Cancer Research UK is a cancer research and awareness charity in the United Kingdom and Isle of Man, formed on 4 February 2002 by the merger of The Cancer Research Campaign and the Imperial Cancer Research Fund. Its aim is to reduce the number of deaths from cancer; as the world's largest independent cancer research charity it conducts research into the prevention and treatment of the disease. Research activities are carried out in institutes and hospitals across the UK, both by the charity's own employees and by its grant-funded researchers, it provides information about cancer and runs campaigns aimed at raising awareness of the disease and influencing public policy. Cancer Research UK's work is entirely funded by the public, it raises money through donations, community fundraising, events and corporate partnerships. Over 40,000 people are regular volunteers; the Imperial Cancer Research Fund was founded in 1902 as the Cancer Research Fund, changing its name to the Imperial Cancer Research Fund two years later.
The charity grew over the next twenty years to become one of the world's leading cancer research charities. Its flagship laboratories at Lincoln's Inn Fields and Clare Hall and known as the Cancer Research UK London Research Institute, are now part of the Francis Crick Institute; the British Empire Cancer Campaign was founded in 1923, drew a hostile response from ICRF and the Medical Research Council, who considered it a rival. "The Campaign", as it was colloquially known, became a successful and powerful grant-giving body. In 1970, the charity was renamed The Cancer Research Campaign. In 2002 the two charities agreed to merge to form Cancer Research UK, the largest independent research organisation in the world dedicated to fighting cancer. At the time of the merger, the ICRF had an annual income of £124m, while the CRC had an income of £101m. In the financial year 2014/15 the charity spent £422.67 million on cancer research projects. The bulk of the remaining costs were spent on trading and fundraising costs with a small amount spent on information services, advocacy and other activities or was held in reserve.
The charity funds the work of over 4,000 researchers and nurses throughout the UK, supports over 200 clinical trials and studies cancer and cancer risk in over a million people in the UK. Around 40% of the charity's research expenditure goes on basic laboratory research relevant to all types of cancer into the molecular basis of cancer; the research is intended to improve understanding of how cancer develops and spreads and thus provide a foundation for other research. The rest of its funding is used to support research into over 100 specific cancer types, focusing on key areas such as drug discovery and development. In addition to funding individual researchers and projects, CRUK has several research institutes: The Cancer Research UK Beatson Institute, which sits within the University of Glasgow and has close ties to the Beatson West of Scotland Cancer Centre; the Cancer Research UK Cambridge Institute, which sits within the University of Cambridge close to Addenbrooke's Hospital on the Cambridge Biomedical Campus.
The Cancer Research UK Manchester Institute the Paterson Institute for Cancer Research, which sits within the University of Manchester and has close ties to the Christie Hospital. CRUK is a partner in: The Francis Crick Institute, with the Medical Research Council and the Wellcome Trust The Oxford Institute for Radiation Oncology, with the Medical Research Council The Gurdon Institute, with the Wellcome Trust The Manchester Cancer Research Centre, formed in 2006 by the University of Manchester, Cancer Research UK, the Christie NHS Foundation Trust. CRUK participates in numerous Citizen science projects including: Cell Slider - Cancer Research UK's first project set up in 2012. Samples of breast cancer tumours, taken from earlier studies, were analysed through a web-based application. Play to cure: Genes in Space - First mobile game which involved analysing cancer data. Reverse the Odds - Another mobile game which aimed to improve upon'Play to cure: Genes in Space' in terms of accuracy, involved completing puzzles and answering questions on lung and bladder cancer samples.
The Impossible Line - Another mobile puzzle game which now involved spotting genetic faults in breast cancer data, provided evidence that the game aspect lowered accuracy. Trailblazer - Latest project, in the form of a web-based application looking at tissue samples identifying the presence and absence of cancer cells. Aimed to improve accuracy by adapting the application after receiving feedback; the charity works in partnership with other organisations. These include the UK Department of Health, the Wellcome Trust, the National Health Service, NICE, the Public Health England National Cancer Registration and Analysis Service, it is one of the partners in the National Cancer Research Institute which includes the Medical Research Council and Leukaemia & Lymphoma Research. It is a major partner in the Francis Crick Institute. Cancer Research UK scientists have been involved in the discovery and development of a number of clinically approved cancer drugs, including: Cisplatin and carboplatin used cytotoxic chemotherapy drugs discovered at the Institute of Cancer Research in London.
