The canebrake wren is a species of bird in the Troglodytidae family. It is found from eastern Nicaragua to northwestern Panama, its natural habitats are subtropical or tropical dry forests, subtropical or tropical moist lowland forests, degraded former forest. It was considered conspecific with Cabanis's wren and the isthmian wren, together called the plain wren, it is considered as a distinct species because of genetic divergence. The canebrake wren is a drab wren measuring 13 cm in length, it has buffy flanks, white underparts and throat and wide white supercilium. The eye is red, it has a loud 4-syllable song. Saucier, J. R. C. Sánchez, M. D. Carling. 2015. Patterns of genetic and morphological divergence reveal a species complex in the Plain Wren. Auk 132: 795-807
Canebrake tree frogs
The canebrake tree frogs comprise the frog genus Aplastodiscus in the family Hylidae, are found in southern Brazil and Argentina. This genus contained only two species until when a major revision of the Hylidae moved an additional 12 species to this genus from the genus Hyla. Aplastodiscus albofrenatus Aplastodiscus albosignatus Aplastodiscus arildae Aplastodiscus callipygius Aplastodiscus cavicola Aplastodiscus cochranae Aplastodiscus ehrhardti Aplastodiscus flumineus Aplastodiscus ibirapitanga Aplastodiscus leucopygius Aplastodiscus lutzorum Aplastodiscus musicus Aplastodiscus perviridis A. Lutz In B. Lutz, 1950 Aplastodiscus sibilatus Aplastodiscus weygoldti
Canebrake Ecological Reserve
Canebrake Ecological Reserve is a 6,700-acre nature reserve in the South Fork Valley of Kern County, 20 miles east of Lake Isabella, California. It is located in the Southern Sierra Nevada region. Historian Wallace M. Morgan, in History of Kern County, wrote that the South Fork Valley was the first area settled around 1846, described the valley as "a fertile strip of bottomland that forms the most important of the mountain farming districts." The first acreage purchased for reserve was part of the 129-year-old Bloomfield Ranch. The California Department of Fish and Game acquired the land in 1994 and by 1996, 1,300 acres became the Canebrake reserve, named after Canebrake Creek, a tributary of South Fork Kern River. A 1.2-mile nature trail crosses Canebrake Creek, is wheelchair accessible, has views of cottonwood-willow forest with several willow species and Fremont cottonwood that intergrade with a relict stand of Joshua trees. The reserve was enlarged by land purchases in 2002 and 2005 through the state Wildlife Conservation Board.
Although not contiguous, one segment is in Cap Canyon, the other in Scodie Canyon, the lands are important corridors for wildlife connecting the reserve to Sequoia National Forest. The 2005 purchase by the Wildlife Conservation Board used Proposition 117 funds. Proposition 117, known as the California Wildlife Protection Act of 1990, created the Habitat Conservation Fund with an annual budget of $30 million, for various state agencies such as the WCB. Rare bird species in the area include the federally listed endangered southwestern willow flycatcher, state listed endangered western yellow-billed cuckoo and the tricolored blackbird, a species of concern; the South Fork Kern population of southwestern willow flycatcher is one of the largest in the US. The Kern red-winged blackbird is on the state's species of concern list.. Part of the historic nesting area on the South Fork Kern River was lost from land clearing. In 1954, the filling of Lake Isabella reservoir inundated and destroyed several miles of riparian and wetland nesting areas for the Kern red-winged blackbird.
The largest breeding population still occurs in the South Fork Valley and may number as many as 500 individuals. The current nesting area is from Canebrake Ecological Reserve to the area around the town of Lake Isabella. Habitat restoration includes planting of Fremont cottonwood, red willow, Oregon ash, white alder, hoary nettle and California black walnut. One goal of the restoration is to increase suitable riparian areas for the Kern red-winged blackbird and southwestern willow flycatcher, both of which require dense cottonwood-willow forest. Restoration work in the Canebrake Ecological Reserve and South Fork Valley includes removing damaging invasive species, such as tamarisk trees and exotic purple loose-strife. A total of 340 acres were replanted with Fremont cottonwood and red willow on the South Fork Kern River, from 1987 to 1993; the plantings are on floodplain sites from which these species had been removed and the land cleared for agriculture. The survival rates for these plantings have exceeded 90 per cent.
