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Canard (aeronautics)

A canard is an aeronautical arrangement wherein a small forewing or foreplane is placed forward of the main wing of a fixed-wing aircraft. The term "canard" may be used to describe the aircraft itself, the wing configuration, or the foreplane; the term “canard” arose from the appearance of the Santos-Dumont 14-bis of 1906, said to be reminiscent of a duck with its neck stretched out in flight. Despite the use of a canard surface on the first powered aeroplane, the Wright Flyer of 1903, canard designs were not built in quantity until the appearance of the Saab Viggen jet fighter in 1967; the aerodynamics of the canard configuration require careful analysis. Rather than use the conventional tailplane configuration found on most aircraft, an aircraft designer may adopt the canard configuration to reduce the main wing loading, to better control the main wing airflow, or to increase the aircraft's maneuverability at high angles of attack or during a stall. Canard foreplanes, whether used in a canard or three-surface configuration, have important consequences on the aircraft's longitudinal equilibrium and dynamic stability characteristics.

The Wright Brothers began experimenting with the foreplane configuration around 1900. Their first kite included a front surface for pitch control and they adopted this configuration for their first Flyer, they were suspicious of the aft tail. The Wrights realised that a foreplane would tend to destabilise an aeroplane but expected it to be a better control surface, in addition to being visible to the pilot in flight, they believed it impossible to provide both control and stability in a single design, opted for control. Many pioneers followed the Wrights' lead. For example, the Santos-Dumont 14-bis aeroplane of 1906 had no "tail", but a box kite-like set of control surfaces in the front, pivoting on a universal joint on the fuselage's extreme nose, making it capable of incorporating both yaw and pitch control; the Fabre Hydravion of 1910 had a foreplane. But canard behaviour was not properly understood and other European pioneers—among them, Louis Blériot—were establishing the tailplane as the safer and more "conventional" design.

Some, including the Wrights, experimented with both fore and aft planes on the same aircraft, now known as the three surface configuration. After 1911, few canard types would be produced for many decades. In 1914 W. E. Evans commented that "the Canard type model has received its death-blow so far as scientific models are concerned." Experiments continued sporadically for several decades. In 1917 de Bruyère constructed his C 1 biplane fighter, having a canard foreplane and rear-mounted pusher propellor; the C 1 was a failure. First flown in 1927, the experimental Focke-Wulf F 19 "Ente" was more successful. Two examples were built and one of them continued flying until 1931. Before and during World War II several experimental canard fighters were flown, including the Ambrosini SS.4, Curtiss-Wright XP-55 Ascender and Kyūshū J7W1 Shinden. These were attempts at using the canard configuration to give advantages in areas such as performance, armament disposition or pilot view, but no production aircraft were completed.

The Shinden was ordered into production "off the drawing board" but hostilities ceased before any other than prototypes had flown. Just after the end of World War II in Europe in 1945, what may have been the first canard designed and flown in the Soviet Union appeared as a test aircraft, the lightweight Mikoyan-Gurevich MiG-8 Utka, it was a favorite among MiG OKB test pilots for its docile, slow-speed handling characteristics and flew for some years, being used as a testbed during development of the swept wing of the MiG-15 jet fighter. With the arrival of the jet age and supersonic flight, American designers, notably North American Aviation, began to experiment with supersonic canard delta designs, with some such as the North American XB-70 Valkyrie and the Soviet equivalent Sukhoi T-4 flying in prototype form, but the stability and control problems encountered prevented widespread adoption. In 1963 the Swedish company Saab patented a delta-winged design which overcame the earlier problems, in what has become known as the close-coupled canard.

It was built as the Saab 37 Viggen and in 1967 became the first modern canard aircraft to enter production. The success of this aircraft spurred many designers, canard surfaces sprouted on a number of types derived from the popular Dassault Mirage delta-winged jet fighter; these included variants of the French Dassault Mirage III, Israeli IAI Kfir and South African Atlas Cheetah. The close-coupled canard delta remains a popular configuration for combat aircraft; the Viggen inspired the American Burt Rutan to create a two-seater homebuilt canard delta design, accordingly named VariViggen and flown in 1972. Rutan abandoned the delta wing as unsuited to such light aircraft, his next two canard designs, the Long-EZ had longer-span swept wings. These designs were not only successful and built in large numbers but were radically different from anything seen before. Rutan's ideas soon spread to other designers. From the 1980s they found favour in the executive market with the appearance of types such as the OMAC Laser 300, Avtek 400 and Beech Starship.

Static canard designs can have complex interactions in airflow between the canard and the main wing, leading to issues with stability and behaviour in the stall. This limits their applicability; the development of fly-by-wire and artificial stability towards the end of the century opened the way for computerized controls to begin turning these complex effects fro

Lega B

The Lega Nazionale Professionisti B known as LNPB or Lega B, is the governing body that runs the second tier of professional football competitions in Italy, the Serie B. It was known as Lega Nazionale Professionisti Serie B or just Lega Serie B, it was founded on 7 July 2010, following a split between Serie A and Serie B clubs, which led to the dissolution of the Lega Calcio and creation of two new leagues, the Lega Serie A and Lega Serie B respectively. Since April 2011, Lega Serie B has joined the European Professional Football Leagues association. There are 20 clubs in Serie B since 2019, restoring the situation which existed before 2003, they were 22 during the first eight years of the Lega B. During the course of a season each club plays the others twice, once at their home stadium and once at that of their opponents, for a total of 38 games. Teams receive one point for a draw. Teams are ranked by total points. If two teams are equal on points, they're ranked by points scored in head-to-head matches by goal difference in said games by goal difference in all games and by total numbers of goals scored.

