Badanj Cave is located in Borojevići village near the town of Stolac and Herzegovina. This rather small cave has come to attention after the 1976 discovery of its cave engravings. The site is rock shelter or overhang recessed beneath a cliff that descends to the bank of the river Bregava. Two chronologically distinct strata of Palaeolithic occupation were identified beneath the surface layer, of particular significance was the discovery of a particular carving of the Badanj site, as it ranks among the oldest works of art in Bosnia and Herzegovina. The carving is cut into the surface of a large polished block of stone. Only the rear half of the body survives, with flanks typical for a horse and part of the body, the Badanj carvings include depictions of animals and symbols, as is typical of Mediterranean prehistoric art. The site was dated to the late Upper Palaeolithic and it is designated as a National Monument of Bosnia and Herzegovina since 2003
Bacho Kiro cave
The Bacho Kiro cave is situated 5 km west of the town Dryanovo, only 300 m away from the Dryanovo Monastery. It is embedded in the canyons of the Andaka and Dryanovo River, the cave is a four-storey labyrinth of galleries and corridors with a total length of 3,600 m,700 m of which are maintained for public access and equipped with electrical lights since 1964. An underground river has over time carved out the many galleries that contain countless stalactone, stalactite and caverns of a 1,200 m long section have been been musingly named as a popular description of this fairy-tale underground world. The formations succession, Bacho Kiro’s Throne, The Dwarfs, The Sleeping Princess, The Throne Hall, The Reception Hall, The Haidouti Meeting-Ground, The Fountain, the site has yielded the oldest human remains ever to be found in Bulgaria. Among one of the earliest known Aurignacian burials, two pierced animal teeth were found and ordered into the distinct Bachokiran artifact assemblage, radiocarbon dated to over 43,000 years ago, they currently represent the oldest known ornaments in Europe.
With an approximate age of 46,000 years, human fossils consist of a pair of fragmented mandibles, whether these early humans were in fact Homo sapiens or Neanderthals is still disputed
Middle Stone Age
The Middle Stone Age was a period of African prehistory between the Early Stone Age and the Later Stone Age. It is generally considered to have begun around 280,000 years ago, the beginnings of particular MSA stone tools have their origins as far back as 550–500,000 years ago and as such some researchers consider this to be the beginnings of the MSA. The MSA is associated with anatomically modern humans as well as archaic Homo sapiens, sometimes referred to as Homo helmei. Early physical evidence comes from the Gademotta Formation in Ethiopia, the Kapthurin Formation in Kenya and it is difficult to discuss the MSA of Africa without first considering the immense size of the continent. Preservation in these two regions are alternately superb and lamentable, yet the sites that have been uncovered document the adaptive nature of early hominins to climatically unstable environments. Eastern Africa represents some of the most reliable dates, due to the use of radiocarbon dating on volcanic ash deposits, faunal preservation, however, is not spectacular, and standardization in site excavation and lithic classification was, until recently, lacking.
Central Africa reflects similar patterning to eastern Africa, yet more archaeological research of the region is certainly required, southern Africa consists of many cave sites, most of which show very punctuated starts and stops in stone tool technology. Research in southern Africa has been continuous and quite standardized, allowing for reliable comparisons between sites in the region. Much of the evidence for the origins of modern human behavior is traced back to sites in this region, including Blombos Cave, Howiesons Poort, Still Bay. The origins of the MSA are characterized in most regions by the Acheulian to MSA transition and this transition is considered to be a gradual process, rather than a singular event wherein hominin technologies advanced rapidly. Although the dates for this vary widely, the oldest reliably dated MSA site is Gademotta in Ethiopia at greater than 276 thousand years ago. The Middle Awash valley of Ethiopia and the Central Rift Valley of Kenya constituted a major center for behavioural innovation and this suggests a possible overlap of 100-150 thousand years.
