Flaky pastry known as blitz pastry or rough puff, is a light and flaky unleavened pastry, similar to, but distinct from, puff pastry. Flaky pastry relies on large lumps of shortening mixed into the dough, as opposed to the large rectangle of shortening in puff pastry. Flaky pastry dough is rolled and folded in a manner similar to puff pastry; the chunks of shortening keep the rolled particles of dough in the flaky pastry separate from each other, so that when the dough is baked they become flakes. This yields a different texture from puff pastry, where rectangles of dough and fat are rolled and folded together in such a way that the result is a number of uniform sheets of pastry. Flaky pastry is used to make pasties, sausage rolls, plaits. List of pastries Phyllo Puff pastry Types of pastry
Pastry is a dough of flour and shortening that may be savoury or sweetened. Sweetened pastries are described as bakers' confectionery; the word "pastries" suggests many kinds of baked products made from ingredients such as flour, milk, shortening, baking powder, eggs. Small tarts and other sweet baked products are called pastries. Common pastry dishes include pies, tarts and pasties; the French word pâtisserie is used in English for the same foods. The French word pastisserie referred to anything, such as a meat pie, made in dough and not a luxurious or sweet product.. This meaning still persisted in the nineteenth century, though by the term more referred to the sweet and ornate confections implied today. Pastry can refer to the pastry dough, from which such baked products are made. Pastry dough is used as a base for baked products. Pastry is differentiated from bread by having a higher fat content, which contributes to a flaky or crumbly texture. A good pastry is firm enough to support the weight of the filling.
When making a shortcrust pastry, care must be taken to blend the fat and flour before adding any liquid. This ensures that the flour granules are adequately coated with fat and less to develop gluten. On the other hand, overmixing results in long gluten strands that toughen the pastry. In other types of pastry such as Danish pastry and croissants, the characteristic flaky texture is achieved by rolling out a dough similar to that for yeast bread, spreading it with butter, folding it to produce many thin layers. Shortcrust pastry Shortcrust pastry is most common pastry, it is made with flour, butter and water to bind the dough. This is used in tarts, it is the pastry, used most in making a quiche. The process of making pastry includes mixing of the fat and flour, adding water, rolling out the paste; the fat is mixed with the flour first by rubbing with fingers or a pastry blender, which inhibits gluten formation by coating the gluten strands in fat and results in a short, tender pastry. A related type is the sweetened sweetcrust pastry known as pâte sucrée, in which sugar and egg yolks have been added to bind the pastry.
Flaky pastry Flaky pastry is a simple pastry. It bakes into a buttery pastry; the "puff" is obtained by the shard-like layers of fat, most butter or shortening, creating layers which expand in the heat of the oven when baked. Puff pastry Puff pastry has "puff" when baked. Puff pastry is made using flour, butter and water; the pastry rises up due to the water and fats expanding. Puff pastries come out of the oven light and tender. Choux pastry Choux pastry is a light pastry, filled with cream. Unlike other types of pastry, choux is in fact closer to a dough before being cooked which gives it the ability to be piped into various shapes such as the éclair and profiterole, its name originates from the French choux, meaning cabbage, owing to its rough cabbage-like shape after cooking. Choux begins as a mixture of milk or water and butter which are heated together until the butter melts, to which flour is added to form a dough. Eggs are beaten into the dough to further enrich it; this high percentage of water causes the pastry to expand into a hollow pastry.
The water in the dough turns to steam in the oven and causes the pastry to rise. Once the choux dough has expanded, it is taken out of the oven; the pastry is placed back in the oven to dry out and become crisp. The pastry is filled with various flavors of cream and is topped with chocolate. Choux pastries can be filled with ingredients such as cheese, tuna, or chicken to be used as appetizers. Phyllo Phyllo is a paper-thin pastry dough, used in many layers; the phyllo is wrapped around a filling and brushed with butter before baking. These pastries are delicate and flaky. Hot water crust pastry Hot water crust pastry is used for savoury pies, such as pork pies, game pies and, more steak and kidney pies. Hot water crust is traditionally used for making hand-raised pies; the usual ingredients are hot water and flour, the pastry is made by heating water, melting the fat in this, bringing to the boil, mixing with the flour. This can be done by kneading on a pastry board. Either way, the result is a hot and rather sticky paste that can be used for hand-raising: shaping by hand, sometimes using a dish or bowl as an inner mould.
