withdrawn in April 2005 as well as the Israeli military in Southern Lebanon for fifteen years. Despite its small size, the country has developed a well-known culture and has been influential in the Arab world, powered by its large diaspora. Before the Lebanese Civil War, the country experienced a period of relative calm and renowned prosperity, driven by tourism, agriculture and banking; because of its financial power and diversity in its heyday, Lebanon was referred to as the "Switzerland of the East" during the 1960s, its capital, attracted so many tourists that it was known as "the Paris of the Middle East". At the end of the war, there were extensive efforts to revive the economy and rebuild national infrastructure. In spite of these troubles, Lebanon has the 7th highest Human Development Index and GDP per capita in the Arab world after the oil-rich economies of the Persian Gulf.
Lebanon has been a member of the United Nations since its founding in 1945 as well as of the Arab League, the Non-Aligned Movement, Organisation of the Islamic Cooperation and the Organisation internationale de la francophonie. The name of Mount Lebanon originates from the Phoenician root lbn meaning "white" from its snow-capped peaks. Occurrences of the name have been found in different Middle Bronze Age texts from the library of Ebla, three of the twelve tablets of the Epic of Gilgamesh; the name is recorded in Ancient Egyptian as Rmnn, where R stood for Canaanite L. The name occurs nearly 70 times in the Hebrew Bible, as לְבָנוֹן. Lebanon as the name of an administrative unit was introduced with the Ottoman reforms of 1861, as the Mount Lebanon Mutasarrifate, continued in the name of the State of Greater Lebanon in 1920, in the name of the sovereign Republic of Lebanon upon its independence in 1943; the borders of contemporary Lebanon are a product of the Treaty of Sèvres of 1920. Its territory was the core of the Bronze Age Phoenician city-states.
As part of the Levant, it was part of numerous succeeding empires throughout ancient history, including the Egyptian, Babylonian, Achaemenid Persian, Hellenistic and Sasanid Persian empires. After the 7th-century Muslim conquest of the Levant, it was part of the Rashidun, Abbasid Seljuk and Fatimid empires; the crusader state of the County of Tripoli, founded by Raymond IV of Toulouse in 1102, encompassed most of present-day Lebanon, falling to the Mamluk Sultanate in 1289 and to the Ottoman Empire in 1517. With the dissolution of the Ottoman Empire, Greater Lebanon fell under French mandate in 1920, gained independence under president Bechara El Khoury in 1943. Lebanon's history since independence has been marked by alternating periods of political stability and prosperity based on Beirut's position as a regional center for finance and trade, interspersed with political turmoil and
Beit Mery is a Lebanese town overlooking the capital Beirut. The town has been a summer mountain resort since the times of the Phoenicians and the Romans; the name derives from Aramaic and means "The house of my Lord". On one of the three hills of Beit Mery along the Lebanon Western mountain range are the ruins of the old Phoenician and Roman temples that were erected in the same general area in what is now known as Deir El-Qala'a. At present, a Christian church and monastery sit on top of parts of the old Roman temple. Les Scouts Du Liban Groupe Sainte Marie Beit Mery is one of the biggest movement in town and it is located in College des Freres since 1969. Beit Mery is home to a Lebanese Red Cross First Aid Center; the town is the site of the annual Al Bustan festival, held in the theatre of the Al Bustan hotel. The festival was created in 1994 by owner of the hotel. Among the artists who performed at the festival, Julian Lloyd Webber, Gautier Capuçon, Gianluca Marciano, Virginia Tola, Inva Mula, Helikon Opera, Stile Antico, Evelyn Glennie, Boris Berezovsky, Khatia Buniatishvili, Alondra de la Parra, Oliver Poole, Anna Tifu.
