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Candida (fungus)

Candida is a genus of yeasts and is the most common cause of fungal infections worldwide. Many species are harmless endosymbionts of hosts including humans. Candida is located on most of mucosal surfaces and the gastrointestinal tract, along with the skin. Candida albicans is the most isolated species and can cause infections in humans and other animals. In winemaking, some species of Candida can spoil wines. Many species are found in gut flora, including C. albicans in mammalian hosts, whereas others live as endosymbionts in insect hosts. Systemic infections of the bloodstream and major organs in patients with an impaired immune system, affect over 90,000 people a year in the US; the genome of several Candida species has been sequenced. Antibiotics promote yeast infections, including gastrointestinal Candida overgrowth and penetration of the GI mucosa. While women are more susceptible to genital yeast infections, men can be infected. Certain factors, such as prolonged antibiotic use, increase the risk for both women.

People with diabetes or the immunocompromised, such as those infected with HIV, are more susceptible to yeast infections. Candida antarctica and Candida rugosa are a source of industrially important lipases, while Candida krusei is prominently used to ferment cacao during chocolate production. Candida rugosa is used as an enzyme supplement to support fat digestion with its broad specificity for lipid hydrolysis; when grown in a laboratory, Candida appears as large, white or cream colonies, which emit a yeasty odor on agar plates at room temperature. C. Albicans ferments glucose and maltose to acid and gas, sucrose to acid, does not ferment lactose, which helps to distinguish it from other Candida species. Recent molecular phylogenetic studies show that the genus Candida, as defined, is polyphyletic. Before the advent of inexpensive molecular methods, yeasts that were isolated from infected patients were called Candida without clear evidence of relationship to other Candida species. For example, Candida glabrata, Candida guilliermondii, Candida lusitaniae are misclassified and will be placed in other genera once phylogenetic reorganization is complete.

Some species of Candida use a non-standard genetic code in the translation of their nuclear genes into the amino acid sequences of polypeptides. The difference in the genetic code between species possessing this alternative code is that the codon CUG is translated by the yeast as a different amino acid, serine; the alternative translation of the CUG codon in these species is due to a novel nucleic acid sequence in the serine-tRNA, which has a guanosine located at position 33, 5' to the anticodon. In all other tRNAs, this position is occupied by a pyrimidine; this genetic code change is the only such known alteration in cytoplasmic mRNA, in both the prokaryotes, the eukaryotes, involving the reassignment of a sense codon. This novel genetic code may be a mechanism for more rapid adaptation to the organism's environment, as well as playing an important role in the evolution of the genus Candida by creating genetic barriers that encouraged speciation. Candida are universal in low numbers on healthy adult skin and C. albicans is part of the normal flora of the mucous membranes of the respiratory and female genital tracts.

The dryness of skin compared to other tissues prevents the growth of the fungus, but damaged skin or skin in intertriginous regions is more amenable to rapid growth. Overgrowth of several species, including C. albicans, can cause infections ranging from superficial, such as oropharyngeal candidiasis or vulvovaginal candidiasis and subpreputial candidiasis which may cause balanitis. Oral candidiasis is common in elderly denture-wearers. In otherwise healthy individuals, these superficial infections can be cured with topical or systemic antifungal medications. In debilitated or immunocompromised patients, or if introduced intravenously, candidiasis may become a systemic disease producing abscesses, endocarditis, or infections of the eyes or other organs. Severe neutropenia is a prerequisite for Candida to pass through the defenses of the skin and cause disease in deeper tissues; the most common way to treat invasive candida infections is with the use of amphotericin or fluconazole. C. albicans has been used in combination with carbon nanotubes to produce stable electrically-conductive bio-nano-composite tissue materials that have been used as temperature-sensing elements.