As the crust cools, its shape is retained, it is filled and covered with a crust, ready for baking. Hand-raised hot water crust pastry does not produce a neat and uniform finish, as there will be sagging during the cooking of the filled pie, accepted as the mark of a hand-made pie. Pastry: A type of food used in dishes such as pies or strudel. Pastry bag or piping bag: An cone-shaped bag, used to make an stream of dough, frosting, or flavored substance to form a structure, decorate a baked item, or fill a pastry with a custard, jelly, or other filling. Pastry board: A square or oblong board, preferably marble but wood, on which pastry is rolled out. Pastry brake: Opposed and counter-rotating rollers with a varia
Vanilla is a flavoring derived from orchids of the genus Vanilla from the Mexican species, flat-leaved vanilla. The word vanilla, derived from vainilla, the diminutive of the Spanish word vaina, is translated as "little pod". Pre-Columbian Mesoamerican people cultivated the vine of the vanilla orchid, called tlīlxochitl by the Aztecs. Spanish conquistador Hernán Cortés is credited with introducing both vanilla and chocolate to Europe in the 1520s. Pollination is required to set the vanilla fruit from. In 1837, Belgian botanist Charles François Antoine Morren discovered this fact and pioneered a method of artificially pollinating the plant; the method was not deployed commercially. In 1841, Edmond Albius, a slave who lived on the French island of Réunion in the Indian Ocean, discovered at the age of 12 that the plant could be hand-pollinated. Hand-pollination allowed global cultivation of the plant. Three major species of vanilla are grown globally, all of which derive from a species found in Mesoamerica, including parts of modern-day Mexico.
They are V. planifolia, grown on Madagascar, Réunion, other tropical areas along the Indian Ocean. The majority of the world's vanilla is the V. planifolia species, more known as Bourbon vanilla or Madagascar vanilla, produced in Madagascar and neighboring islands in the southwestern Indian Ocean, in Indonesia. Combined and Indonesia produce two-thirds of the world's supply of vanilla. Vanilla is the second-most expensive spice after saffron because growing the vanilla seed pods is labor-intensive. Despite the expense, vanilla is valued for its flavor; as a result, vanilla is used in both commercial and domestic baking, perfume manufacture, aromatherapy. According to other popular belief, the Totonac Aztec-age people, who inhabit the east coast of Mexico in the present-day state of Veracruz, were among the first people to cultivate vanilla in the 15th century. Aztecs invading from the central highlands of Mexico conquered the Totonacs, developed a taste for the vanilla pods, they named the fruit tlilxochitl, or "black flower", after the matured fruit, which shrivels and turns black shortly after it is picked.
Until the mid-19th century, Mexico was the chief producer of vanilla. In 1819, French entrepreneurs shipped vanilla fruits to the islands of Réunion and Mauritius in hopes of producing vanilla there. After Edmond Albius discovered how to pollinate the flowers by hand, the pods began to thrive. Soon, the tropical orchids were sent from Réunion to the Comoros Islands and Madagascar, along with instructions for pollinating them. By 1898, Madagascar, Réunion, the Comoros Islands produced 200 metric tons of vanilla beans, about 80% of world production. According to the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization, Indonesia is responsible for the vast majority of the world's Bourbon vanilla production and 58% of the world total vanilla fruit production; the market price of vanilla rose in the late 1970s after a tropical cyclone ravaged key croplands. Prices remained high through the early 1980s despite the introduction of Indonesian vanilla. In the mid-1980s, the cartel that had controlled vanilla prices and distribution since its creation in 1930 disbanded.
Prices dropped 70 % to nearly US$20 per kilogram. The cyclone, political instability, poor weather in the third year drove vanilla prices to an astonishing US$500/kg in 2004, bringing new countries into the vanilla industry. A good crop, coupled with decreased demand caused by the production of imitation vanilla, pushed the market price down to the $40/kg range in the middle of 2005. By 2010, prices were down to $20/kg. Cyclone Enawo caused in similar spike to $500/kg in 2017. Madagascar accounts for much of the global production of vanilla. Mexico, once the leading producer of natural vanilla with an annual yield of 500 tons of cured beans, produced only 10 tons in 2006. An estimated 95% of "vanilla" products are artificially flavored with vanillin derived from lignin instead of vanilla fruits. Vanilla was unknown in the Old World before Cortés. Spanish explorers arriving on the Gulf Coast of Mexico in the early 16th century gave vanilla its current name. Portuguese sailors and explorers brought vanilla into Africa and Asia that century.