Kern River Preserve Canebrake, California Riparian forest Riparian zone Riparian zone restoration Floodplain restoration List of plants of the Sierra Nevada O'Connor, Kevin. "Canebrake Ecological Reserve, The Emerald in The State's Golden Crown". Outdoor California. Department of Fish and Game
The timber rattlesnake, canebrake rattlesnake or banded rattlesnake, is a species of venomous pit viper endemic to the eastern United States. This is the only rattlesnake species in most of the populous northeastern United States and is second only to its cousins to the west, the prairie rattlesnake, as the most northerly distributed venomous snake in North America. No subspecies are recognized; the timber rattlesnake was one of the many reptile species described by Linnaeus in the landmark 1758 10th edition of his Systema Naturae, still bears its original name Crotalus horridus. The subspecies C. h. atricaudatus referred to as the canebrake rattlesnake, is considered invalid. It was recognized by Gloyd and Klauber. Based on an analysis of geographic variation, Pisani et al. concluded no subspecies should be recognized. This was followed by Collins and Knight. Brown and Ernst found evidence for retaining the two subspecies, but state it is not possible to tell them apart without having more information than usual, including adult size, color pattern, the number of dorsal scale rows and the number of ventral scales.
Dundee and Rossman recognized C. h. atricaudatus. Adults grow to total length of 91–152 cm, it was found in Pennsylvania that the smallest size females that could produce viable eggs was 72.2 cm. Most adult timber rattlesnakes found measure less than 100 to 115 cm in total length and weigh on average between 500 and 1,500 g being towards the lower end of that weight range; the maximum reported total length is 189.2 cm. Holt mentions a large specimen caught in Montgomery County, which had a total length of 159 cm and weighed 2.5 kg. Large specimens can weigh as much as 4.5 kg. The dorsal scales are arranged in 21 -- 26 scale rows at midbody; the ventral scales number 158-177 in males and 163–183 in females. Males have 20–30 subcaudal scales, while females have 15–26; the rostral scale is a little higher than it is wide. In the internasal-prefrontal area there are 4–22 scales that include 2 large, triangular internasal scales that border the rostral, followed by 2 large, quadrangular prefrontal scales that may contact each other along the midline, or may be separated by many small scales.
Between the supraocular and internasal, only a single canthal scale is present. There are 5–7 intersupraocular scales; the number of prefoveal scales varies between 2 and 8. The first supralabial scale is in broad contact with the prenasal scale, although to moderately separated along its posteroventral margin by the most anterior prefoveals. Dorsally, they have a pattern of dark brown or black crossbands on a yellowish brown or grayish background; the crossbands have irregular zig-zag edges, may be V-shaped or M-shaped. A rust-colored vertebral stripe is present. Ventrally they are uniform or marked with black. Melanism is common, some individuals are dark solid black. Found in the eastern United States from southern Minnesota and southern New Hampshire, south to east Texas and north Florida. One hundred and fifteen rattlesnakes have been marked within Brown County State Park in Indiana, one of the only places where they can be found in the state, its historic range includes southern Ontario and southern Quebec in Canada, but in May 2001, the Canadian Species at Risk Act listed it as extirpated in Canada.
A Canadian government sponsored recovery strategy is under study to support the reintroducing of this predator of many pests to its former Canadian habitat. Although several experts disagree, many were found in some of the thick forest areas of central and southeastern Iowa within the Mississippi, Skunk and Des Moines River valleys, in several places in these areas. In Pennsylvania, it is not found west of Chestnut Ridge, in the Laurel Highlands, nor is it found in the southeastern corner of the state. Thus, its range does not include the areas of Philadelphia and Pittsburgh, the two largest cities in Pennsylvania. C. Horridus is extirpated in Maine and Rhode Island and is extirpated in New Hampshire. In Massachusetts, the snakes are active from mid-May to mid-October. Early settlers were afraid of the snake. Since that time their habitat has been reduced to the Blue Hills south of Boston, The Berkshires in Western Massachusetts as well as parts of the Connecticut River Valley, notably in the area of the Holyoke Range.