Abiraterone, a prostate cancer drug discovered in the Cancer Research UK Centre for Cancer Therapeutics at the Ins
JMB Racing is a racing team from Monaco that competes in sports car racing. It was founded in Nice, France, in 1995 as JB Racing by Jean-Michel Bouresche and Jean-Pierre Jabouille, it was renamed JMB in 2000. JMB relocated its headquarters to Monaco in 2004; the team first raced in the Andros Trophy and the Porsche Pirelli Supercup in the 1995 season, winning the 2 litre class in the first with Jean-Pierre Malcher and Jacques Laffite, taking the title in the second with Malcher, repeating the win the following year with Emmanuel Collard. For 1997, Bouresche and Jabouille went international, purchasing a Porsche 911 GT1 to race in the brand new FIA GT Championship, with Emmanuel Collard and Jürgen von Gartzen taking part in Le Mans; the team was backed by primary sponsor Marlboro. The increased presence of factory teams drove JB Racing away from the FIA GT Championship, so instead the team purchased two Ferrari 333 SPs to race in the International Sports Racing Series from 1998, dropping Marlboro as a sponsor in place of Italian manufacturing firm Giesse.
The French team stayed in this sports-prototype championship for three years, winning the drivers titles with Collard and Vincenzo Sospiri in 1998 and 1999 and David Terrien and Christian Pescatori in 2000, in addition to taking the teams titles for three years in a row. The team ran one Ferrari in the 24 Hours of Le Mans in 1998 and 1999. In 2000 JB, now called JMB made a return to GT racing with the new Ferrari 360 Modena as official Ferrari demonstrator, taking second place overall in the 6 Hours of Vallelunga. In 2001 they switched full-time to GTs, winning the N-GT class in the FIA GT Championship, once more with Terrien and Pescatori, who won the title in 2002. In both occasions, the team title was retained. JMB ran two cars in the 24 Hours of Le Mans, Bouresche created the JMB Racing USA operation to run cars in the international American races, such as the Daytona 24 Hours and Sebring 12 Hours. In 2003, in addition to taking second place in the N-GT category with Andrea Bertolini and Fabrizio De Simone, JMB Racing graduated to the main GT category with a Ferrari 550 Maranello.
However, the French team used the car developed by N. Technology, more troublesome than the Prodrive version, drivers Pescatori and Boris Derichebourg were only competitive after upgrading to the 575 GTC. In 2004, JMB Racing began racing under the Monegasque flag; the team however retained their workshops in Nice. The team scored third place in the FIA GT Championship with two 575 GTCs, in spite of a lack of consistency due to several drivers changes, but still won the Donington race with Karl Wendlinger and Jaime Melo. JMB took the Drivers title in the Le Mans Endurance Series with Roman Rusinov in a 360 Modena and was third in the Italian GT Championship, with the old 550 Maranello. JMB was one of the first teams in the FIA GT to race the brand new Maserati MC12 in 2005. Wendlinger and Bertolini won at Magny-Cours but missed the win at the Spa 24 Hours by two laps, taking third place at the end of the year for the drivers championship, with the team reaching second place; the 575 was used in the LMES as well as at Le Mans.
In 2006, JMB went back to the GT2 class with the new Ferrari 430, but in spite of a win in Silverstone, were outclassed by rivals Scuderia Ecosse as well as the Porsche teams and managed only fourth place in the teams championship at the end. JMB entered three cars in the new FIA GT3 European Championship. In 2007, JMB divided their time between European GT3 and the Le Mans Series; the highlight of the year was Ben Aucott's win of the Citation Cup, a series within the FIA GT for gentleman drivers. The team won one race in the European GT3 series, took second and third in the final round of the LMS at Interlagos. Official website
The Curse of Billy Penn was a curse used to explain the failure of major professional sports teams based in Philadelphia to win championships since the March 1987 construction of the One Liberty Place skyscraper, which exceeded the height of William Penn's statue atop Philadelphia City Hall. The curse ended on October 29, 2008, when the Philadelphia Phillies won the 2008 World Series, a year and four months after a statuette of the William Penn figure atop City Hall was affixed to the final beam during the June 2007 topping-off of the Comcast Center. Atop Philadelphia City Hall stands a statue of William Penn, the city founder and original proprietor of the then-British colony of Pennsylvania. For years, a "gentlemen's agreement" stated that the Philadelphia Art Commission would approve no building in the city which would rise above this statue; this ended in March 1987, when a modern steel-and-glass skyscraper, One Liberty Place, opened three blocks away. One Liberty Place is taller than City Hall by 397 feet, rising 945 feet in height compared to the height of Penn's hat on City Hall, 547 feet.
