Damballa spelled Damballah is one of the most important of all the loa. Damballa is the primordial creator of all life, he rules the mind and cosmic equilibrium. White rum is sacred to him. Damballa, as the serpent spirit and The Great Master, created the cosmos by using his 7,000 coils to form the stars and the planets in the heavens and to shape the hills and valleys on earth. By shedding the serpent skin, Damballa created all the waters on the earth. Damballa is syncretized with either Saint Patrick, Christ the Redeemer, Our Lady of Mercy, or Moses. Damballa's wife is Ayida-Weddo, Erzulie Freda is his concubine. Obatala Kengue Tribe of Dan
Loa are the spirits of Haitian Vodou and Louisiana Voodoo. They are referred to as "mystères" and "the invisibles" and are intermediaries between Bondye —the Supreme Creator, distant from the world—and humanity. Unlike saints or angels, they are not prayed to, they are served, they are each distinct beings with their own personal likes and dislikes, distinct sacred rhythms, dances, ritual symbols, special modes of service. Contrary to popular belief, the loa are not deities of themselves; the word loa comes from the French les lois. The enslaved Fon and Ewe in Haiti and Louisiana syncretized the loa with the Catholic saints—vodoun altars will display images of Catholic saints. For example, Papa Legba is syncretized with Saint Lazarus of Bethany. Syncretism works the other way in Haitian Vodou and many Catholic saints have become loa in their own right, most notably Philomena, the archangel Michael, Jude the Apostle, John the Baptist. In a ritual the loa are called down by the houngan, mambo, or the bokor and the caplata to take part in the service, receive offerings, grant requests.
The loa arrive in the peristyle by mounting a horse in Creole referred as "Chwal"—who is said to be "ridden". This can be quite a violent occurrence as the participant can flail about or convulse before falling to the ground, but some loa, such as Ayizan, will mount their "horses" quietly. Certain loa display distinctive behavior by which they can be recognized, specific phrases, specific actions; as soon as a loa is recognized, the symbols appropriate to them will be given to them. For example, Erzulie Freda will be given a glass of pink champagne, she is sprinkled with her perfumes, fine gifts of food will be presented to her or she puts on her jewelry. Once the loa have arrived, been served, given help or advice, they leave the peristyle. Certain loa can become obstinate, for example the Guédé are notorious for wanting just one more smoke, or one more drink, but it is the job of the houngan or mambo to keep the spirits in line while ensuring they are adequately provided for. There are many families or "nanchons" of loa: Rada, Nago and Ghede, among others.
The Rada loa are older, as many of these spirits come from Africa and the kingdom of Dahomey. The Rada Loa are water spirits and many of the Rada loa are served with a water; the Rada are "Cool" in the sense. They include Legba, Ayizan, Damballa Wedo and Ayida-Weddo, Maîtresse Mambo Erzulie Fréda Dahomey, La Sirène, Agwé. Many of these spirits are served with white; the Petro loa are the more fiery aggressive and warlike loa, are associated with Haiti and the New World. They include Ezili Dantor and Met Kalfu, their traditional colour is red. Originating from the Congo region, these loa include the many Simbi loa, it includes Marinette, a fierce and much feared female loa. Originating from Yorubaland, this nation includes many of the Ogoun loa; the Guédé are the spirits of the dead. They are traditionally led by the Barons, Maman Brigitte; the Ghede as a family are loud, sexual, a lot of fun. As those who have lived they have nothing to fear, will display how far past consequence and feeling they are when they come through in a service—eating glass, raw chillis, anointing their sensitive areas with chilli rum, for example.