Among Candida species, C. albicans, a normal constituent of the human flora, a commensal of the skin and the gastrointestinal and genitourinary tracts, is responsible for the majority of Candida bloodstream infections. Yet, there is an increasing incidence of infections caused by C. glabrata and C. rugosa, which could be because they are less susceptible to the used azole-

HM Prison Stoke Heath

HM Prison Stoke Heath is an adult male Category C prison and Young Offenders Institution, located in the village of Stoke Heath in Shropshire, England. The prison is operated by Her Majesty's Prison Service. Stoke Heath was built in 1964 as a Category C prison for adult males, it was converted to a Borstal 2 years and, up until 2011, was used to hold Young Offenders. The establishment now houses prisoners over the age of 18. At the beginning of December 2004 the Howard League for Penal Reform accused Stoke Heath of abusing the human rights of young offenders; the Howard League’s main criticism was concerned with the use of strip cells by the staff of Stoke Heath. In October 2006 four prison officers were injured in a riot involving more than 30 inmates at Stoke Heath. None of the inmates were injured during the disturbance. In 2007 a spot inspection criticised Stoke Heath for failing to make improvements recommended in a 2005 inspection; the inspectorate recommended that the prison must refurbish its "unacceptably grubby" segregation unit and establish proper risk assessments for strip searches.

In 2013 Stoke Heath implemented the pepper course to help reintegrate offenders back into the community using the pepper principals. Stoke Heath houses Young Offenders of 18 years and above; because of this and training for inmates is the main focus of the prison. Education and training courses are provided by The Manchester College. A variety of courses and vocational training placements are offered, most of which can lead to NVQ qualifications in related fields. In addition the prisons gym and sports department offer various physical education courses, as well as being available for recreational use; the prison has a multi-faith chaplaincy. Ministry of Justice pages on Stoke Heath


Oz. is a common abbreviation for ounce, referring to several units of measure. Oz or OZ may refer to: Land of Oz, the setting for many of L. Frank Baum's novels Oz, a character from the TV series Oz, a manga character OZ, a mutagen OZ, a virtual world, virtual reality in the movie, Summer Wars Leonard "Oz" Osbourne, a Geordie bricklayer in British TV series Auf Wiedersehen, played by Jimmy Nail Chris Ostreicher, a character in the American Pie film series Nicholas "Oz" Oseransky, a character in the comedy film, The Whole Nine Yards and its sequel, The Whole Ten Yards. Organization of the Zodiac, or Oz, an organization in the anime series Mobile Suit Gundam Wing Oz Vessalius, a protagonist in the manga Pandora Hearts Oz, a playable character in Call of Duty: Advanced Warfare's Exo Zombies mode Wizard of Oz known as "Oz" Oz, a comic book series based on The Wizard of Oz Oz, a mini-series Oz Oz, a future city in Australia Oz, a manga by Natsumi Itsuki Oz, a heavy metal band Oz, a rock band Oz, a 2014 album FZ:OZ, an album by Frank Zappa Oz, the soundtrack for the HBO television series OZ, a record producer from Switzerland Oz by Machine Gun Kelly an artist Oz, an Australia/UK underground satire magazine published from 1963 to 1973 The Oz, a nickname for the newspaper The Australian OZ - Danish radio amateur magazine published by Experimenterende Danske Radioamatører.

Oz, an HBO-produced prison drama Oz, an Australian update of The Wizard of Oz Oz the Great and Powerful, a 2013 American fantasy adventure film OZ - Over Zenith, a game for the PlayStation 2 Oz: Into the Wild, a novel featuring the Buffy the Vampire Slayer character Oz OZ Group, an Italian wheel manufacturer OZ Minerals, an Australian mining company Circus Oz, an Australian circus group The Oz Film Manufacturing Company, an independent film studio from 1914 to 1915, co-founded by L. Frank Baum CHOZ-FM, a Canadian radio station based in St. John's, Newfoundland and Labrador, known as OZ FM Asiana Airlines Ozark Air Lines Oz, a list of people Oz, a list of people with either the given name or nickname O. Z. Whitehead, American character actor Oz Fox, stage name of Richard Alfonso Martinez, lead guitarist of the Christian glam metal band Stryper Oz, ring name of Kevin Nash, American semi-retired professional wrestler Oz, stage name of Rylan Durham as a rapper of Part-Timers. Local to New Mexico with two other rappers, A.

