In the history of Europe, the Middle Ages lasted from the 5th to the 15th century. It began with the fall of the Western Roman Empire and merged into the Renaissance and the Age of Discovery; the Middle Ages is the middle period of the three traditional divisions of Western history: classical antiquity, the medieval period, the modern period. The medieval period is itself subdivided into the Early and Late Middle Ages. Population decline, counterurbanisation, collapse of centralized authority and mass migrations of tribes, which had begun in Late Antiquity, continued in the Early Middle Ages; the large-scale movements of the Migration Period, including various Germanic peoples, formed new kingdoms in what remained of the Western Roman Empire. In the 7th century, North Africa and the Middle East—once part of the Byzantine Empire—came under the rule of the Umayyad Caliphate, an Islamic empire, after conquest by Muhammad's successors. Although there were substantial changes in society and political structures, the break with classical antiquity was not complete.
The still-sizeable Byzantine Empire, Rome's direct continuation, survived in the Eastern Mediterranean and remained a major power. The empire's law code, the Corpus Juris Civilis or "Code of Justinian", was rediscovered in Northern Italy in 1070 and became admired in the Middle Ages. In the West, most kingdoms incorporated the few extant Roman institutions. Monasteries were founded; the Franks, under the Carolingian dynasty established the Carolingian Empire during the 8th and early 9th century. It covered much of Western Europe but succumbed to the pressures of internal civil wars combined with external invasions: Vikings from the north, Magyars from the east, Saracens from the south. During the High Middle Ages, which began after 1000, the population of Europe increased as technological and agricultural innovations allowed trade to flourish and the Medieval Warm Period climate change allowed crop yields to increase. Manorialism, the organisation of peasants into villages that owed rent and labour services to the nobles, feudalism, the political structure whereby knights and lower-status nobles owed military service to their overlords in return for the right to rent from lands and manors, were two of the ways society was organised in the High Middle Ages.
The Crusades, first preached in 1095, were military attempts by Western European Christians to regain control of the Holy Land from Muslims. Kings became the heads of centralised nation-states, reducing crime and violence but making the ideal of a unified Christendom more distant. Intellectual life was marked by scholasticism, a philosophy that emphasised joining faith to reason, by the founding of universities; the theology of Thomas Aquinas, the paintings of Giotto, the poetry of Dante and Chaucer, the travels of Marco Polo, the Gothic architecture of cathedrals such as Chartres are among the outstanding achievements toward the end of this period and into the Late Middle Ages. The Late Middle Ages was marked by difficulties and calamities including famine and war, which diminished the population of Europe. Controversy and the Western Schism within the Catholic Church paralleled the interstate conflict, civil strife, peasant revolts that occurred in the kingdoms. Cultural and technological developments transformed European society, concluding the Late Middle Ages and beginning the early modern period.
The Middle Ages is one of the three major periods in the most enduring scheme for analysing European history: classical civilisation, or Antiquity. The "Middle Ages" first appears in Latin in 1469 as media tempestas or "middle season". In early usage, there were many variants, including medium aevum, or "middle age", first recorded in 1604, media saecula, or "middle ages", first recorded in 1625; the alternative term "medieval" derives from medium aevum. Medieval writers divided history into periods such as the "Six Ages" or the "Four Empires", considered their time to be the last before the end of the world; when referring to their own times, they spoke of them as being "modern". In the 1330s, the humanist and poet Petrarch referred to pre-Christian times as antiqua and to the Christian period as nova. Leonardo Bruni was the first historian to use tripartite periodisation in his History of the Florentine People, with a middle period "between the fall of the Roman Empire and the revival of city life sometime in late eleventh and twelfth centuries".