Their traditional colours are purple. Alusi Dahomean religion Haitian mythology Nkisi Orisha Paquet congo Winti Webster list of loa
Haitian Vodou is a syncretic religion practiced chiefly in Haiti and the Haitian diaspora. Practitioners are called "vodouists" or "servants of the spirits". Vodouists believe in unknowable Supreme Creator, Bondye. According to Vodouists, Bondye does not intercede in human affairs, thus they direct their worship toward spirits subservient to Bondye, called loa; every loa is responsible for a particular aspect of life, with the dynamic and changing personalities of each loa reflecting the many possibilities inherent to the aspects of life over which they preside. To navigate daily life, vodouists cultivate personal relationships with the loa through the presentation of offerings, the creation of personal altars and devotional objects, participation in elaborate ceremonies of music and spirit possession. Vodou originated in what is now Benin and developed in the French colonial empire in the 18th century among West African peoples who were enslaved, when African religious practice was suppressed, enslaved Africans were forced to convert to Christianity.
Religious practices of contemporary Vodou are descended from, related to, West African Vodun as practiced by the Fon and Ewe. Vodou incorporates elements and symbolism from other African peoples including the Yoruba and Kongo. In Haiti, some Catholics combine aspects of Catholicism with aspects of Vodou, a practice forbidden by the Church and denounced as diabolical by Haitian Protestants. Vodou is a Haitian Creole word that referred to only a small subset of Haitian rituals; the word derives from an Ayizo word referring to mysterious forces or powers that govern the world and the lives of those who reside within it, but a range of artistic forms that function in conjunction with these vodun energies. Two of the major speaking populations of Ayizo are the Ewe and the Fon—European slavers called both the Arada; these two peoples composed a sizable number of the early enslaved population in St. Dominique. In Haiti, practitioners use "Vodou" to refer to Haitian religion generically, but it is more common for practitioners to refer to themselves as those who "serve the spirits" by participating in ritual ceremonies called a "service to the loa" or an "African service".
These terms refer to the religion as a whole. Outside of Haiti, the term Vodou refers to the entirety of traditional Haitian religious practice. Written as vodun, it is first recorded in Doctrina Christiana, a 1658 document written by the King of Allada's ambassador to the court of Philip IV of Spain. In the following centuries, Vodou was taken up by non-Haitians as a generic descriptive term for traditional Haitian religion. There are many used orthographies for this word. Today, the spelling Vodou is the most accepted orthography in English. Other potential spellings include Vodoun and voodoo, with vau- or vou- prefix variants reflecting French orthography, a final -n reflecting the nasal vowel in West African or older, non-urbanized, Haitian Creole pronunciations; the spelling voodoo, once common, is now avoided by Haitian practitioners and scholars when referring to the Haitian religion. This is both to avoid confusion with Louisiana Voodoo, a related but distinct set of religious practices, as well as to separate Haitian Vodou from the negative connotations and misconceptions the term "voodoo" has acquired in popular culture.
Over the years and their supporters have called on various institutions including the Associated Press to redress this misrepresentation by adopting "Vodou" in reference to the Haitian religion. In October 2012, the Library of Congress decided to change their subject heading from "Voodooism" to Vodou in response to a petition by a group of scholars and practitioners in collaboration with KOSANBA, the scholarly association for the study of Haitian Vodou based at University of California Santa Barbara. Vodou is popularly described as not a religion, but rather an experience that ties body and soul together; the concept of tying that exists in Haitian religious culture is derived from the Congolese tradition of kanga, the practice of tying one's soul to something tangible. This "tying of soul" is evident in many Haitian Vodou practices. Vodouisants believe; when it came in contact with Roman Catholicism, the Supreme Creator was associated with the Christian God, the loa associated with the saints.