The snake is so rare in the state that it is encountered by people and is considered endangered, making it illegal to harass, collect, or possess. This species is found in deciduous forests in rugged terrain. During the summer, gravid females seem to prefer open, rocky ledges where the temperatures are higher, while males and nongravid females tend to spend more time in cooler, denser woodland with more closed forest canopy. Female timber rattlers bask in the sun before giving birth, in open rocky areas known as "basking knolls". During the winter, timber rattlesnakes brumate in dens, in limestone crevices together with copperheads and black rat
Canebrake is an unincorporated community in Kern County, California. It is located along California State Route 178 in the South Fork Valley, 5.3 miles east-northeast of Onyx at an elevation of 3,031 feet. Canebrake Creek, which State Route 178 follows down to Canebrake from the Walker Pass, was named by Robert S. Williamson in the fall of 1853 after he observed Indians there collecting the sugary reeds from a canebrake, or bulrush patch; the creek is a major tributary of the South Fork Kern River, which it flows into at Bloomfield Ranch, part of the Canebrake Ecological Reserve. The original town site was located about three miles further east on Isabella-Walker Pass Road; the area was the site of a speakeasy and alcohol still during prohibition, run by a local bootlegger named Victor Hugo. The Chimney Peak Back Country Byway splits off from Route 178 in Canebrake, leading to the Chimney Peak Wilderness and connecting to some of the most rugged and remote areas of the Southern Sierra Nevada.
Media related to Canebrake, California at Wikimedia Commons
Cape Canaveral, from the Spanish Cabo Cañaveral, is a cape in Brevard County, United States, near the center of the state's Atlantic coast. Known as Cape Kennedy from 1963 to 1973, it lies east of Merritt Island, separated from it by the Banana River, it was discovered by the Spanish conquistador Juan Ponce de León in 1513. It is part of a region known as the Space Coast, is the site of the Cape Canaveral Air Force Station. Since many U. S. spacecraft have been launched from both the station and the Kennedy Space Center on adjacent Merritt Island, the two are sometimes conflated with each other. In homage to its spacefaring heritage, the Florida Public Service Commission allocated area code 321 to the Cape Canaveral area. Other features of the cape include the Cape Canaveral lighthouse and Port Canaveral, one of the busiest cruise ports in the world; the city of Cape Canaveral lies just south of the Port Canaveral District. Mosquito Lagoon, the Indian River, Merritt Island National Wildlife Refuge and Canaveral National Seashore are features of this area.
Humans have occupied the area for at least 12,000 years. During the middle Archaic period, from 5000 BC to 2000 BC, the Mount Taylor period culture region covered northeast Florida, including the area around Cape Canaveral. Late in the Archaic period, from 2000 BC to 500 BC, the Mount Taylor culture was succeeded by the Orange culture, among the earliest cultures in North America to produce pottery; the Orange culture was followed from 500 BC until after European contact. The area around the Indian River was in the Indian River variant of the St. Johns culture, with influences from the Belle Glade culture to the south. During the first Spanish colonial period the area around the Indian River, to the south of Cape Canaveral, was occupied by the Ais people, while the area around the Mosquito Lagoon, to the north of the Cape, was occupied by the Surruque people; the Surruque were allied with the Ais, but it is not clear whether the Surruque spoke a Timucua language, or a language related to the Ais language.
In the early 16th century, Cape Canaveral was noted although without being named. It was named by Spanish explorers in the first half of the 16th century as Cabo Cañareal; the name "Canaveral" is the third oldest surviving European place name in the US. The first application of the name, according to the Smithsonian Institution, was from the 1521–1525 explorations of Spanish explorer Francisco Gordillo. A point of land jutting out into an area of the Atlantic Ocean with swift currents, it became a landing spot for many shipwrecked sailors. An early alternative name was "Cape of Currents". By at least 1564, the name appeared on maps. English privateer John Hawkins and his journalist John Sparke gave an account of their landing at Cape Canaveral in the 16th century. A Presbyterian missionary was lived among the Indians. Other histories tell of French survivors from Jean Ribault's colony at Fort Caroline, whose ship the Trinité wrecked on the shores of Cape Canaveral in 1565, built a fort from its timbers.
In December 1571, Pedro Menéndez was wrecked off the Coast of Cape Canaveral and encountered the Ais Indians. From 1605 to 1606, the Spanish Governor of Florida Pedro de Ibarra sent Alvaro Mexia on a diplomatic mission to the Ais Indian nation; the mission was a success. The first Cape Canaveral Lighthouse was completed in January 1848 to warn ships of the coral shoals off the coast; the hurricane of August 1885, pushed a "wall of water" over the barrier island devastating Cape Canaveral and adjacent areas. The ocean waves flooded the discouraged further settlement in the area; the beach near the lighthouse was eroded prompting its relocation one mile west inland. The 1890 graduating class of Harvard University started a gun club called the "Canaveral Club" at the Cape; this was founded by C. B. Horton of Boston and George H. Reed. A number of distinguished visitors including presidents Grover Cleveland and Benjamin Harrison were reported to have stayed here. In the 1920s, the grand building fell in disrepair and burned to the ground.