Tripartite periodisation became standard after the 17th-century German historian Christoph Cellarius divided history into three periods: ancient and modern. The most given starting point for the Middle Ages is around 500, with the date of 476 first used by Bruni. Starting dates are sometimes used in the outer parts of Europe. For Europe as a whole, 1500 is considered to be the end of the Middle Ages, but there is no universally agreed upon end date. Depending on the context, events such as the conquest of Constantinople by the Turks in 1453, Christopher Columbus's first voyage to the Americas in 1492, or the Protestant Reformation in 1517 are sometimes used. English historians use the Battle of Bosworth Field in 1485 to mark the end of the period. For Spain, dates used are the death of King Ferdinand II in 1516, the death of Queen Isabella I of Castile in 1504, or the conquest of Granada in 1492. Historians from Romance-speaking countries tend to divide the Middle Ages into two parts: an earlier "High" and late
St Andrews Cathedral
The Cathedral of St Andrew is a ruined Roman Catholic cathedral in St Andrews, Scotland. It was built in 1158 and became the centre of the Medieval Catholic Church in Scotland as the seat of the Archdiocese of St Andrews and the Bishops and Archbishops of St Andrews, it fell into disuse and ruin after Catholic mass was outlawed during the 16th-century Scottish Reformation. It is a monument in the custody of Historic Environment Scotland; the ruins indicate that the building was 119 m long, is the largest church to have been built in Scotland. The cathedral was founded to supply more accommodation than the older church of St. Regulus afforded; this older church, located on what became the cathedral grounds, had been built in the Romanesque style. Today, there remains the square tower, 33 metres high, the quire, of diminutive proportions. On a plan of the town from about 1531, a chancel appears, seals affixed to the city and college charters bear representations of other buildings attached. To the east is an older religious site, the Church of St Mary on the Rock, the Culdee house that became a Collegiate Church.
Work continued for over a century. The west end was blown down in a storm and rebuilt between 1272 and 1279; the Cathedral was completed in 1318 and featured a central tower and six turrets. On the 5th of July it was consecrated in the presence of King Robert I, according to legend rode up the aisle on his horse. A fire destroyed the building in 1378; the cathedral was served by a community of Augustinian Canons, the St Andrews Cathedral Priory, which were successors to the Culdees of the Celtic church. Greyfriar and Blackfriar friars had properties in the town by the late 15th century and as late as 1518. In June 1559 during the reformation, a Protestant mob incited by the preaching of John Knox ransacked the Cathedral, the interior of the building was destroyed; the Cathedral fell into decline following the attack and became a source of building material for the town. By 1561 it had been left to fall into ruin. At about the end of the sixteenth century the central tower gave way, carrying with it the north wall.
Afterwards large portions of the ruins were taken away for building purposes, nothing was done to preserve them until 1826. Since it has been tended with scrupulous care, an interesting feature being the cutting out of the ground-plan in the turf; the principal portions extant Norman and Early Scottish, are the east and west gables, the greater part of the south wall of the nave and the west wall of the south transept. At the end of the seventeenth century some of the priory buildings remained entire and considerable remains of others existed, but nearly all traces have now disappeared except portions of the priory wall and the archways, known as The Pends. St Rule's tower is located in the Cathedral grounds but predates it, having served as the church of the priory up to the early 12th century; the building was retained to allow worship to continue uninterrupted during the building of its much larger successor. The tower and adjoining choir were part of the church built in the 11th century to house the relics of St Andrew.
The nave, with twin western turrets, the apse of the church no longer stand. The church's original appearance is illustrated in stylised form on some of the early seals of the Cathedral Priory. Legend credits St Rule with bringing relics of St Andrew to the area from their original location at Patras in Greece. Today the tower commands an admirable view of the town, harbour and surrounding countryside. Beautifully built in grey sandstone ashlar, immensely tall, it is a land- and sea-mark seen from many miles away, its prominence doubtless meant to guide pilgrims to the place of the Apostle's relics. In the Middle Ages a spire atop the tower made it more prominent; the tower was ascended using ladders between wooden floors, but a stone spiral staircase was inserted in the 18th century. Roger de Beaumont William Wishart William de Lamberton William Fraser William de Landallis James Kennedy Andrew Forman Very Rev John Adamson DD John Anderson, Principal of St Leonards College Rev Alexander Anderson son of above Rev Prof George Buist DD Robert Chambers Rev Prof George Cook DD FRSE Rev Prof John Cook DD FRSE Rev Prof William Crawford DD father of Thomas Jackson Crawford Sir Robert Anstruther Dalyell Prof James Donaldson Adam Ferguson Andrew Forman Rev Prof James Gillespie Rev Prof Thomas Gillespie, Professor of Humanity Robert Haldane Thomas Halyburton Matthew Forster Heddle George Hill Prof Henry David Hill Rev Prof James Hunter Prof Thomas Jackson FRSE David Miller Kay, military hero and missionary Prof Peter Redford Scott Lang, mathematician Rev Prof John McGill LLD, translator of the Old Testament Norman MacLeod Young Tom Morris Old Tom Morris William Henry Murray Rev Francis Nicoll DD Principal of St Salvator's College, St Andrews Hugh Lyon Playfair Rev James Playfair
Iona is a small island in the Inner Hebrides off the Ross of Mull on the western coast of Scotland. It is known for Iona Abbey, though there are other buildings on the island. Iona Abbey was a centre of Gaelic monasticism for three centuries and is today known for its relative tranquility and natural environment, it is a place for spiritual retreats. Its modern Gaelic name means "Iona of Columba"; the Hebrides have been occupied by the speakers of several languages since the Iron Age, as a result many of the names of these islands have more than one possible meaning. Nonetheless few, if any, can have accumulated so many different names over the centuries as the island now known in English as "Iona"; the earliest forms of the name enabled place-name scholar William J. Watson to show that the name meant something like "yew-place"; the element Ivo-, denoting "yew", occurs in Ogham inscriptions and in Gaulish names and may form the basis of early Gaelic names like Eogan. It is possible that the name is related to the mythological figure, Fer hÍ mac Eogabail, foster-son of Manannan, the forename meaning "man of the yew".