Since Bondye is considered unreachable, Vodouisants aim their prayers to lesser entities, the spirits known as loa, or mistè. The most notable lwa include Papa Legba, Erzulie Freda, Kouzin Zaka, The Marasa, divine twins considered to be the first children of Bondye; these lwa can be divided into 21 nations, which include the Petro, Rada and Nago. Each of the lwa is associated with a particular Roman Catholic saint. For example, Legba is associated with St. Anthony the Hermit, Damballa is associated with St. Patrick; the lwa fall into family groups who share a surname, such as Ogou, Azaka or Ghede. For instance, "Ezili" is a family, Ezili Danto and Ezili Freda are two individual spirits in that family; each family is associated with a specific aspect, for instance the
Candomblé is an Afro-Brazilian religious tradition, practiced in Brazil by the povo de santo. Candomblé originated in Salvador, Bahia at the beginning of the 19th century, when the first temple was founded. Candomblé is practiced in Brazil, is practiced in other Latin American countries, including Argentina, Uruguay and Venezuela, having as many as two million followers. Candomblé developed in a creolization of traditional Yoruba and Bantu beliefs brought from West and Central Africa by enslaved captives in the Portuguese Empire. Between 1549 and 1888, the religion developed in Brazil, influenced by the knowledge of enslaved African priests who continued to teach their religion, their culture, language. In addition, Candomblé absorbed elements of Roman Catholicism and includes indigenous American traditions; as an oral tradition, it does not have holy scriptures. Practitioners of Candomblé believe in a Supreme Creator called Oludumaré, served by lesser deities, which are called Orishas; every practitioner is believed to have their own tutelary orisha, which controls his or her destiny and acts as a protector.
Music and dance are important parts of Candomblé ceremonies, since the dances enable worshippers to become possessed by the orishas. In the rituals, participants make offerings like minerals and animals. Candomblé does not include the duality of evil. Candomblé does not have holy texts. Only have scholars and "povo de santo" begun to write down its practices; the word Candomblé means "dance in honour of the gods", music and dance are important parts of Candomblé ceremonies. The name Batuque is used to refer to the religion before the 19th century. After that, Candomblé became more common. Both words are believed to be derived from a Bantu-family language that of the Kingdom of Kongo. Candomblé may be called Macumba in some regions of Brazil, notably Rio de Janeiro and São Paulo. Macumba has a distinct set of practices more akin to European witchcraft. Candomblé originated among enslaved Africans who were transplanted to Brazil during the Atlantic slave trade. From the earliest days of the slave trade, many slave owners and Catholic Church leaders felt it was important to convert enslaved Africans.
They believed this would fulfill their religious obligations and lead the enslaved to be more submissive in their status. Some historians suggest that Africans were forced to give up their traditional religions to cut their ties to their pasts. Although the Church succeeded in many cases, not all slaves converted. Many outwardly practiced Christianity but secretly prayed to their own God, gods, or ancestor spirits. In Brazil, adherents of Candomblé saw in the Catholic veneration of saints a similarity with their own religion. Bantu followers found a shared system of worship with Brazil's indigenous people, through this connection they re-learned the ancestor worship, part of their own traditional systems, they concealed the sacred symbols of their deities inside figures of their Catholic saints. In segregated communities of the country, it was easy to create Catholic fraternities where slaves would meet with each other; these meetings, were an opportunity for Candomblé worship to be practiced and for feasts to be held on special religious days.
They were opportunities for the enslaved to gather and plan rebellions against their masters. Candomblé was condemned by the Catholic Church. Followers of the faith were persecuted violently, including by government-led public campaigns and police action. Repression of African religion began early in the Portuguese colonial period, with calundu subject to the Inquisition; the Brazilian Penal Code of 1850 condemned charlatanismo curandeirismo. Both Candomblé religious leaders and terreiros were attacked by the police. With Catholicism as the state religion, other religious practices threatened the secular authority; the persecution stopped in the 1970s with repeal of a law requiring police permission to hold public religious ceremonies. The religion has surged in popularity in Brazil since with as many as two million people professing to follow this faith, it is popular in Salvador, Bahia, in the northeast region of Brazil, more isolated from other influences and had a high percentage of enslaved Africans.
Many people from African countries visit Bahia in order to learn more about the faith of their ancestors. For many followers, Candomblé is not only a matter of religious belief but of reclaiming the cultural and historical identity of ethnic Africans, although their separate tribal identities have been obscured by peoples being mixed in communities during and after slavery. Brazilian slaves came from a number of African geographic regions and ethnic groups, including Mbundu, Igbo, Kongo and Ewe. Slave handlers classified them by the shore of embarkment, so records of ethnicity may not have been accurate, as captives were transported overland away from native areas before being loaded on ships; as the religion developed semi-independently in different regions of Brazil, among different African ethnic groups, it evolved into several "branches" or nations. These are distinguished chiefly by their set of worshiped deities, as well as the music and language used in the rituals; the division into nations was influenced by the religious and beneficent brotherhoods organized by the Catholic Church among Brazilian slaves in the 18th and 19th centuries.
