SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Cancer

Cancer is a group of diseases involving abnormal cell growth with the potential to invade or spread to other parts of the body. These contrast with benign tumors, which do not spread. Possible signs and symptoms include a lump, abnormal bleeding, prolonged cough, unexplained weight loss, a change in bowel movements. While these symptoms may indicate cancer, they can have other causes. Over 100 types of cancers affect humans. Tobacco use is the cause of about 22% of cancer deaths. Another 10% are due to obesity, poor diet, lack of physical activity or excessive drinking of alcohol. Other factors include certain infections, exposure to ionizing radiation and environmental pollutants. In the developing world, 15% of cancers are due to infections such as Helicobacter pylori, hepatitis B, hepatitis C, human papillomavirus infection, Epstein–Barr virus and human immunodeficiency virus; these factors act, at least by changing the genes of a cell. Many genetic changes are required before cancer develops.

5–10% of cancers are due to inherited genetic defects from a person's parents. Cancer can be detected by screening tests, it is typically further investigated by medical imaging and confirmed by biopsy. Many cancers can be prevented by not smoking, maintaining a healthy weight, not drinking too much alcohol, eating plenty of vegetables and whole grains, vaccination against certain infectious diseases, not eating too much processed and red meat and avoiding too much sunlight exposure. Early detection through screening is useful for colorectal cancer; the benefits of screening in breast cancer are controversial. Cancer is treated with some combination of radiation therapy, surgery and targeted therapy. Pain and symptom management are an important part of care. Palliative care is important in people with advanced disease; the chance of survival depends on the type of cancer and extent of disease at the start of treatment. In children under 15 at diagnosis, the five-year survival rate in the developed world is on average 80%.

For cancer in the United States, the average five-year survival rate is 66%. In 2015, about 90.5 million people had cancer. About 14.1 million new cases occur a year. It caused about 8.8 million deaths. The most common types of cancer in males are lung cancer, prostate cancer, colorectal cancer and stomach cancer. In females, the most common types are breast cancer, colorectal cancer, lung cancer and cervical cancer. If skin cancer other than melanoma were included in total new cancer cases each year, it would account for around 40% of cases. In children, acute lymphoblastic leukemia and brain tumors are most common, except in Africa where non-Hodgkin lymphoma occurs more often. In 2012, about 165,000 children under 15 years of age were diagnosed with cancer; the risk of cancer increases with age, many cancers occur more in developed countries. Rates are increasing as more people live to an old age and as lifestyle changes occur in the developing world; the financial costs of cancer were estimated at $1.16 trillion USD per year as of 2010.

Cancers are a large family of diseases that involve abnormal cell growth with the potential to invade or spread to other parts of the body. They form a subset of neoplasms. A neoplasm or tumor is a group of cells that have undergone unregulated growth and will form a mass or lump, but may be distributed diffusely. All tumor cells show the six hallmarks of cancer; these characteristics are required to produce a malignant tumor. They include: Cell growth and division absent the proper signals Continuous growth and division given contrary signals Avoidance of programmed cell death Limitless number of cell divisions Promoting blood vessel construction Invasion of tissue and formation of metastasesThe progression from normal cells to cells that can form a detectable mass to outright cancer involves multiple steps known as malignant progression; when cancer begins, it produces no symptoms. Signs and symptoms appear as the mass ulcerates; the findings that result depend on the cancer's location. Few symptoms are specific.

Many occur in individuals who have other conditions. Cancer can be difficult to diagnose and can be considered a "great imitator."People may become anxious or depressed post-diagnosis. The risk of suicide in people with cancer is double. Local symptoms may occur due to the mass of its ulceration. For example, mass effects from lung cancer can block the bronchus resulting in pneumonia. Masses in breasts or testicles may produce observable lumps. Ulceration can cause bleeding that can lead to symptoms such as coughing up blood, anemia or rectal bleeding, blood in the urine, or abnormal vaginal bleeding. Although localized pain may occur in advanced cancer, the initial tumor is painless; some cancers can cause a buildup of fluid within the abdomen. Systemic symptoms may occur due to the body's response to the cancer; this may include unintentional weight loss, or skin changes. Some cancers can cause a systemic inflammatory state that leads to ongoing muscle loss and weakness, known as cachexia; some types of cancer such as Hodgkin disease and cancers of the liver or kidney can cause a persistent fever.

Some systemic symptoms of cancer are caused by hormones or other molecules produced by the tumor, known as paraneoplastic syndromes. Co

Ac─▒badem University School of Medicine

Acıbadem University School of Medicine is one of the graduate schools of Acıbadem University. Acıbadem University is a private, non-profit institution, founded in 2007 and located in Istanbul, Turkey; the University is supported by the financial resources of the Kerem Aydınlar Foundation, set up by Mehmet Ali Aydınlar. Mehmet Ali Aydınlar is a leading Turkish businessman and the largest shareholder and CEO of the Acıbadem Healthcare Group, Turkey's leading healthcare institution, founded in 1992. Under the direction of Acıbadem University, the School of Medicine has established in 2007. After two years of work on faculty base and education plans, the Faculty began the 2009-2010 education years with students; the education is in English at Acıbadem University School of Medicine. Students who are admitted to the medical school must take the English Language Proficiency Examination or present equivalent proof of exam scores. Students who fail the exam have to attend English preparatory class for one year.