Mac an Tàilleir lists the more recent Gaelic names of Ì, Ì Chaluim Chille and Eilean Idhe noting that the first named is "generally lengthened to avoid confusion" to the second, which means "Calum's Iona" or "island of Calum's monastery". The possible confusion results from "ì", despite its original etymology, becoming a Gaelic noun meaning "island". Eilean Idhe means "the isle of Iona" known as Ì nam ban bòidheach; the modern English name comes of yet another variant, either just Adomnán's attempt to make the Gaelic name fit Latin grammar or else a genuine derivative from Ivova. Ioua's change to Iona, attested from c.1274, results from a transcription mistake resulting from the similarity of "n" and "u" in Insular Minuscule. Despite the continuity of forms in Gaelic between the pre-Norse and post-Norse eras, Haswell-Smith speculates that the name may have a Norse connection, Hiōe meaning "island of the den of the brown bear", The medieval English language version was "Icolmkill". Murray claims that the "ancient" Gaelic name was Innis nan Druinich and repeats a Gaelic story that as Columba's coracle first drew close to the island one of his companions cried out "Chì mi i" meaning "I see her" and that Columba's response was "Henceforth we shall call her Ì".
Iona lies about 2 kilometres from the coast of Mull. It is about 2 kilometres wide and 6 kilometres long with a resident population of 125; the geology of the island consists of Precambrian Lewisian gneiss with Torridonian sedimentary rocks on the eastern side and small outcrops of pink granite on the eastern beaches. Like other places swept by ocean breezes, there are few trees. Iona's highest point is Dùn Ì, 101 metres, an Iron Age hill fort dating from 100 BC – AD 200. Iona's geographical features include the Bay at the Back of the Ocean and Càrn Cùl ri Éirinn, said to be adjacent to the beach where St. Columba first landed; the main settlement, located at St. Ronan's Bay on the eastern side of the island, is called Baile Mòr and is known locally as "The Village"; the primary school, post office, the island's two hotels, the Bishop's House and the ruins of the Nunnery are here. The Abbey and MacLeod Centre are a short walk to the north. Port Bàn beach on the west side of the island is home to the Iona Beach Party.
There are numerous offshore islets and skerries: Eilean Annraidh and Eilean Chalbha to the north, Rèidh Eilean and Stac MhicMhurchaidh to the west and Eilean Mùsimul and Soa Island to the south are amongst the largest. The steamer Cathcart Park carrying a cargo of salt from Runcorn to Wick ran aground on Soa on 15 April 1912, the crew of 11 escaping in two boats. On a map of 1874, the following territorial subdivision is indicated: Ceann Tsear Sliabh Meanach Machar Sliginach Sliabh Siar Staonaig In the early Historic Period Iona lay within the Gaelic kingdom of Dál Riata, in the region controlled by the Cenél Loairn; the island was the site of a important monastery during the Early Middle Ages. According to tradition the monastery was founded in 563 by the monk Columba known as Colm Cille, exiled from his native Ireland as a result of his involvement in the Battle of Cul Dreimhne. Columba and twelve companions founded a monastery there; the monastery was hugely successful, played a crucial role in the conversion to Christianity of the Picts of present-day Scotland in the late 6th century and of the Anglo-Saxon kingdom of Northumbria in 635.