They called it vainilla, or "little pod". The word vanilla entered the English language in 1754, when the botanist Philip Miller wrote about the genus in his Gardener’s Dictionary. Vainilla is from the Latin vagina to describe the shape of the pods; the main species harvested for vanilla is V. planifolia. Although it is native to Mexico, it is now grown throughout the tropics. Indonesia and Madagascar are the world's largest producers. Additional sources include V. pompona and V. tahitiensis, although the vanillin content of these species is much less than V. planifolia. Vanilla grows as a vine, climbing up pole, or other support, it can be grown in a plantation, or in a "shader", in increasing orders of productivity. Its growth environment is referred to as its terroir, includes not only the adjacent plants, but the climate and local geology. Left alone, it will grow as h
Ladurée is a French luxury bakery and sweets maker house created in 1862. It is one of the world's best-known premier sellers of the double-decker macaron, 15,000 of which are sold every day; the Pâtisserie E. Ladurée company is a société par actions simplifiée and has its head office in Marcq-en-Barœul, France. Louis-Ernest Ladurée, a miller, was a prolific writer and produced works in every literary form including plays, novels, essays and scientific works, more than 20,000 letters and more than 2,000 books and pamphlets, he was an outspoken supporter of social reform, despite strict censorship laws and harsh penalties for those who broke them. As a satirical polemicist, he made use of his works to criticize intolerance, religious dogma and the French institutions of his day, he founded the bakery on the Rue Royale, Paris in 1862. During the Paris Commune uprising of 1871 the bakery was burnt down. A pastry shop was built at the same location and Jules Chéret was entrusted with the interior decoration.
The chubby cherubs dressed as pastry cooks, painted by him on the ceiling, form the company's emblem. The interior of the premises were painted in the same celadon colour as the façade. Ladurée's rise to fame came in 1930 when his grandson, Pierre Desfontaines, had the original idea of the double-decker, sticking two macaron shells together with a creamy ganache as filling. Queen Catherine de' Medici had brought the macaron to France from Italy in the 16th century, the recipe for the biscuit had hardly varied over the years, but the amounts of the ingredients used and the appearance of the end product were up to the individual bakers. Desfontaines opened a tearoom at the pastry shop. In those days ladies were not admitted to cafés; this was a big success with ladies, who enjoyed meeting in the freedom of the tearoom rather than their homes. Pierre Herme was responsible for the rise of Ladurée. "In one year Ladurée went from a little bakery in the eighth district of Paris to a big brand name. When I arrived, there was not a lot of organization.
I brought the savoir-faire to the company. When I arrived, they didn't have a logo."- Pierre Herme. In 1993, the Groupe Holder took over the firm Ladurée; the Holder family owns the PAUL bakery chain in France. Following the takeover, the company began an expansion drive to turn Ladurée from the single rue Royale bakery into a chain, setting up pastry shops and tea rooms on the Champs-Élysées and in Le Printemps Haussmann in 1997, followed by Ladurée Bonaparte in 2002; the International development of Ladurée started in 2005 with England. In 1997, two shops open in Paris, the first on the Champs-Elysées Avenue decorated by jacques Garcia, the second in the Bonaparte street decorated by Roxane Rodriguez. A shop opens in 2006 in London decorated by Roxane Rodriguez; the takeaways of the shops of Bonaparte street and of Harrod’s will be the model of many shops. Ladurée stores are now present in Australia, Canada, Belgium, Hong Kong, Italy, Kuwait, Monaco, Panama, Portugal, Romania, Saudi Arabia, South Korea, Switzerland, Taiwan,Thailand, Turkey, UAE, UK, the USA.
In 2012, Ladurée will release a collection of makeup inspired by the colors of their macarons. It will be available in Japan in February 2012, in Europe from November 2012. In February 2014, Marie-Hélène de Taillac, a jewelry designer, collaborated with Ladurée to create sets of fashion macaron; the box containing the macarons "depicts de Taillac's "Rainbow" necklace, featuring gold sequins and the piece's multicolored briolette gemstone". The item sells for USD$24. Ladurée will have Marie-Hélène de Taillac-inspired window installations in its stores of Tokyo and New York City. Ladurée made the pastries for the film Marie Antoinette, directed by Sofia Coppola, they can be seen in The CW's hit teen drama Gossip Girl as Blair Waldorf's favorite pastries. Ladurée collaborate with fashion designers: in 2009 with Christian Louboutin the same year with Marni. In 2011, Ladurée was chosen to conceive macarons for Albert II, Prince of Monaco and Charlene Wittstock's wedding; the Court of Appeal in Paris granted "moral" copyright to the creator of certain Ladurée stores' elaborate interior design.