The residents of Beit Mery are Christian and Druze. Beit Mery occupies a hill, 700–750 meters above sea level, which gives the town views of the Beirut peninsula and part of Lebanon's Mediterranean coast, it has an area of 5.48 km2. Since 2000 Beit Mery is 16 km away from Beirut; the Roman rulers of Lebanon made Beit Mery their summer resort due to its high location and summer weather. There are two prehistoric archaeological sites in Beit Meri where flint industries have been found by Jesuit archaeologists:1) Beit Mery I is on the right bank of the Beirut River, south southwest of the town at an altitude of 125 metres above sea level, it was found by Jesuit Father Dillenseger. The material was donated to the Saint Joseph University by the French Faculty of Medicine.2) Beit Mery II is east of the road from Beit Mery to Deir el Qala'a on a sloping plateau facing the junction of the Nahr Meten and Nahr Jamani. It was found by M. Gautier. V. Hankey recovered some retouched blades from this area, but what makes important Beit Mery -even for tourism- are the scattered ruins of the Roman era, that lasted five centuries plus the two of the byzantine era.
In Beit Mery there it is what’s left of a Roman temple that once matched the grandeur of Baalbek’s temples and Niha’s fortress. A church dedicated to St. John the Baptist, was built over the temple’s remains in the 18th century. You can still see the original stonework in the remaining columns that adorn the square at the church’s entrance. Though it suffered a great deal of damage during the Civil War, the site has since been dutifully restored and maintained for cultural and touristic events; the monastery has proved an ideal locale for concerts, art exhibitions, poetry nights, social gatherings. In town, below the monastery, you will find smaller temples dedicated to various Roman deities, in addition to public Roman baths with their terra cotta pipes. There are some remains of a Byzantine city that dates back to the 5th and 6th centuries. Lebanon Ministry of Tourism The town has ancient Roman and Byzantine ruins as well as the historic Maronite Monastery of Saint John the Baptist, built in 1750.
The town, only 16 km from Beirut, continues to be a summer resort in Lebanon with a landmark hotel, the Al Bustan. Pine forests surround the town. Restaurants with views of the valleys and the sea make Beit Mery a favorite summer spot. Beit Meri, Localiban https://web.archive.org/web/20080705115753/http://www.beitmery.com/
Ain Aata, Ain Ata,'Ain'Ata or Ayn Aata is a village and municipality situated southwest of Rashaya, 99 kilometres south-east of Beirut, in the Rashaya District of the Beqaa Governorate in Lebanon. The name is thought to mean "gift spring". There is a remarkably cold spring in the area; the village was suggested by Charles William Meredith van de Velde to be the ancient site of Beth-Anath or Anatha mentioned in the Bible Book of Joshua and the Book of Judges as a land given to Naphtali. Historical geographer Ze'ev Safrai, identifies the biblical Beth-Anath with Bi'ina in the Beit HaKerem Valley of Upper Galilee. Eusebius in his work Onomasticon, placed it 9 miles from Dora, however this falls outside the territory of Naphtali. Beth-Anath has been translated to mean "temple of Anat", a Canaanite goddess linked to a Sumerian predecessor called Ninhursag. Recent epigraphic surveys have confirmed the ruins of a Roman temple and cult site in the village that are included in a group of Temples of Mount Hermon.
Foundations and columns of a ruined temple complex in the woods near the village were recorded by William McClure Thomson, who thought them to have once been called Kubrikha. He remarked that "the whole neighborhood is crowded with ancient but deserted sites." Ain Aata on Localiban'Ain'Ata on geographic.org Photos of Roman temples in the Rashaya area on the American University of Beirut website Roman Temples on discoverlebanon.com Ain Ata on wikimapia Ain Ata on geody.com Hebrew concordance entry for Beth-Anath, "Temple of Anat"
Batroun is a coastal city in northern Lebanon and one of the oldest cities in the world. It is the capital city of Batroun District; the name Batroun derives from the Arabic al-Batroun, itself from the Greek, Latinized to Botrus. Historians believe that the Greek name of the town originates from the Phoenician word, which means to cut and it refers to the maritime wall that the Phoenicians built in the sea to protect them from tidal waves. Other historians believe that the name of the town is derivative of the Phoenician words, beit truna, which translates to house of the chief. Batroun is a major tourist destination in North Lebanon; the town boasts historic Roman Greek Orthodox churches. The town is a major beach resort with a vibrant nightlife that includes pubs and nightclubs. Citrus groves surround Batroun, the town has been famous for its fresh lemonade sold at the cafés and restaurants on its main street. Biking along the Batroun coastline is a major activity namely in late summer days. In 2009, the Batroun International Festival was born.