Z. O. T. H. and Azimuth Rane Frank Oz, American puppeteer and actor. A nickname for Australia.

Bangiya Sahitya Parishad

Bangiya Sahitya Parishad is a literary society in Kolkata, West Bengal, India. Established during the time of the British Raj, its goal is to promote Bengali literature, both by translating works in other languages to Bengali and promoting the production of original Bengali literature; the organisation was founded by L. Leotard and Kshetrapal Chakraborty in 1893, it was known as'The Bengal Academy of Literature'. On 29 April 1894, the name of the society itself was changed to'Vangiya Sahitya Parishad'. 1894 saw the first officers, with Romesh Chunder Dutt as the first president and Rabindranath Tagore and Navinchandra Sen as vice presidents. That same year saw the first publication of the society's journal in English as most business of the society was, in Bengali. 1900 saw Satyendranath Tagore, made President. The society, which moved into its permanent home in 1909 expanded to over 30 branch offices, its notable members have included Debendra Prasad Ghosh, Romesh Chunder Dutt, Sajanikanta Das and Ramendra Sundar Tribedi

Henry Cowell Redwoods State Park

Henry Cowell Redwoods State Park is a state park of California, USA, preserving forest and riparian areas in the watershed of the San Lorenzo River, including a grove of old-growth coast redwood. It is located in Santa Cruz County in the area between the cities of Santa Cruz and Scotts Valley, near the community of Felton and the University of California at Santa Cruz; the park includes a non-contiguous extension in the Fall Creek area north of Felton. The 4,623-acre park was established in 1954; the main park covers 1,750 acres, the separate Fall Creek unit contains an additional 2,390 acres. The park lies within the southern end of the Northern California coastal forests ecoregion. In the numerous stream canyons live large populations of coast redwood, coast Douglas fir, California bay laurel, tanbark oak, California hazelnut, bigleaf maple and many other native species. Up-slope from the redwood forest are found transitional tree species such as Pacific madrone, along with a stand of Ponderosa pine, rare at such a low elevation.

Some of the highest and driest ridge slopes in the park support unusual chaparral communities known as "elfin forests" in addition to the rare and unique Santa Cruz Sandhills community. The old-growth grove of coast redwood 40 acres in size, is located in the original section of the park, surrounded by many species of fern and plentiful redwood sorrel. Surrounding areas, including the non-contiguous Fall Creek unit, were logged extensively in the mid-to-late 1800s for lumber and as fuel for the many lime kilns that used to operate in the area, such as the ones preserved at nearby Cowell Lime Works. Logging activities ceased by the 1920s, the second growth redwoods are now up to several feet in diameter. Both portions of the park have much to offer nature enthusiasts. Hiking, seasonal camping, a few horse dog-friendly and mountain biking trails, shopping at the Mountain Parks Nature Store await visitors to this park. Next door to the main parking lot is Big Trees Narrow Gauge Railroad. There are over 15 miles of hiking trails, some of which lead to small, isolated sandy beaches on the San Lorenzo River, others with overlook views of the Santa Cruz Mountains, with peeks at Monterey Bay.

The park has a more modern visitor center, open year-round to the public, is staffed by California Parks employees and volunteer docents. Additionally, the Mountain Parks Nature Store is open during most park hours, there is a direct entrance from the park's main parking lot to the grounds of Roaring Camp and Big Trees Railroad; the Redwood Grove comprises old-growth "virgin" redwoods, the oldest trees of which are 1,400–1,800 years old and grow to 300 feet tall and over 16 feet in diameter. Referred to by locals as "the loop," the grove is a self-guided walk—but on most summer weekends, many other times year-round, free guided walks led by docents or park employees are available. Featured on the loop are unique old-growth redwoods, including one with albino growth lignotubers and the John C. Fremont tree. Next to the park's entrance kiosk, all three known types of redwood trees, the Coast Redwood, the Giant Sequoia, the Dawn Redwood are planted together, providing a unique place to compare and contrast the members of this family of trees.