Many satellite institutions were founded, Iona became the centre of one of the most important monastic systems in Great Britain and Ireland. Iona became a renowned centre of learning, its scriptorium produced important documents including the original texts of the Iona Chronicle, thought to be the source for the early Irish annals; the monastery is associated with the distinctive practices and traditions known as Celtic Christianity. In particular, Iona was a major supporter of the "Celtic" system for calculating the date of Easter at the time of the Easter controversy, whi
A cathedral is a Catholic church that contains the cathedra of a bishop, thus serving as the central church of a diocese, conference, or episcopate. The equivalent word in German for such a church is Dom. Churches with the function of "cathedral" are specific to those Christian denominations with an episcopal hierarchy, such as the Catholic, Anglican and some Lutheran and Methodist churches. Church buildings embodying the functions of a cathedral first appeared in Italy, Gaul and North Africa in the 4th century, but cathedrals did not become universal within the Western Catholic Church until the 12th century, by which time they had developed architectural forms, institutional structures and legal identities distinct from parish churches, monastic churches and episcopal residences. In the Eastern Orthodox Church, the English word "cathedral" translates as katholikon, meaning "assembly", but this title is applied to monastic and other major churches without episcopal responsibilities; when the church at which an archbishop or "metropolitan" presides is intended, the term kathedrikós naós is used.
Following the Protestant Reformation, the Christian church in several parts of Western Europe, such as Scotland, the Netherlands, certain Swiss Cantons and parts of Germany, adopted a Presbyterian polity that did away with bishops altogether. Where ancient cathedral buildings in these lands are still in use for congregational worship, they retain the title and dignity of "cathedral", maintaining and developing distinct cathedral functions, but void of hierarchical supremacy. From the 16th century onwards, but since the 19th century, churches originating in Western Europe have undertaken vigorous programmes of missionary activity, leading to the founding of large numbers of new dioceses with associated cathedral establishments of varying forms in Asia, Australasia and the Americas. In addition, both the Catholic Church and Orthodox churches have formed new dioceses within Protestant lands for converts and migrant co-religionists, it is not uncommon to find Christians in a single city being served by three or more cathedrals of differing denominations.
In the Catholic or Roman Catholic tradition, the term "cathedral" applies only to a church that houses the seat of the bishop of a diocese. The abbey church of a territorial abbacy does not acquire the title. In any other jurisdiction canonically equivalent to a diocese but not canonically erected as such, the church that serves this function is called the "principal church" of the respective entity—though some have coopted the term "cathedral" anyway; the Catholic Church uses the following terms. A pro-cathedral is a parish or other church used temporarily as a cathedral while the cathedral of a diocese is under construction, renovation, or repair; this designation applies. A co-cathedral is a second cathedral in a diocese; this situation can arise in various ways such as a merger of two former dioceses, preparation to split a diocese, or perceived need to perform cathedral functions in a second location due to the expanse of the diocesan territory. A proto-cathedral is the former cathedral of a transferred.
The cathedral church of a metropolitan bishop is called a metropolitan cathedral. The term "cathedral" carries no implication as to the size or ornateness of the building. Most cathedrals are impressive edifices. Thus, the term "cathedral" is applied colloquially to any large and impressive church, regardless of whether it functions as a cathedral, such as the Crystal Cathedral in California or the Arctic Cathedral in Tromsø, Norway. Although the builders of Crystal Cathedral never intended the building to be a true cathedral, the Roman Catholic Diocese of Orange purchased the building and the surrounding campus in February 2012 for use as a new cathedral church; the building is now under renovation and restoration for solemn dedication under the title "Christ Cathedral" in 2019. The word "cathedral" is derived from the French cathédrale, from the Latin cathedra, from the Greek καθέδρα kathédra, "seat, bench", from κατά kata "down" and ἕδρα hedra "seat, chair." The word refers to the presence and prominence of the bishop's or archbishop's chair or throne, raised above both clergy and laity, located facing the congregation from behind the High Altar.
