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SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Canceled denominations of United States currency

The United States has several coins and banknotes which were proposed at one time but never adopted. A three dollar bill was proposed two times during the 1860s. A design was engraved for a potential $3 United States Note, a 1865 law called for a $3 National Bank Note, but neither proposal came to fruition. There have been several United States coins which were proposed but never adopted. Most of the coins listed below, although never adopted, were produced in limited numbers as patterns. ^α Pattern coins for the ring cent were struck in various metals, including copper and nickel, as well as billon. ^β 1853 ring cents are restrikes dated 1850, although they can be distinguished from the original 1850 cents in that they use a different reverse design. ^γ Although circulation strikes of the Half Union were to be 90% gold 10% copper, only two of the twenty known pattern coins were struck with this composition. The other 18 were struck in 100% copper, although some were plated with gold by the mint

Molecular clamp

A molecular clamp is a polypeptide used to maintain the shape of proteins in experimental vaccines. On a virus, pre-fusion proteins on their surface provide an attractive target for an immune reaction. However, if these proteins are removed or made by recombinant technology, they lose their shape and form what is called a "post-fusion form"; when part of a virus, these proteins maintain their form by forming a quaternary structure with other viral proteins. The pre-fusion state of the protein is a higher energy metastable state; the extra energy is used to overcome the activation barrier of the fusion to the cell membrane. The virus protein in combination with the clamp polypeptide is called a chimeric polypeptide. Pre-fusion proteins from the following viruses have been stabilised in experiments by the molecular clamp technique: measles, HIV, ebola and RSV. Researchers at University of Queensland are trying to make a vaccine using this method for SARS-CoV-2. Development was funded by Coalition for Epidemic Preparedness Innovations which in turn received funding from the Gates Foundation as well as Norwegian and German governments.

The clamp is made from amino acid residues in a pattern that repeats after every seven residues, must be at least 14 residues in length. The clamp self-assembles into the other in reverse; the pairing of the amino acids in the strands is ensured by a pattern of hydrophobic and hydrophilic amino acids. The pattern is arranged; the clamp self-assembles into a stiff rod. The clamp is linked to the desired part of the virus protein by a linker; the linker may serve other functions, such as allowing the chimeric protein to be purified from a mixture

Regenerative process

In applied probability, a regenerative process is a class of stochastic process with the property that certain portions of the process can be treated as being statistically independent of each other. This property can be used in the derivation of theoretical properties of such processes. Regenerative processes were first defined by Walter L. Smith in Proceedings of the Royal Society A in 1955. A regenerative process is a stochastic process with time points at which, from a probabilistic point of view, the process restarts itself; these time point may themselves be determined by the evolution of the process. That is to say, the process is a regenerative process if there exist time points 0 ≤ T0 < T1 < T2 <... such that the post-Tk process has the same distribution as the post-T0 process is independent of the pre-Tk process for k ≥ 1. Intuitively this means. Cycles; when T0 = 0, X is called a nondelayed regenerative process. Else, the process is called a delayed regenerative process. Renewal processes are regenerative processes, with T1 being the first renewal.

Alternating renewal processes, where a system alternates between an ` off' state. A recurrent Markov chain is a regenerative process, with T1 being the time of first recurrence; this includes Harris chains. Reflected Brownian motion is a regenerative process. By the renewal reward theorem, with probability 1, lim t → ∞ 1 t ∫ 0 t X d s = E E. where τ is the length of the first cycle and R = ∫ 0 τ X d s is the value over the first cycle. A measurable function of a regenerative process is a regenerative process with the same regeneration time

Sun gun

The sun gun or heliobeam is a theoretical orbital weapon, which makes use of a concave mirror mounted on a satellite, to concentrate sunlight onto a small area at the Earth's surface, destroying targets or killing through heat. In 1929, the German physicist Hermann Oberth developed plans for a space station from which a 100-metre-wide concave mirror could be used to reflect sunlight onto a concentrated point on the earth. During World War II, a group of German scientists at the German Army Artillery proving grounds at Hillersleben began to expand on Oberth's idea of creating a superweapon that could utilize the sun's energy; this so-called "sun gun" would be part of a space station 8,200 kilometres above Earth. The scientists calculated that a huge reflector, made of metallic sodium and with an area of 9 square kilometres, could produce enough focused heat to make an ocean boil or burn a city. After being questioned by officers of the United States, the Germans claimed that the sun gun could be completed within 50 or 100 years.