This came about as a consequence. By final judgment of March 3rd, 2017; the Paris Court of Appeal, ruling contradictorily. Confirm the judgment rendred on January 2016 between the parties by the Paris Supreme Court. By judgment contradictory and delivered in first instance on January 29th, the Paris Supreme Court says that the decorations of the lounge in the first floor of the pastry Ladurée Bonaparte, in Paris, of the black lounge and the lounge Opéra for the pastry Ladurée Harrods in London, of the Lounge Marie-Antoinette of the tearoom Ladurée Ginza in Tokyo are protected by copyright, said that Madam Rodriguez is the author of these decorations, condamne PASTRIES E. LADUREE COMPANIES and HACHETTE BOOK and Mister Serge GLEIZES in solidum to pay 15 000 Euros sum to Madam Roxane RODRIGUEZ for the damage resulting of violations on the right morale of author. Publication on newspaper "Le Monde" on June, 28th, 2018 The newspaper "Challenges" wrote an article on Novembre, 13th, 2017: " Ladurée poursuivi en justice par son ancienne décoratrice" by David Bensoussan.
Apart from ten stores in Paris, one in Versailles and another three locations at
Pierre Hermé is a French pastry chef and chocolatier. Pierre Hermé began his career at the age of 14 as an apprentice to Gaston Lenôtre, he was awarded the title of World's Best Pastry Chef in 2016 by the World's 50 Best Restaurants and as the 4th most influential French person in the World by Vanity Fair in 2016. Pierre Hermé created his own brand in 1998 with Charles Znaty. Heir to four generations of Alsatian bakery and pastry-making tradition, Pierre Hermé arrived in Paris at the age of 14 to start his first apprenticeship with Gaston Lenôtre, called by Vogue "the Picasso of Pastry" and who revolutionized pastry-making with regard to taste and modernity. With "pleasure as his only guide", Pierre Hermé invented his own unique world of tastes and pleasures, an original approach to the profession of pastry chef which led him to revolutionize the most entrenched traditions, he created the Maison Pierre Hermé Paris in 1998 with his associate Charles Znaty. The first Pierre Hermé Paris boutique opened in Tokyo in 1998, followed in 2001 by a boutique in Paris, located in the fashion district of Saint-Germain-des-Prés at 72 rue Bonaparte.
Success was immediate in Paris alike. Every day, enthusiastic gourmets discovered Pierre Hermé pastries and chocolates while connoisseurs from around the world flocked to these temples of sweet delights. In late 2004, a second Parisian boutique with its innovative interior design opened at 185 rue de Vaugirard. In early 2005, Tokyo saw the inauguration of the latest Pierre Hermé Paris concepts: the Luxury Convenience Store and the Chocolate Bar. Both establishments are situated in the Omotesando district, where all of the major imported brands and fashion houses active in Japan are present. In 2008, Pierre Hermé and Charles Znaty launched the first Macarons & Chocolats Pierre Hermé Paris boutique on rue Cambon in Paris. In 2010, they inaugurated the Maison Pierre Hermé on rue Fortuny in Paris, home to the Atelier de Création; the brand, who operates an online boutique at www.pierreherme.com, is a member of the Comité Colbert and has an established partnership with the Raffles group and Ritz Carlton group and Dior since the opening of the Café Dior by Pierre Hermé in 2015 in Seoul The company has been expanding since 2010 on the international scene with several boutiques now located in Europe and the Middle East.
Preferring discreet pastry decors and "uses sugar like salt, in other words, as a seasoning to heighten other shades of flavour" and refusing to sit on his laurels, he is always revising his own work, exploring new taste territories and revisiting his own recipes. As a result, praise has been lavished on Pierre Hermé, called "pastry provocateur", "an avant-garde pastry chef and a magician with tastes", "The Kitchen Emperor" and "The King of Modern Patisserie", along with honours and decorations, as well as – most – the admiring gratitude of connoisseurs of gourmet sweets. Hermé was the youngest person to be named France's Pastry Chef of the Year, is the only pastry chef to have been decorated as a Chevalier of Arts and Letters, he was awarded "Chevalier de la Légion d'honneur" by Jacques Chirac in May 2007. Official website
Hot water crust pastry
Hot water crust is a type of pastry used for savoury pies, such as pork pies, game pies and, more steak and kidney pies. Hot water crust is traditionally used for making hand-raised pies; as the name suggests, the pastry is made by heating water, melting the fat in it, bringing the mixture to a boil, incorporating the flour. This can be done by kneading on a pastry board. Either way, the result is a hot and rather sticky paste that can be used for hand-raising: shaping by hand, sometimes using a dish or bowl as an inner mould; the molded crust retains its shape as it cools, is prepared for baking with a filling and additional layer of pastry crust on top. Hand-raised hot water crust pastry does not produce a neat and uniform finish, as there will be sagging during the cooking of the filled pie; this is accepted as the mark of a hand-made pie. It is possible, however; the pastry is used to make pork pies, the pastry allows a wet filling to be held in. List of pastries Huff paste Recipes for the pastry on Allrecipes.com
Among animals which produce one, the yolk is the nutrient-bearing portion of the egg whose primary function is to supply food for the development of the embryo. Some kinds of egg contain no yolk, for example because they are laid in situations where the food supply is sufficient or because the embryo develops in the parent's body, which supplies the food through a placenta. Reproductive systems in which the mother's body supplies the embryo directly are said to be matrotrophic. In many species, such as all birds, most reptiles and insects, the yolk takes the form of a special storage organ constructed in the reproductive tract of the mother. In many other animals very small species such as some fishes and invertebrates, the yolk material is not in a special organ, but inside the ovum; as stored food, yolks are rich in vitamins, minerals and proteins. The proteins function as food in their own right, in controlling the storage and supply of the other nutrients. For example, in some species the amount of yolk in an egg cell affects the developmental processes that follow fertilization.