Its sister skyscraper, Two Liberty Place, at 848 ft, followed in 1990. Philadelphia sports teams had enjoyed a run of success. Major League Baseball's Phillies won the 1983 National League pennant. Before 1980, the Phillies had appeared in only two other World Series, in 1915 and 1950, the Eagles had won no NFC conference championships since the 1966 agreement that had created the Super Bowl, while the 76ers won NBA titles in both Philadelphia and in their previous incarnation, the Syracuse Nationals; the Villanova Wildcats won the 1985 NCAA Division I Men's Basketball tournament, in one of the most famous upsets in sports history. Construction on One Liberty Place began in 1985, two years after the last championship season in Philadelphia. After One Liberty Place opened, Philadelphia's franchises began a pattern of failures to win a world championship; the Flyers lost the Stanley Cup Finals twice, in 1987 to the Edmonton Oilers in seven games, two months after One Liberty Place opened, in 1997, in a four-game sweep by the Detroit Red Wings, considered a collapse as the Flyers had home-ice advantage and had dominated the previous three playoff series en route to meeting the Red Wings.
The Phillies upset the Atlanta Braves to win the NLCS, but lost the 1993 World Series in six games to the Toronto Blue Jays, with the Series ending on Joe Carter's walkoff 3-run home run. The 76ers lost the 2001 NBA Finals to the Los Angeles Lakers in five games, although the defending champion Lakers were favored despite the Sixers having league MVP Allen Iverson; the Eagles lost three straight NFC Championship games from the 2001 through 2003 seasons, before reaching Super Bowl XXXIX after the 2004 season, only to lose to the New England Patriots by three points. In fact, the only years that Philadelphia's franchises reached their league's championship round after One Liberty Place opened were years that U. S. presidents were inaugurated, except for the Flyers in 1987, losses during such years date back to the 76ers loss in 1977. When the Flyers played for the 2010 Stanley Cup, The Ottawa Citizen reported that the main reason for that lengthy championship drought was because the only years the city's teams played for championships during that time were years presidents were inaugurated.
The city's teams had lost championships during such years, beginning with the 76ers themselves in 1977. The exceptions were the Phillies in 1983 and the Flyers in 1987. In addition, losses in semifinal rounds had occurred eight times since the opening of One Liberty Place. Five of these semi-final eliminations were by the Flyers, in 1989, 1995, 2000, 2004 and 2008; the 2000 team was one win away from a Stanley Cup Finals appearance, after leading the eventual champion New Jersey Devils 3-1 before losing three straight, the 2004 team lost Game 7 of the Eastern Conference Finals to the eventual champion Tampa Bay Lightning, the 2008 team lost to their cross-state rival Pittsburgh Penguins in five games. The Eagles accounted for the other three conference-final losses. No other team in NFL history had lost back-to-back conference title games at home since the NFL began its practice in 1975 of awarding home-field advantage in postseason play based on regular-season record; the Eagles lost the 2001 NFC Championship game on the road to the St. Louis Rams 29-24, the 2002 NFC Championship game at home to the Tampa Bay Buccaneers 27-10, the 2003 NFC Championship game to the Carolina Panthers 14-3.
The Rams and Panthers would both lose to the New England Patriots in Super Bowl XXXVI and Super Bowl XXXVIII, while the Buccaneers won Super Bowl XXXVII over the Oakland Raiders. During the period of the alleged Curse of Billy Penn, Philadelphia sports fans were infamous for rude and unsportsmanlike behavior. Fans pelted national TV broadcasters with snowballs and beer during a Cowboys-Eagles game in 1989 known as "Bounty