These fraternities, organized alo
Nana Buluku known as Nana Buruku, Nana Buku or Nanan-bouclou, is the female Supreme Being in the West African traditional religion of the Fon people and the Ewe people. She is the most influential deity in West African theology, one shared by many ethnic groups other than the Fon people, albeit with variations. For example, she is called the Nana Bukuu among the Yoruba people and the Olisabuluwa among Igbo people but described differently, with some worshipping her, while some do not worship her and worship the gods originating from her. In Dahomey mythology, Nana Buluku is the mother Supreme Creator who gave birth to the moon spirit Mawu, the sun spirit Lisa and all of the Universe. After giving birth to these, she retired and left the matters of the world to Mawu-Lisa, according to the Fon mythology, she is the primary creator, Mawu-Lisa the secondary creator and the theology based on these is called Vodun, Voodoo or Vodoun. The Vodoun religion of the Fon people has four overlapping elements: public gods, personal or private gods, ancestral spirits, magic or charms.
In this traditional religion of West Africa, creation starts with a female Supreme Being called Nana Buluku, who gave birth to the Mawu and created the universe. After giving birth, the mother Supreme retired, left everything to Mawu-Lisa deities and inert universe. Mawu-Lisa created numerous minor imperfect deities. In Fon belief, the feminine deity Mawu had to work with trickster Legba and the snake Aido Hwedo to create living beings, a method of creation that imbued the good, the bad and a destiny for every creature including human beings. Only by appeasing lesser deities and Legba, in Fon theology, can one change that destiny; this appeasing requires rituals and offerings to the lesser gods and ancestral spirits, who are believed to have ability to do favors to human beings. As millions of West Africans were captured and enslaved during the colonial era shipped across the Atlantic to work on sugarcane and tobacco plantations, they brought with them their religious ideas, including those about Nana Buluku.
She is celebrated as Nanã in Candomblé Jejé and Tambor de Mina and as Nana Burukú in Candomblé Ketu, where she is pictured as a old woman, older than creation itself. She is found in French and British West Indies in particular, such as among the African-heritage communities of French Guiana, Guyana, Trinidad, Martinique and other Caribbean islands. Charles Spencer King."Nature's Ancient Religion" ISBN 978-1-4404-1733-7 Charles Spencer King, "IFA Y Los Orishas: La Religion Antigua De LA Naturaleza" ISBN 1-4610-2898-1 The Children of Dahomey at the Wayback Machine
A pie is a baked dish, made of a pastry dough casing that covers or contains a filling of various sweet or savoury ingredients. Pies are defined by their crusts. A filled pie, has pastry lining the baking dish, the filling is placed on top of the pastry but left open. A top-crust pie has the filling in the bottom of the dish and is covered with a pastry or other covering before baking. A two-crust pie has the filling enclosed in the pastry shell. Shortcrust pastry is a typical kind of pastry used for pie crusts, but many things can be used, including baking powder biscuits, mashed potatoes, crumbs. Pies can be a variety of sizes, ranging from bite-size to ones designed for multiple servings; the need for nutritious, easy-to-store, easy-to-carry, long-lasting foods on long journeys, in particular at sea, was solved by taking live food along with a butcher or cook. However, this took up additional space on what were either horse-powered treks or small ships, reducing the time of travel before additional food was required.
This resulted in early armies adopting the style of hunter-foraging. The introduction of the baking of processed cereals including the creation of flour, provided a more reliable source of food. Egyptian sailors carried a flat brittle bread loaf of millet bread called dhourra cake, while the Romans had a biscuit called buccellum. During the Egyptian Neolithic period or New Stone Age period, the use of stone tools shaped by polishing or grinding, the domestication of plants and animals, the establishment of permanent villages, the practice of crafts such as pottery and weaving became common. Early pies were in the form of flat, round or freeform crusty cakes called galettes consisting of a crust of ground oats, rye, or barley containing honey inside; these galettes developed into a form of early sweet pastry or desserts, evidence of which can be found on the tomb walls of the Pharaoh Ramesses II, who ruled from 1304 to 1237 BC, located in the Valley of the Kings. Sometime before 2000 BC, a recipe for chicken pie was written on a tablet in Sumer.