This park provides a good environment for the study of different habitats. Habitats in this park changing back and forth within a few hundred feet of one another, include riparian, sandhill community, mixed evergreen, redwood forests. Anglers fish for salmon during the winter. There is a picnic area overlooking the San Lorenzo River. Besides roads, the park may be reached by the Santa Cruz, Big Trees and Pacific Railway. Tent and RV camping with no hook ups are available several miles from the main entrance to the park; the Garden of Eden is a popular swimming hole in the San Lorenzo River within Henry Cowell Redwoods State Park. It is accessible via Ox Fire Road off Highway 9 and has a parking area located 0.75 miles south of the park’s main entrance. This route requires 1.5 miles of hiking, with an elevation change of 200 feet. The water depth at the Garden of Eden is insufficient to cushion the many large, sharp rocks on the pool's bottom and, as such diving is not permitted. Alcohol, dogs and glass containers are prohibited in the area.

The northern extension of Henry Cowell State Park, called Fall Creek Unit, contains over 20 miles of hiking trails along the creeks that flow year-round and make beautiful mini waterfalls during the rainy season. There is an 18-hole Disc Golf course run by a local school. Along Fall Creek are the ruins of a 19th-century lime manufacturing operation, including a quarry and lime kilns built by I. X. L. Lime Company; the lime works were acquired by industrialist Henry Cowell. The Fall Creek in Santa Cruz County originates near Empire Grade Road, flows 4–5 miles South and South-East, before it meets San Lorenzo River, east of Highway 9. Dogs and bicycles are not allowed in the Fall Creek Unit. During the 1830s and 40s, when California was still part of Mexico, large land grants were created, called "ranchos"; the lands now included. Rancho Cañada del Rincon en el Rio San Loren

Umlesh Yadav

Umlesh Yadav is an Indian politician. She is the first politician to be disqualified by the Election Commission of India for a period of three years for suppression of her election expenses incurred when she was elected as an MLA to the Bisauli constituency in the 2007 Uttar Pradesh state assembly elections, she is the wife of the politician D. P. Yadav; the Yadav family, who became wealthy through the liquor business, may be the richest political family in Uttar Pradesh, with declared net assets of Rs. 260 million. She is the mother of Vikas Yadav, convicted murderer of Nitish Katara, convicted in the Jessica Lal murder case; the murder of Katara was perpetrated because her daughter Bharti Yadav had fallen in love with Nitish. Bharti Yadav got married on 1 November 2009 to a Gurgaon based businessman Yatin Rao, a son of a Haryana government officer. In October 2011, the Election Commission of India disqualified Yadav, the sitting MLA from Bisauli in Uttar Pradesh, under Section 10-A of the Representation of the People Act 1951 for a period of three years for failing to provide a "true and correct account" of her election expenses.

She had failed to include in her official poll accounts the amount she spent on advertisements, dressed up as news, in two Hindi dailies, Dainik Jagran and Amar Ujala, during her 2007 election campaign. The case arose out of an adjudication by the Press Council of India on the complaint of a losing candidate against the two dailies for publishing paid news. After holding the newspapers "guilty of ethical violations" and issuing a caution to them, the Council sent its adjudication to the ECI "for such action as deemed fit by them". No sitting MP or MLA before Ms Yadav, wife of a liquor baron and strongman, has been disqualified by the ECI on grounds of excessive expenditure – and none on account of paid news; this is the first verdict in the paid news saga – a scandal that has hurt the credibility of the Indian news media and demoralised journalists. In its 23-page order, the ECI made the wider and vital observation that "by suppressing expenditure on'paid news' and filing an incorrect or false account, the candidate involved is guilty of not circumventing the law relating to election expenses but of resorting to false propaganda by projecting a wrong picture and defrauding the electorate"