If still equal, teams are deemed to occupy the same position. However, if following the application of the above-mentioned tiebreaker criteria there is still a tie for the championship, for relegation, or for qualification to the play–offs, positions will be decided by drawing of lots; the two higher placed teams, plus the winner of play-offs involving the third to sixth placed clubs, are promoted to the Serie A, while the bottom three teams from Serie A are relegated in their stead. At the lower end of the table, the three bottom clubs, along with the loser of play-offs involving the 16th and 17th placed teams, are relegated to the Serie C, with four sides from said league joining Serie B in their place; the Lega Serie B clubs participate in the Coppa Italia, organized by the Lega Serie A. Youth teams of Lega Serie B clubs play in the Campionato Primavera 2 and the Coppa Italia Primavera, which are organized by the Lega Serie B and Lega Serie A respectively. Andrea Abodi 2010–2017 Mauro Balata 2017– 2010–11 Nike T90 Tracer 2011–12 Nike Seitiro 2016–17 Puma evoPOWER 2.1 Lega B official website

Seven Social Sins

Seven Social Sins is a list, first uttered in a sermon delivered in Westminster Abbey on March 20, 1925 by an Anglican priest named Frederick Lewis Donaldson. He referred to it as the "7 Deadly Social Evils", it is a common misconception that Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi was the originator of this list as he published the same list in his weekly newspaper Young India on October 22, 1925. He gave this same list to his grandson, Arun Gandhi, written on a piece of paper on their final day together shortly before his assassination. Wealth without work. Pleasure without conscience. Knowledge without character. Commerce without morality. Science without humanity. Religion without sacrifice. Politics without principle. Before Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi published the list in his weekly newspaper Young India on October 22, 1925, an identical list had been published six months earlier in England in a sermon at Westminster Abbey by Fredrick Lewis Donaldson. Gandhi wrote that a correspondent whom he called a "fair friend" had sent the list: "The... fair friend wants readers of Young India to know, if they do not the following seven social sins,".

After the list, Gandhi wrote that "Naturally, the friend does not want the readers to know these things through the intellect but to know them through the heart so as to avoid them." This was the entirety of Gandhi's commentary on the list. In the decades since its first publication, the list has been cited and discussed; some books have focused on the seven sins or been structured around them: Eknath Easwaran. The Compassionate Universe: The Power of the Individual to Heal the Environment Stephen Covey. Principle-Centered Leadership ( Chapter 7: Seven Deadly Sins. Frank Woolever Gandhi List of Social Sins: Lessons in TruthMany books have discussed the sins more briefly: Peter J. Gomes; the scandalous gospel of Jesus: What's so good about the good news? Page 122 states "Years ago, I was much encouraged when I discovered that Gandhi had a list of seven social sins that, if not resisted, could destroy both persons and countries..... We live in a world. Mobilizing hope: Faith-inspired activism for a post-civil rights generation Page 155 mentions two of the social sins, stating "The recent economic collapse reminds me of two social sins from Gandhi's famous list of seven deadly social sins.

Gandhi warned about the dangers of wealth without work and commerce without morality...."Thomas Weber. "Gandhi's Moral Economics: the Sins of Wealth Without Work and Commerce Without Morality." Page 141 lists the sins and their date of publication, stating that "These and many of Gandhi's own writings make it quite clear that the Mahatma did not compartmentalize his life. For him, economics together with politics and religion formed an indivisible whole."Rana P. B. Singh. "Mohandas Gandhi." Page 107 lists the sins and gives a 2 or 3 sentence explanation of each, stating "these are ideals, but they are more relevant in the present era of desperation and could be accepted."They have been anthologized: Anil Dutt Misra. Insipiring Thoughts Of Mahatma Gandhi Regarding "politics without principle", Gandhi said having politics without truth to justly dictate the action creates chaos, which leads to violence. Gandhi called these missteps "passive violence", ‘which fuels the active violence of crime and war.’ He said, "We could work'til doomsday to achieve peace and would get nowhere as long as we ignore passive violence in our world."Politics is defined as, "The struggle in any group for power that will give one or more persons the ability to make decisions for the larger group."Mohandas Gandhi defined principle as, "the expression of perfection, as imperfect beings like us cannot practice perfection, we devise every moment limits of its compromise in practice."

There are many different types of regimes in the world. Based on Gandhi’s Blunder Politics without Principle, a regime type might be more of a root of violence than another because one regime has more principle than the other. Regimes have different types of aggression tactics, each desiring different outcomes; this difference affects the actions taken by political heads in countries across the globe. Gandhi wrote, "An unjust law is itself a species of violence." The aggression of one country on another may be rooted in the government's creation of an unjust law. For example, a war of irredentism fought for one state to reclaim territory, lost due to a law promoting ethnic cleansing. Principle in one country could be a crime in another; this difference leads one to believe that the root of violence is present somewhere in the world. “Politics without Principle” will take place throughout time. "I object to violence. He called these "acts of passive violence". Preventing these is the best way to prevent oneself or one's society from reaching a point of violence, according to Gandhi.

To this list, Arun Gandhi added an eighth blunder, "rights without responsibilities". According to Arun Gandhi, the idea behind the first blunder originates from the feudal practice of Zamindari, he suggests that the first and the second blunders are interrelated. More Mohandas Gandhi's list of negative qualiti