In the 20th century, several communities sprang up in Cape Canaveral with names like Canaveral, Canaveral Harbor, Artesia and De Soto Beach. While the area was predominantly a farming and fishing community, some visionaries saw its potential as a resort for vacationers. However, the stock market crash of 1929 hampered its development. In the 1930s, a group of wealthy journalists started a community called "Journalista Beach", now called Avon by the Sea; the Brossier brothers built houses in this area and started a publication entitled the Evening Star Reporter, the forerunner of the Orlando Sentinel. Construction of Port Canaveral for military and commercial purposes was started in July 1950 and dedicated on November 4, 1953. Congress approved the construction of a deep-water port in 1929, half a century after it was first petitioned by the U. S. Navy in 1878, it is now the major deep-water port of Central Florida. Cape Canaveral became the test site for missiles when the legislation for the Joint Long Range Proving Ground was passed by the 81st Congress and signed by President Harry Truman on May 11, 1949.
Work began on May 9, 1950, under a contract with the Duval Engineering Company of Jacksonville, Florida, to build the Cape's first paved access road and its first permanent launch site. The first rocket launched at the Cape was a V-2 rocket named Bumper 8 from Launch Complex 3 on July 24, 1950. On February 6, 1959, the first successful te
Cane is any of various tall, perennial grasses with flexible, woody stalks, more from the genus Arundinaria. Scientifically speaking, there are either of two genera from the family Poaceae; the genus Arundo is native from the Mediterranean Basin to the Far East. The genus Arundinaria is a bamboo found in the New World. Neither genus includes sugarcane. Cane grows in large riparian stands known as canebrakes, found in toponyms throughout the Southern and Western United States. Depending on strength, cane can be fashioned for various purposes, including walking sticks, assistive canes or judicial or school canes. Where canes are used in corporal punishment, they must meet particular specifications, such as a high degree of flexibility. Cane has been used for many other purposes such as baskets, boats and wherever stiff, withy sticks can be put to good use; the English word cane derives from Old French cane, meaning'sugarcane', from Latin canna, from Ancient Greek κάννα, from Official Aramaic qanhā, qanyā and from Akkadian qanû, meaning'tube, reed'.
Cane is used for a variety of artistic and practical purposes, such as Native American baskets of North America. During the 18th and early 19th century, non-commissioned officers in some European armies could carry canes to discipline troops. Cane is used to describe furniture made of wicker. Cane describes a length of colored, patterned glass rod used in caneworking, a style of glassblowing. Canes are used as props on stage. For example, folk-dancers may twirl canes overhead, stand them on the head, spin them off to the sides, or strike them on the floor. Cane is used all around the world and can be used for weaving baskets for hampers, chairs with the use of seagrass to beautify it, for beds of different sizes for children and adult, tables of different shapes and sizes and can be used for walking sticks, it can be used for boats and roofs according to history Canes are used in regional folk-dancing and as props on stage. For example, folk-dancers may twirl canes overhead, stand them on the head, spin them off to the sides, or strike them on the floor.
In the aspect of walking sticks, used for balancing when walking and they come in different shapes and sizes and can be used by disabled people as a crutch. The walking stick has historically been known to be used as a defensive or offensive weapon, may conceal a knife or sword as in a swordstick. Walking sticks known as trekking poles, pilgrim's staffs, hiking poles or hiking sticks, are used by hikers for a wide variety of purposes: to clear spider webs, or part thick bushes or grass obscuring the trail. A collector of walking sticks is termed a Rabologist. Cane has been used since the olden days till modern age and it is producing and will continue to produce new products or materials for different purposes like, beautification for houses, for external or internal use. Candy cane Cane gun Caneworking Caning Ethanol fuel in Brazil Germplasm Resources Information Network: Arundo Erowid Arundo Donax vault Fashionable Walking Canes & Walking Sticks — History of Canes Page Info Description of Arundinaria Walking-Stick Papers — Project Gutenberg ebook Modern cane fighting based on Oriental techniques Reprinted early 1900s information about the Vigny cane and associated techniques