In the ancient world, the chair, on a raised dais, was the distinctive mark of a teacher or rhetor and thus symbolises the bishop's role as teacher. A raised throne within a basilican hall was definitive for a Late Antique presiding magistrate; the episcopal throne embodies the principle that only a bishop makes a cathedral, this still applies in those churches that no longer have bishops, but retain cathedral dignity and functions in ancient churches over which bishops presided. But the throne can embody the principle that a cathedral makes a bishop.
A pilgrimage is a journey or search of moral or spiritual significance. It is a journey to a shrine or other location of importance to a person's beliefs and faith, although sometimes it can be a metaphorical journey into someone's own beliefs. Many religions attach spiritual importance to particular places: the place of birth or death of founders or saints, or to the place of their "calling" or spiritual awakening, or of their connection with the divine, to locations where miracles were performed or witnessed, or locations where a deity is said to live or be "housed", or any site, seen to have special spiritual powers; such sites may be commemorated with shrines or temples that devotees are encouraged to visit for their own spiritual benefit: to be healed or have questions answered or to achieve some other spiritual benefit. A person who makes such a journey is called a pilgrim; as a common human experience, pilgrimage has been proposed as a Jungian archetype by Wallace Clift and Jean Dalby Clift.
The Holy Land acts as a focal point for the pilgrimages of the Abrahamic religions of Judaism and Islam. According to a Stockholm University study in 2011, these pilgrims visit the Holy Land to touch and see physical manifestations of their faith, confirm their beliefs in the holy context with collective excitation, connect to the Holy Land. Bahá'u'lláh decreed pilgrimage to two places in the Kitáb-i-Aqdas: the House of Bahá'u'lláh in Baghdad and the House of the Báb in Shiraz, Iran. `Abdu'l-Bahá designated the Shrine of Bahá'u'lláh at Bahji, Israel as a site of pilgrimage. The designated sites for pilgrimage are not accessible to the majority of Bahá'ís, as they are in Iraq and Iran and thus when Bahá'ís refer to pilgrimage, it refers to a nine-day pilgrimage which consists of visiting the holy places at the Bahá'í World Centre in northwest Israel in Haifa and Bahjí. There are four places that Buddhists pilgrimage to: Lumbini: Buddha's birthplace Bodh Gaya: place of Enlightenment Sarnath: where he delivered his first teaching Kusinara: where he attained mahaparinirvana.
Other pilgrimage places in India and Nepal connected to the life of Gautama Buddha are: Savatthi, Nalanda, Vesali, Kapilavastu, Rajagaha. Other famous places for Buddhist pilgrimage include: India: Sanchi, Ajanta. Thailand: Sukhothai, Wat Phra Kaew, Wat Doi Suthep. Tibet: Lhasa, Mount Kailash, Lake Nam-tso. Cambodia: Angkor Wat, Silver Pagoda. Sri Lanka: Polonnaruwa, Temple of the Tooth, Anuradhapura. Laos: Luang Prabang. Malaysia: Kek Lok Si, Cheng Hoon Teng, Maha Vihara Myanmar: Bagan, Sagaing Hill. Nepal: Boudhanath, Swayambhunath. Indonesia: Borobudur. China: Yung-kang, Lung-men caves; the Four Sacred Mountains Japan: Shikoku Pilgrimage, 88 Temple pilgrimage in the Shikoku island. Japan 100 Kannon, pilgrimage composed of the Bandō and Chichibu pilgrimages. Saigoku 33 Kannon, pilgrimage in the Kansai region. Bandō 33 Kannon, pilgrimage in the Kantō region. Chichibu 34 Kannon, pilgrimage in Saitama Prefecture. Chūgoku 33 Kannon, pilgrimage in the Chūgoku region. Kumano Kodō Mount Kōya. Christian pilgrimage was first made to sites connected with the birth, life and resurrection of Jesus.
Aside from the early example of Origen in the third century, surviving descriptions of Christian pilgrimages to the Holy Land date from the 4th century, when pilgrimage was encouraged by church fathers including Saint Jerome, established by Saint Helena, the mother of Constantine the Great. The purpose of Christian pilgrimage was summarized by Pope Benedict XVI this way:To go on pilgrimage is not to visit a place to admire its treasures of nature, art or history. To go on pilgrimage means to step out of ourselves in order to encounter God where he has revealed himself, where his grace has shone with particular splendour and produced rich fruits of conversion and holiness among those who believe. Above all, Christians go on pilgrimage to the Holy Land, to the places associated with the Lord’s passion and resurrection, they go to Rome, the city of the martyrdom of Peter and Paul, to Compostela, associated with the memory of Saint James, has welcomed pilgrims from throughout the world who desire to strengthen their spirit with the Apostle’s witness of faith and love.