The Scottish mathematician John Napier proposed such a device. In his book Secrete Inventionis, he published details of a giant mirror to burn enemy ships by focusing the sun's rays on them. A notable appearance of a solar focus, orbital weapon is in the 1988 film Akira, when a psychic-power endowed motorcycle gang member faces off with the military of a post-war Neo-Tokyo. In the film Die Another Day, the twentieth installment in the James Bond series of films, the primary antagonist of the film, fictional British billionaire Gustav Graves, constructs an orbital sun gun code-named "Icarus" for the use of cutting a path through the Korean Demilitarized Zone and allowing North Korean troops to invade South Korea; the device was disabled. A similar concept is used in the Resident Evil: Revelations video game. In the game, a special satellite code-named Regia Solis is used to provide a city with clean energy but at full capacity it is powerful enough to destroy the city or other targets. In the TV series Scorpion episode "Sun of a Gun", Walter O'Brien's fictional alter ego and his team are sent alongside their friend Sylvester Dodd's estranged father to an African dictator's country to investigate his discovery of a Nazi World War II sun gun project.

In the Star Wars Legends book Wedge's Gamble, Rogue Squadron commandeers an orbital solar reflector is used to boil ocean water in an effort to generate a large enough storm to knock out power on the planet below. In Wolfenstein: The New Order, there is a similar mechanism called the “Sonnengewehr”, mentioned in newspapers. In the science fiction novel by René Barjavel The Ice People the doomsday device build by the gondas looks inspired by the concept of the sun gun. In an episode of Futurama, one of these is the result of a failed attempt to reverse global warming with a giant mirror. In the Fringe episode Brave New World, a column of concentrated sunlight is directed at Beacon Hill. In Mobile Suit Gundam, a similar weapon called. Archimedes heat ray, a purported device from antiquity which weaponized the sun's rays Concentrated solar power

Canterbury Province

The Canterbury Province was a province of New Zealand from 1853 until the abolition of provincial government in 1876. Its capital was Christchurch. Canterbury Province was founded in December 1850 by the Canterbury Association of influential Englishmen associated with the Church of England; the Charlotte Jane and the Randolph—the first two of the First Four Ships—arrived in the area on 16 December 1850 celebrated as the province's initial Anniversary Day. In 1852, the Parliament of the United Kingdom passed the New Zealand Constitution Act 1852, which amongst other things established provincial councils; the Constitution contained specific provisions for the Canterbury Association. Elections were held in 1853 for Superintendent and that year, for the 12-member council; these elections predated any elected national assembly. The franchise was extended to men over the age of 21; as a result, affairs of the Canterbury Association were wound up in 1855 and outstanding settlement lands handed over to the Canterbury Province.

The first meeting place was the former office of the Guardian and Advertiser, Canterbury's second newspaper, on Chester Street near the Avon River. In 1866, the council moved to Guise Brittan's house, which became part of the Clarendon Hotel. One session in 1858 was held in the town hall on. On 28 September 1859, the council first met in what became known as the Timber Chamber of the Canterbury Provincial Council Buildings; the Stone Chamber of the Provincial Council Buildings was used from November 1865. Following the West Coast Gold Rush, the portion of the province west of the Southern Alps was split off as Westland in 1867. Upon the establishment of the University of New Zealand in 1870, its Christchurch campus housed the system's headquarters. On the east coast the province was bounded by the Hurunui River in the north and the Waitaki River in the south; the boundary on the west coast was undefined before the West Coast became its own province. In 1868 the West Coast was separated from the Province with the formation of the County of Westland on the West Coast with the boundary line defined as the crest of the Southern Alps.