It started hosting leading international artists. The festival takes place in July and/or August of each year in the old harbor area; the people of Batroun are Maronite, Greek Orthodox Christians and Muslims. Batroun is a Roman Catholic Titular See Batroun is the "Batruna" mentioned in the Amarna letters dating to the 14th century B. C. Batroun was mentioned by the ancient geographers Strabo, Ptolemy, Stephanus Byzantius, Hierocles. Theophanes called the city "Bostrys."The Phoenicians founded Batroun on the southern side of the promontory called in Antiquity and during the Byzantine Empire, Cape Lithoprosopon. Batroun is said to have been founded by Ithobaal I, king of Tyre, whose daughter Jezabel married Ahab; the city was under Roman rule to Phoenicia Prima province, after the region was Christianized became a suffragan of the Patriarchate of Antioch. In 551, Batroun was destroyed by an earthquake, which caused mudslides and made the Cape Lithoprosopon crack. Historians believe. Three Greek Orthodox bishops are known to have come from Batroun: Porphyrius in 451, Elias about 512 and Stephen in 553.
According to a Greek Notitia episcopatuum, the Greek Orthodox See has existed in Batroun since the tenth century when the city was called Petrounion. After the Muslim conquests of the region, the name was Arabicized to Batroun. One of Batroun's medieval archaeological sites is the Crusader citadel of Mousaylaha, constructed on an isolated massive rock with steep sides protruding in the middle of a plain surrounded by mountains. Under Ottoman rule, Batroun was the centre of a caza in the mutessariflik of Lebanon and the seat of a Maronite diocese, suffragan to the Maronite patriarchate. Since 1999 it has been the seat of the Maronite eparchy. Elections and parliamentary, in Batroun have seen increasing interest, namely in the context of local and national struggle for power. Namely, the ongoing Lebanese Minister and leader of Lebanon's Free Patriotic Movement Gebran Bassil is a Batroun local, he seeks national recognition. The Ancient Sea Wall El-Bahsa beach Makaad El Mir El-Mseilha Fort St. Stephan's Cathedral Historic Souk Ortmtlb.org.lb Batroun.com
Hebbariye, Hebbariya or Hebariya is a village and municipality situated in the Hasbaya District of the Nabatieh Governorate in Lebanon. It is located on the southwestern slopes of Mount Hermon near the Syrian border, northeast of Rachaya Al Foukhar and is positioned amongst orchards of apricot trees; the village sits c. 750 metres above sea level and the small population is predominantly Sunni Muslim. There is a Roman temple near to the village, opposite the Wadi Shib'a, the most southern of the Temples of Mount Hermon, a group defined by George Taylor as being south of the main road to Damascus on the west of Mount Hermon, including the Wadi al-Taym area, it has been classified as an Antae temple with an eastern portal that faces Mount Hermon, aligned "as if to catch the first beams of the morning sun rising over Hermon." The temple has a large basement chamber underneath the cella floors, thought to have been used for burial. The room is only accessible from the outside of the building; the temple was surveyed in the summer of 1852 by Edward Robinson who noted several large blocks with one measuring 2.75 feet by 15 feet.
He measured the dimensions of the temple to be 58 feet long by 31 feet wide with 6 feet thick walls around 32 feet high. The capitals appeared to be of an Ionic style. At the entrance doorway, there are two tiers of niches with some engraved writing beneath the upper set. Photos of Hebbariye and the Roman temple on panoramio.com 3D Google Earth map of Hebbariye on www.gmap3d.com Hebbariya on wikimapia Hebbariyeh on www.localiban.org Image of the temple at Hebbariye from "Palestine 1881 Ruins Temple Hebbariyeh Mount Hermon", A page taken from Picturesque Palestine and Egypt. Edited by Charles Wilson, 1881, p. 126. On Amazon.com Full text of Picturesque Palestine and Egypt. Edited by Charles Wilson, 1881
Limestone is a carbonate sedimentary rock, composed of the skeletal fragments of marine organisms such as coral and molluscs. Its major materials are the minerals calcite and aragonite, which are different crystal forms of calcium carbonate. A related rock is dolostone, which contains a high percentage of the mineral dolomite, CaMg2. In fact, in old USGS publications, dolostone was referred to as magnesian limestone, a term now reserved for magnesium-deficient dolostones or magnesium-rich limestones. About 10% of sedimentary rocks are limestones; the solubility of limestone in water and weak acid solutions leads to karst landscapes, in which water erodes the limestone over thousands to millions of years. Most cave systems are through limestone bedrock. Limestone has numerous uses: as a building material, an essential component of concrete, as aggregate for the base of roads, as white pigment or filler in products such as toothpaste or paints, as a chemical feedstock for the production of lime, as a soil conditioner, or as a popular decorative addition to rock gardens.