The medical education programme features 3 phases: 1. Phase I: Basic and Clinical Sciences, from year 1 to year 3 2. Phase II: Clinical Clerkship, from year 4 to year 5 3. Phase III: Internship, Family Medicine, year 6The education is based on an integrated curriculum. In this program, systems within the human body are described from the simplest units such as the cell to more complex systems including pathologies, in subject committees. In Phase I, groups of subject committees form a whole curriculum for a given year. In addition, there are special blocks such as Clinical Medicine and Professional Skills, Medical Informatics and Medical Technologies, Interactive Modules, Medical English and Elective Courses; the term “Subject committee” means that topics of a given subject like “cell” or “organ systems” are described in a coordinated manner by different departments. These committees contain theoretical lectures, practical studies, modules. Integrated programs within the subject committees provide equal participation of basic and clinical sciences to teach a particular organ system.

As an example. The courses include both knowledge from basic sciences like anatomy, physiology and clinical aspects like pathology, diagnosis and prevention; the curriculum of Phase 1 consists of 14 subject committees. In Phase I, within subject committee interactive modules are organized. In these modules, students work in small groups under the guidance of tutors and analyze cases related to the subject committee to acquire self-directed learning skills. Clinical Medicine and Professional Skills is a three-year interdisciplinary program of Phase I; this program is organized by the departments of Public Health and Family Medicine and features five courses: Clinical and Communication Skills and Society, Research in Health, Medical Humanities. The CMPS program has been designed as an initial introduction to medical professionalism, providing a knowledge and mixed toolbox of skills. Year 4 and Year 5 are called the “Clinical Clerkship Period” and comprise the training at hospital and primary care settings.

Teaching staff of clinical departments supervise the students. This clerkship periods focus on history taking, physical examinations, follow-up of patients as well as bedside practice and seminars. Year 6 lasts twelve months; the students take the responsibility of patient care under the supervision of teaching staff. Clinical rotations are absolved in Internal Medicine and Emergency Care, Child Health and Diseases and Obstetrics, Public Health; the primary health care and community medicine perspective is incorporated in the training by clinical rotations in family health centres, community health centres, the outpatient clinic of the Department of Family Medicine. Each subject committee of Phase I features at least one subject committee midterm exam and a theoretical and practical subject committee exam held after each committee. Interactive modules have a separate examination. Clinical Medicine and Professional Skills courses are evaluated according to their learning outcomes, which may vary based on educational methods.

At the end of each year, a final exam is held featuring all subjects given throughout the year, which has a weighted mean of 40 percent of the total passing grade. For Year 4 and Year 5, students must attend theoretical and practical examinations at the end of each clerkship period. For each year of Phase I, the course grades consist of 60% of course examinations and 40% of final examination. Passing grades are calculated according to national credits of a given course. For Phase II, passing grades are calculated by taking the average of clerkship examination grades. There are two types of credit systems. One theoretical hour or two practical hours per week account for one local credit. At each committee, every 14 theoretical hours or 28 practical hours are assigned as one credit. ECTS credits are calculated based on students’ workload. Monitoring the latest developments and research at close range and acting with a pioneering mission and full responsibility, Acıbadem has been organizing weekly and monthly scientific seminars and attended conferences with in-company and quest speakers.

By establishing the Acıbadem Education and Healthcare Foundation the Acıbadem Group has taken an important step forward in terms of Healthcare Education and wishes to take part at the academic platform an

Battle of Vaal Krantz

The Battle of Vaal Krantz was the third failed attempt by General Redvers Buller's British army to fight its way past Louis Botha's army of Boer irregulars and lift the Siege of Ladysmith. The battle occurred during the Second Boer War. In the first and second attempts at relieving Ladysmith, Buller's army was defeated by Botha and his Boer army at the battles of Colenso and Spion Kop. British casualties soared to 3,000 men. Vaal Krantz was a ridge of kopjes a few miles east of Spion Kop. Buller tried to force a bridgehead across the Tugela River with the Rifle Brigade and Durham Light Infantry prominent amongst his troops. After three days of skirmishing, the British general found that his position was so cramped that there was no room to drag his superior artillery up to support the British infantry attacks. Buller called a council of war and, "All his generals agreed that there was nothing for it except to try a new attempt elsewhere." Pakenham wrote that the British suffered 333 casualties, but Symonds put the British casualties at 30 dead and 350 wounded with Boers casualties were 30 dead and 50 wounded.

Vaal Krantz was a minor defeat. On 14 February, Buller launched his fourth attempt at the Relief of Ladysmith and succeeded. Pakenham, Thomas; the Boer War. New York: Avon Books, 1979. ISBN 0-380-72001-9