In 1873 the County formed the short-lived Westland Province. In the south the course of the Waitaki River was not known and disputes arose with the Province of Otago over pastoral leases in the inland high country. In the 1860s South Canterbury made two bids to become separate province but this was rejected by the national government. Instead in 1867 the General Assembly created the Timaru and Gladstone Board of Works which received a proportion of the Canterbury provincial land revenues and was authorised to maintain and build the Timaru harbour and local roads and bridges; when the province was abolished, the area was distributed across eight counties. The Ferrymead Railway was the first railway to be closed in New Zealand, it was made obsolete by the opening of a new 8 miles line through a tunnel giving Christchurch access to the better port of Lyttelton. The mainlines of the Canterbury Provincial Railways were Irish gauge with some branch lines in Colonial gauge; these lines were all absorbed into the New Zealand Railways Department in 1876.

Charles Simeon was the returning officer for the first election of a Superintendent. The nomination meeting was held at the Christchurch Land Office, there were three polling stations: in Christchurch at the Resident Magistrate's Court, in Lyttelton at the Resident Magistrate's Court, in Akaroa. Canterbury had four Superintendents: The Executive Council is comparable to a cabinet; the following 26 Executive Councils existed: Each New Zealand province celebrates an anniversary day. Canterbury Province's was 16 December, the day of the 1850 arrival of the Charlotte Jane and the Randolph. Since 1862, an A&P show has been held annually, its Friday Show Day was set for many years on the People's Day and, sometime in the late 1950s, the Christchurch City Council moved the province's Anniversary Day to coincide with the show and encourage greater crowds. The holiday is presently defined as the "second Friday after the first Tuesday in November", ensuring that it will follow the Melbourne Cup Racing Carnival.

This adjustment is observed in middle Canterbury. Canterbury Ordinances 1853 - 1875 The full text of the legislation enacted by the Canterbury Provincial Council between its inception in 1853 and its demise in 1875. Church Property Trust Ordinance 1854 Christ's College Ordinance 1855 Municipal Councils Reserves Ordinance 1862 Municipal Corporation Reserves Ordinance 1868 Reserve No 424 Ordinance 1873 Educational Reserves Leasing Ordinance 1875 Reserve No 168 Ordinance 1875 Reserve No 62 Ordinance 1875 Edward Jollie Arthur Dudley Dobson "Canterbury", Encyclopædia Britannica, 9th ed. Vol. V, New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 1878, pp. 30–31. "New Zealand Constitution Act 1852". Victoria University of Wellington - New Zealand Electronic Text Collection. 30 June 1852. Retrieved 2 April 2019. Morrison, J. P.. The Evolution of a City: The

Apotex

Apotex Inc. is a Canadian pharmaceutical corporation. Founded in 1974 by Barry Sherman, the company is the largest producer of generic drugs in Canada, with annual sales exceeding CA$1 billion. By 2016, Apotex employed over 10,000 people as one of Canada's largest drug manufacturers, with over 300 products selling in over 115 countries. Revenues were about CA$1.19 billion annually. Apotex manufactures and distributes generic medications for a range of diseases and health conditions that include cancer, high cholesterol, glaucoma and blood pressure. Apotex is a member of the Canadian Generic Pharmaceutical Association, the Generic Pharmaceutical Association, an associate member of the Canadian Animal Health Institute, the Canadian Association for Pharmacy Distribution Management, as well as the Greater Toronto Area's Partners in Project Green. Apotex began with limited staff in a 5,000-square-foot warehouse; when Barry Sherman started Apotex, at first he was losing so much money "that his wife urged him to close his business before he lost everything."