The yolk is not living cell material like protoplasm, but passive material, to say deutoplasm. The food material and associated control structures are supplied during oogenesis; some of the material is stored more or less in the form in which the maternal body supplied it as processed by dedicated non-germ tissues in the egg, while part of the biosynthetic processing into its final form happens in the oocyte itself. Apart from animals, other organisms, like algae, specially in the oogamous, can accumulate resources in their female gametes. In gymnosperms, the remains of the female gametophyte serve as food supply, in flowering plants, the endosperm. In the avian egg, the yolk is a hue of yellow in color, it is spherical and is suspended in the egg white by one or two spiral bands of tissue called the chalazae. The yolk mass, together with the egg cell or ovum properly are enclosed by the vitelline membrane, whose structure is different from a cell membrane; the yolk is extracellular to the oolemma, being not accumulated inside the cytoplasm of the egg cell, contrary to the claim that the avian egg cell and its yolk are a single giant cell.
After the fertilization, the cleavage of the embryo leads to the formation of the germinal disc. As food, the chicken egg yolk is a major source of minerals, it contains all of the egg's fat and cholesterol, nearly half of the protein. If left intact when an egg is fried, the yellow yolk surrounded by a flat blob of egg white creates a distinctive "sunny-side up" form. Mixing the two components together before cooking results in a pale yellow mass, as in omelets and scrambled eggs; the developing embryo inside the egg uses the yolk as sustenance. It is at times separated from the egg white for cooking, is employed as an emulsifier, is used in mayonnaise, hollandaise sauce, crème brûlée, ovos moles, it is used in painting as a component of traditional egg-tempera. It is used in the production of egg-yolk agar plate medium, useful in testing for the presence of Clostridium perfringens. Egg yolk contains; the antibody transfers from the laying hen to the egg yolk by passive immunity to protect both embryo and hatchling from microorganism invasion.
Egg yolk can be used to make liqueurs such as eggnog. Egg yolk is used to extract egg oil which has various cosmetic and medicinal uses; the yolk makes up about 33% of the liquid weight of the egg. The yolk of one large egg (56.7 g total, 17.6 g yolk. All of the fat-soluble vitamins are found in the egg yolk. Egg yolk is one of the few foods containing vitamin D; the composition of the most prevalent fatty acids in egg yolk is: Unsaturated fatty acids: Oleic acid, 47% Linoleic acid, 16% Palmitoleic acid, 5% Linolenic acid, 2% Saturated fatty acids: Palmitic acid, 23% Stearic acid, 4% Myristic acid, 1%Egg yolk is a source of lecithin, as well as egg oil, for cosmetic and pharmaceutical applications. Based on weight, egg yolk contains about 9% lecithin; the yellow color is due to lutein and zeaxanthin, which are yellow or orange carotenoids known as xanthophylls. The different yolk's proteins have distinct roles. Phosvitins are important in sequestering calcium and other cations for the developing embryo.
Phosvitins are one of the most phosphorylated proteins in nature. Lipovitellins are involved in lipid and metal storage, contain a heterogeneous mixture of about 16% noncovalently bound lipid, most being phospholipid. Lipovitellin-1 contains two chains, LV1N and LV1C. Yolks hold more than 90% of the calcium, phosphorus, thiamine, vitamin B6, vitamin B12, pantothenic acid of the egg. In addition, yolks cover all of the fat-soluble vitamins: A, D, E, K in the egg, as well as all of the essential fatty acids. A single yolk from a large egg contains 22 mg of calcium, 66 mg of phosphorus, 9.5 micrograms of selenium, 19 mg of potassium, according to the USDA. Double-yolk eggs occur when ovulation occurs too or when one yolk becomes joined with another yolk; these eggs may be the result of a young hen's reproductive cyc