Ancient Greeks are believed to have originated pie pastry. In the plays of Aristophanes, there are mentions of sweetmeats including small pastries filled with fruit. Nothing is known of the actual pastry used, but the Greeks recognized the trade of pastry-cook as distinct from that of baker; the Romans made a plain pastry of flour and water to cover meats and fowls which were baked, thus keeping in the juices. A richer pastry, intended to be eaten, was used to make small pasties containing eggs or little birds which were among the minor items served at banquets; the 1st-century Roman cookbook Apicius makes various mentions of recipes. By 160 BC, Roman statesman Marcus Porcius Cato, who wrote De Agri Cultura, notes the recipe for the most popular pie/cake called placenta. Called libum by the Romans, it was more like a modern-day cheesecake on a pastry base used as an offering to the gods. With the development of the Roman Empire and its efficient road transport, pie cooking spread throughout Europe.
Pies remained as a staple of traveling and working peoples in the colder northern European countries, with regional variations based on both the locally grown and available meats, as well as the locally farmed cereal crop. The Cornish pasty is an adaptation of the pie to a working man's daily food needs. Medieval cooks had restricted access to ovens due to their costs of construction and need for abundant supplies of fuel. Pies could be cooked over an open fire, while partnering with a baker allowed them to cook the filling inside their own locally defined casing; the earliest pie-like recipes refer with straight sealed sides and a top. The resulting hardened pastry was not eaten, its function being to contain the filling for cooking, to store it, though whether servants may have eaten it once their masters had eaten the filling is impossible to prove; this may be the reason why early recipes focus on the filling over the surrounding case, with the partnership development leading to the use of reusable earthenware pie cases which reduced the use of expensive flour.
The first reference to "pyes" as food items appeared in England as early as the 12th century, but no unequivocal reference to the item with which the article is concerned is attested until the 14th century. Song birds at the time were a delicacy and protected by Royal Law. At the coronation of eight-year-old English King Henry VI in 1429, "Partrich" and "Pecok enhakill" were served, alleged by some modern writers to consist of cooked peacock mounted in its skin on a peacock-filled pie. Cooked birds were placed by European royal cooks on top of a large pie to identify its contents, leading to its adaptation in pre-Victorian times as a porcelain ornament to release of steam and identify a good pie; the Pilgrim fathers and early settlers brought their pie recipes with them to America, adapting to the ingredients and techniques available to them in the New World. Their first pies were based on fruits pointed out to them by the Native North Americans. Pies allowed colonial cooks to stretch ingredients and used round shallow pans to "cut corners" and to create a regional variation of shallow pie.
Meat pies with fillings such as steak, cheese and kidney, minced beef, or chicken and mushroom are popular i
Erzulie is a family of loa, or spirits in Vodou. Erzulie Fréda Dahomey, the Rada aspect of Erzulie, is the Haitian African spirit of love, jewelry, dancing and flowers, she wears three wedding rings, one for each husband - Damballa and Ogoun. Her symbol is a heart, her colours are pink, blue and gold, her favourite sacrifices include jewellery, sweet cakes and liqueurs. Coquettish and fond of beauty and finery, Erzulie Freda is femininity and compassion embodied, yet she has a darker side. During ritual possession, she may enter the body of either a woman, she enjoys the game of seduces people without distinguishing between sexes. In Christian iconography she is identified with the Mater Dolorosa, as well as another loa named Metres Ezili, she is conceived of as never able to attain her heart's most fervent desire. For this reason she always leaves a service in tears. Common syncretizations include Iyalorde Oxum as she relates to the Yoruba Vodu goddess of erotic love and femininity. Erzulie Dantòr is the Queen of the Petro nation and the mother of "Ti Jean Petro", she is depicted as a fearsome black woman, protectively holding "Ti Jean Petro" in her arms.