In 1980, Apotex was the first company to market a generic version of propranolol, the blood-pressure drug, which boosted Apotex's company profile. By the mid-1990s, Apotex was earning $700 million in annual sales, which allowed it to control 40 per cent of the Canadian generic drug market; as an important development step, in 2003 Apotex became the first to market a generic version of Paxil, the antidepressant patented by GlaxoSmithKline. Apotex launched their generic version of Paxil "at risk", meaning before patent litigation between Apotex and GlaxoSmithKline over Paxil had concluded. In 2007, Apotex acquired a Belgian generic drug maker, Topgen ESV, from Zambon Group SpA of Italy as a way for Apotex to expand its European footprint; that same year, Apotex acquired Lareq Pharma SL of Spain from Industria Quimica Y Farmaceutica to extend the company's presence in Western Europe. In 2010, Apotex launched a generic version of Pfizer Inc.'s cholesterol-lowering Lipitor drug in Canada, after four years of patent litigation with Pfizer.

Apotex's generic version was launched under the name of Apo-Atorvastatin. This saved provincial health programs over $800 million per year. In 2010, Apotex was listed in the eighth position in a report published by FiercePharma listing the top U. S. generic companies, based on sales from January 2009 to December 2009. In 2012, Apotex launched a generic version of Crestor, the cardiovascular drug patented and manufactured by AstraZeneca. Apotex's generic version of Crestor is called Apo-Rosuvastatin. On Friday, December 15, 2017, Apotex founder Barry Sherman and his wife were discovered dead at their home, hanging next to the indoor pool. Toronto Police are investigating the deaths as murder. In 2006, Sanofi-Aventis SA and Bristol-Myers Squibb Co. the producers and patent owners of Plavix, the blood thinner drug, settled a patent lawsuit with Apotex. In the settlement, Apotex agreed not to sell a generic version of Plavix until September 2011, in exchange for an unspecified amount of money; the settlement contained a clause that allowed Apotex to bring to market a generic version of Plavix in the situation where the agreement between Apotex and Bristol-Myers was not upheld by the U.

S. Federal Trade Commission. In this situation, Apotex would be able to bring to market a generic version of Plavix before the expiration of Sanofi-Aventis SA and Bristol-Myers Squibb's patent on the drug. In July 2006, the Attorney General rejected the agreement between Apotex and Sanofi-Aventis SA and Bristol-Myers Squibb Co. On August 8, 2006, Apotex launched their generic version of Plavix and during the five days that the company was able to produce the drug, Apotex "flooded the market with many months' supply of the generic drug." In 2013, Apotex began selling a biosimilar version of Amgen's Neulasta in Europe, a blockbuster drug used by cancer patients in chemotherapy as a way to boost white blood count. Apotex's version is licensed for sale in Europe by Stada Arzneimittel. In February 2015, the FDA accepted Apotex's application of its filing of Grastofil in the United States; the company has three main divisions: Research & Development and Sales & Marketing. The biotechnology division is divided into three subsidiaries.

Apotex owned 61% of Cangene Corp. a Winnipeg-based biopharmaceutical company, according to Cangene's 2007 annual report. Cangene's business focuses are hyperimmunes, contract manufacturing, biopharmaceuticals and biodefense against infectious diseases such as smallpox, hepatitis B and anthrax, its products include WinRho SDF. In February 2014, Emergent BioSolutions, an American company based in Rockville, acquired Cangene Corporation. In 1991, Apotex opened Apotex Fermentation in Winnipeg to develop fermentation-based technologies for the production of Active Pharmaceutical Ingredients and to manufacture APIs for eventual sale as final dosage forms in Canada and internationally; the factory employs 150 people. In January 2004, ApoPharma was founded, it is the subsidiary responsible for development of new chemical entities. Barry Sherman was the chairman until his death in 2017, Jack M. Kay is the vice chair until he was fired by Jonathan Sherman. A critical review of Miriam Shuchman's 2005 book about Dr. Nancy Olivieri versus Apotex, summarizes how "Nancy Olivieri is famous for raising doubts about an experimental drug with which she was treating thalassemia patients.

Her principled stand, the resulting scandal, led universities to offer researchers some protection against illegitimate drug company pressure. Medical journals changed their publication rules. Research hospitals changed their poli