Like most other sedimentary rocks, most limestone is composed of grains. Most grains in limestone are skeletal fragments of marine organisms such as foraminifera; these organisms secrete shells made of aragonite or calcite, leave these shells behind when they die. Other carbonate grains composing limestones are ooids, peloids and extraclasts. Limestone contains variable amounts of silica in the form of chert or siliceous skeletal fragment, varying amounts of clay and sand carried in by rivers; some limestones do not consist of grains, are formed by the chemical precipitation of calcite or aragonite, i.e. travertine. Secondary calcite may be deposited by supersaturated meteoric waters; this produces speleothems, such as stalactites. Another form taken by calcite is oolitic limestone, which can be recognized by its granular appearance; the primary source of the calcite in limestone is most marine organisms. Some of these organisms can construct mounds of rock building upon past generations. Below about 3,000 meters, water pressure and temperature conditions cause the dissolution of calcite to increase nonlinearly, so limestone does not form in deeper waters.
Limestones may form in lacustrine and evaporite depositional environments. Calcite can be dissolved or precipitated by groundwater, depending on several factors, including the water temperature, pH, dissolved ion concentrations. Calcite exhibits an unusual characteristic called retrograde solubility, in which it becomes less soluble in water as the temperature increases. Impurities will cause limestones to exhibit different colors with weathered surfaces. Limestone may be crystalline, granular, or massive, depending on the method of formation. Crystals of calcite, dolomite or barite may line small cavities in the rock; when conditions are right for precipitation, calcite forms mineral coatings that cement the existing rock grains together, or it can fill fractures. Travertine is a banded, compact variety of limestone formed along streams where there are waterfalls and around hot or cold springs. Calcium carbonate is deposited where evaporation of the water leaves a solution supersaturated with the chemical constituents of calcite.
Tufa, a porous or cellular variety of travertine, is found near waterfalls. Coquina is a poorly consolidated limestone composed of pieces of coral or shells. During regional metamorphism that occurs during the mountain building process, limestone recrystallizes into marble. Limestone is a parent material of Mollisol soil group. Two major classification schemes, the Folk and the Dunham, are used for identifying the types of carbonate rocks collectively known as limestone. Robert L. Folk developed a classification system that places primary emphasis on the detailed composition of grains and interstitial material in carbonate rocks. Based on composition, there are three main components: allochems and cement; the Folk system uses two-part names. It is helpful to have a petrographic microscope when using the Folk scheme, because it is easier to determine the components present in each sample; the Dunham scheme focuses on depositional textures. Each name is based upon the texture of the grains. Robert J. Dunham published his system for limestone in 1962.
Dunham divides the rocks into four main groups based on relative proportions of coarser clastic particles. Dunham names are for rock families, his efforts deal with the question of whether or not the grains were in mutual contact, therefore self-supporting, or whether the rock is characterized by the presence of frame builders and algal mats. Unlike the Folk scheme, Dunham deals with the original porosity of the rock; the Dunham scheme is more useful for hand samples because it is based on texture, not the grains in the sample. A revised classification was proposed by Wright, it adds some diagenetic patterns and can be summarized as follows: See: Carbonate platform About 10% of all sedimentary rocks are limestones. Limestone is soluble in acid, therefore forms many erosional landforms; these include limestone pavements, pot holes, cenotes and gorges. Such erosion landscapes are known