She is a fierce protector of women and the neglects of society. She is the Lwa Pwen, in contrast with Èrzuli Freda who will bless you with material riches, Èrzulie Dantòr will give you the Spiritual Knowledge needed to navigate through this material reality. Èrzulie Dantòr's wealth lasts and can be passed on from one generation to another, whereas Èrzuli Freda, in any of her jealous fits, can deprive overnight of the gains she helped you to achieve. She is portrayed to resemble the Black Madonna of Częstochowa, as she is represented as being dark-skinned with two scars on her face, her colours are red and blue. Her favourite sacrifices include black pigs, griot and rum. Ti Jean Petro is her son and Jean Petro is her lover or husband. Erzulie Freda - The vain and flirty goddess of love, her "horses" tend to cry tears of regret. She is syncretized with Our Lady of Sorrows. Erzulie Mansur - Represents maternal love and protects children from harm. Granne Erzulie - Represents the wisdom granted by experience and maturity and grandmotherly kindness and love.
She is syncretized with the mother of the Virgin Mary. Erzulie D'en Tort or Erzulie Dantor Protects women and children and deals revenge against those who wrong them. Erzulie Balianne - "Silences" hearts. Keeps ensures that secrets will not be revealed. Helps people to forget past overcome passionate emotions, her "horses" tend to speak. She is syncretized with The Immaculate Heart. Erzulie Mapiangue Deals with the protection of unborn and newborn babies, her "horses" tend to get in birthing position and cry tears of pain. Common syncretization is as the Virgin and Infant of Prague, which wear matching red velvet robes and gold crowns. Erzulie Yeux Rouge or Erzulie Ge-Rouge Takes revenge on unfaithful lovers, her "horses" cry tears of bitter sadness. Erzulie Toho slighted in love, her "horses" cry tears of anger. Erzulie La Flambeau Erzulie Wangol La Sirène or Mami Wata is associated with Erzulie and sometimes is displayed in Erzulie's roles as mother and protector, her husband is the King of the Sea and patron of sailors and fishermen.
Marinette Bras-Chêche or Marinette Bwa Chech, a Kongo Loa, is similar to Erzulie Dantor. She represents revolt and misfortune and is prayed to either to placate her wrath or to direct her fury at another, she is in the form of a skeleton or rotting corpse and is syncretically represented by the Anima Sola. Mai-Louise is an Ibo goddess. Ti-Quitta / Ti Kitha, a Loa of sexuality and fertility, is one of the Quitta Loas. One of her aspects is Ti Quitta Demembre. Maman Brigitte, is a Guede goddess, the wife of Baron Samedi and protector of gravestones or funerary markers, she is syncretically represented by St Brigit. Tsillah Wedo is associated with Erzulie, she is depicted as a beautiful virgin of great wealth. MusicErzulie nennen O, a song in honor of Erzulie Freda, composed in the 1890s by Kandjo, continues to be played in Haiti as part of its folkloric repertoire. A 1991 song on the album Rising Above Bedlam by Jah Wobble's Invaders of the Heart. Released by Oval Records in 1991; the album was a shortlisted nominee for the 1992 Mercury Prize.
A 1988 solo album by free-jazz pianist Cecil Taylor is called Erzulie Maketh Scent. "Mistress of Erzulie" was the first track on Alannah Myles' 1995 album A-lan-nah. Erzulie is a character in the Broadway musical Once On This Island as the beautiful goddess of love. In the Steely Dan song "Two Against Nature", the narrator describes Madame Erzulie as a succubus who "bangs you silly but leaves a nasty bite."LiteratureA powerful swamp witch/voodoo woman in Terry Pratchett's Discworld novel Witches Abroad is named Erzulie Gogol. She is the lover of Baron Saturday. In the Buffy the Vampire Slayer comic Past Lives, part 4, Erzulie is invoked to clear a room of all magic. Erzulie, Papa Legba and Baron Samed