Pilgrimages were, are made to Rome and other sites associated with the apostles and Christian martyrs, as well as to places where there have been apparitions of the Virgin Mary. A popular pilgrimage journey is along the Way of St. James to the Santiago de Compostela Cathedral, in Galicia, where the shrine of the apostle James is located. A combined pilgrimage was held every seven years in the three nearby towns of Maastricht and Kornelimünster where many important relics could be seen. Chaucer's The Canterbury Tales recounts tales told by Christian pilgrims on their way to Canterbury Cathedral and the shrine of Thomas Becket. According to Karel Werner's Popular Dictionary of Hinduism, "most Hindu places of pilgrimage are associated with legendary events from the lives of various gods.... Any place can become a focus for pilgrimage, but in most cases they are sacred cities, rivers and mountains." Hindus are encouraged to undertake pilgrimages during their lifetime, though this practice is not considered mandatory.
Most Hindus visit sites within their locale. Kumbh Mela: Kumbh Mela is one of the largest gatherings of humans in the world where pilgrims gather to
Iona Abbey is located on the Isle of Iona, just off the Isle of Mull on the West Coast of Scotland. It is one of the oldest Christian religious centres in Western Europe; the abbey was a focal point for the spread of Christianity throughout Scotland and marks the foundation of a monastic community by St. Columba, when Iona was part of the Kingdom of Dál Riata. Saint Aidan served as a monk at Iona, before helping to reestablish Christianity in Northumberland, on the island of Lindisfarne Iona Abbey is the spiritual home of the Iona Community, an ecumenical Christian religious order, whose headquarters are in Glasgow; the Abbey remains a popular site of Christian pilgrimage today. In 563, Columba came to Iona from Ireland with twelve companions, founded a monastery, it developed as an influential centre for the spread of Christianity among the Scots. At this time the name of the island and so the abbey was "Hy" or "Hii"; the prime purpose of the monastery was to create'a perfect monastery as an image of the heavenly city of Jerusalem' – Columba wanted to'represent the pinnacle of Christian virtues, as an example for others to emulate' - rather than explicitly missionary activity.
The monks worked daily, following Celtic Christianity practices and disciplines. They managed assets and were involved with the local and wider community. Like other Celtic Christian monasteries, Columba's monastery would have been made up of a number of wattle and timber, or wood and thatch, buildings; these would have included a central church or oratory, the common refectory or kitchen, the library or scriptorium, monk cells or dormitories, a guest house for visitors including pilgrims. It is believed. Columba's monastery was surrounded by a ditch and earth bank, part of, believed to have pre-existed Columba's arrival, part of which can still be seen to the north west of the current abbey buildings. Adomnán describes a building on a small mound, Torr an Aba, in the monastery grounds where St Columba worked and wrote. Charred wood has been dated from what is believed to be this site, a socket to hold a cross is visible there; the production of Christian manuscripts and annals was an important activity in the Iona monastery.
The Chronicle of Ireland was produced at Iona until about 740. The Book of Kells, an illuminated manuscript, is believed to have been produced by the monks of Iona in the years leading up to 800. Stone crosses, both standing and lying, were used to mark graves in the Iona monastery. Large stone crosses were erected to broadcast key Christian messages in 800-1000, their design reflected. Some were carved from stone imported 50 miles by boat from Loch Sween. Remains of wood-turning and metal-working have been found at Iona, of glass that may date from the 600's; the Iona monastery's position in what was a well-used seaway would have facilitated trade, as would St Columba's personal aristocratic background. Pigments from the south of France were used in Iona; the Iona Abbey was first attacked by Viking raiders in 795, with subsequent attacks taking place in 802, 806, 825. During the 806 Viking attack, 68 monks were massacred in Martyrs' Bay, this led to many of the Columban monks relocating to the new Columban Abbey of Kells in Ireland.
The building at Kells took from 807 until the consecration of the church in 814. In 814, Abbot of Iona, retired to Kells, contrary to what is sometimes claimed, it is clear from the Annals that Iona remained the main Columban house for several decades, despite the danger of Viking raids. In 825, St Blathmac and those monks who remained with him at Iona were martyred in a Viking raid, the Abbey was burned, but only in 878 were the main relics, with Columba's reliquary shrine specified in the records, moved to Ireland, with Kells becoming the new main Columban house. Though not mentioned, this might well have been. However, Iona Abbey was not deserted as its continued importance is shown by the death there in 980 of Amlaíb Cuarán, a retired King of Dublin. St Columba established several monasteries, although he was based at Iona. Other monks from Iona moved to the Continent, established monasteries in Belgium and Switzerland. In 1114 Iona was seized by the King of Norway, who held it for fifty years before Somerled recaptured it, invited renewed Irish involvement in 1164: this led to the construction of the central part of the cathedral.
Ranald, Somerled's son, now the'Lord of the Isles', in 1203 invited the Benedictine order to establish a new monastery, an Augustinian Nunnery, on the Columban Monastery's foundations. Building work began on the site of Columba's original church; the following year, in 1204, the site was raided by a force led by two Irish bishops. This was a response by Ireland's Columban clergy to the loss of its connections and influence at this significant site founded by St Columba; the Iona Nunnery, a foundation of the Augustinian Order, was established south of the abbey buildings. Graves of some of the early nuns remain, including that of a remarkable prioress, Anna Maclean, who died in 1543. Visible under her outer robe is the rochet, a pleated surplice denoting the Augustinian Order; the nunnery buildings were rebuilt in the fifteenth century and fell into disrepair after the Reformation. The abbey church was expanded in the fifteenth century, but following the Scottish Refor
Dornoch Cathedral is a parish church in the Church of Scotland, serving the small Sutherland town of Dornoch, in the Scottish Highlands. As a congregation of the Church of Scotland, Presbyterian, the church is not the seat of a bishop but retains the name due to being the seat of the Bishop of Caithness; the Cathedral's churchyard is adjoined by Dornoch Castle, the somewhat reconstructed remains of the medieval palace of the Bishops of Caithness. It was built in the 13th century, in the reign of King Alexander II and the episcopate of Gilbert de Moravia as the cathedral church of the diocese of Caithness. William de Moravia, 1st Earl of Sutherland, was buried in the cathedral in 1248. In 1570, the Cathedral was burnt down by the Mackays of Strathnaver during local feuding. Full'repairs' were not carried out until 1835-37, by the architect William Burn, funded by Countess of Sutherland at a cost of £15,000. Among the'improvements' carried out, the ruined but still intact aisled medieval nave was demolished and a new narrow nave without pillars built on its site.
In the 17th Century Dornoch ceased to be the seat of the Bishops of Caithness due to abolishment of the episcopate in the Church of Scotland, but the name has remained due this historical association. On 30 September 1866, the Duke and Duchess of Sutherland were present to welcome the Prince and Princess of Wales, the Duke of Edinburgh, who attended the morning service; the interior was reordered between 1924 and 1926 by Rev. Charles Donald Bentinck, with the removal of Victorian plasterwork to reveal the stonework; the site of the medieval high altar was raised and converted into a burial area for the Sutherland family, who introduced large marble memorials alien to the original appearance of the building. The previous minister was the Very Rev Dr James Simpson, Moderator of the General Assembly of the Church of Scotland in 1994; as of May 2018, the minister was the Rev Susan Brown, who officiated at the wedding of Madonna and Guy Ritchie at nearby Skibo Castle in December 2000. On 9 October 2017, it was announced that she had been nominated as the next Moderator of the General Assembly of the Church of Scotland.
She is scheduled to take up the position in May 2018. In 2010, billionaire entrepreneur Elon Musk and actress Talulah Riley married at Dornoch Cathedral, they divorced in 2012. Adam of Melrose - body moved here from the church of Skinnet in 1239 Saint Gilbert of Dornoch - founder of Dornoch Cathedral George Leveson-Gower, 1st Duke of Sutherland Elizabeth Leveson-Gower, Duchess of Sutherland The first organ was built by Eustace Ingram and given by Andrew Carnegie and installed in 1893 and opened in January 1894, it was the first organ installed in the county of Sutherland. It was hydraulic power introduced in 1909 at a cost of £ 200 given by Andrew Carnegie. A specification of the organ can be found on the National Pipe Organ Register. List of Church of Scotland parishes