The Cave of Hearths and Montague Cave in South Africa contain evidence of Acheulian technologies, as well as MSA technologies, Early blades have been documented as far back as 550-500,000 years in the Kapthurin Formation in Kenya and Kathu Pan in South Africa. Backed pieces from the Twin Rivers and Kalambo Falls sites in Zambia, a high level of technical competence is indicated for the c.280 ka blades recovered from the Kapthurin Formation, Kenya. The stone tool technology in use during the Middle Stone Age shows a mosaic of techniques, the use of blades is seen at many sites as well. In Africa, blades may have used during the transition from the Early Stone Age to the Middle Stone Age onwards. Artifact technology during the Middle Stone Age shows a pattern of innovation followed by disappearance and this occurs with technology such as the manufacture of shell beads and hide working tools including needles, and gluing technology. These pieces of evidence provide a counterpoint to the classic Out of Africa scenario in which increasing complexity accumulated during the Middle Stone Age, perhaps only in small numbers initially, but by 30 ka they had replaced Neanderthals and H. erectus
The Vela Spila cave, Vela Spila, Big Cave is situated above the town of Vela Luka on the island of Korčula, in Croatia on Pinski Rat hill at an elevation of approximately 130 m. The cave consists of an elliptically shaped cavern that measures 40 m in length,17 m in height, there are, similar to the Brillenhöhle in Germany, two openings in the roof of the cave which were caused by collapse at an yet undetermined time. Nikola Ostoic was the first person to describe the cave in modern literature, in 1856, he wrote Compendio Storico Dell Isola Di Curzola. A local historian, museum commissioner, and collector of antiquities, the cave has been mentioned in the Korčula Statute back in the 15th century. Scientific research of the started in the late 1940s. Marinko Gjivoje took up work at the site in 1949, in 1951, Marinko Gjivoje, Boris Ilakovac and Vinko Foretic started test excavations and the results were allowed the proposal to proceed. Based on these findings, Grga Novak decided to excavate in order to confirm the caves links with the island of Hvar.
The explorations were carried out in September 1951 and he published his preliminary results in the Annals of the Yugoslav Academy. Since 1974, fieldwork were undertaken almost annually, initially led by Grga Novak, franko Oreb is a permanent member of the excavation crew and Dinko Radic joined the excavation in 1986. There is a sequence of sediments from the late Mesolithic to the Neolithic. Radiocarbon dated finds suggest seasonal human presence for hunting and the collection of resources from 20,000 years BC. Three child burials were discovered between 1986 and 1998 in the younger Mesolithic layers, further findings are dated between 13,500 and 12,600 BC. Eneolithic layers account for non-permanent human occupation of the cave, attributed to the Hvar Culture and this period is immediately being followed by a compact layer of the Bronze Age. The archeological finds are on display at the Centre for Culture in Vela Luka, in 2009 National Geographic featured an article about Vela Spila. In 1986, remains of two adults where found, scientific research dated their bodies back to late Neolithic times.
The local towns people of Vela Luka called them Baba i Dida, further excavations between 2001 and 2006, produced 36 ceramic artifacts dated to the late Upper Palaeolithic period, about 17,500 to 15,000 years ago. These finds are the examples of ceramic figurative art in southeastern Europe during the Upper Palaeolithic. Croatia Vela Luka Korčula Drakonjina Spilja www. velaspila. hr Archaeologists uncover Palaeolithic ceramic art First Epigravettian Ceramic Figurines from Europe
Cyprus, officially the Republic of Cyprus, is an island country in the Eastern Mediterranean and the third largest and third most populous island in the Mediterranean. It is located south of Turkey, west of Syria and Lebanon, northwest of Israel and Palestine, north of Egypt, the earliest known human activity on the island dates to around the 10th millennium BC. Archaeological remains from this include the well-preserved Neolithic village of Khirokitia. Cyprus was settled by Mycenaean Greeks in two waves in the 2nd millennium BC, Cyprus was placed under British administration based on Cyprus Convention in 1878 and formally annexed by Britain in 1914. While Turkish Cypriots made up 18% of the population, the partition of Cyprus and creation of a Turkish state in the north became a policy of Turkish Cypriot leaders, following nationalist violence in the 1950s, Cyprus was granted independence in 1960. On 15 July 1974, a coup détat was staged by Greek Cypriot nationalists and elements of the Greek military junta in an attempt at enosis and these events and the resulting political situation are matters of a continuing dispute.
The Cyprus Republic has de jure sovereignty over the island of Cyprus, as well as its territorial sea and exclusive economic area, another nearly 4% of the islands area is covered by the UN buffer zone. The international community considers the part of the island as territory of the Republic of Cyprus occupied by Turkish forces. The occupation is viewed as illegal under law, amounting to illegal occupation of EU territory since Cyprus became a member of the European Union. Cyprus is a major tourist destination in the Mediterranean, on 1 January 2008, the Republic of Cyprus joined the eurozone. The earliest attested reference to Cyprus is the 15th century BC Mycenaean Greek
University of Cape Town
The University of Cape Town is a public research university located in Cape Town in the Western Cape province of South Africa. The language of instruction is English, the roots of UCT lie in the establishment of the South African College in 1829 as a school for boys. In 1874 the South African College Schools, teaching up to level, were separated from the College. In 1887 the first male residence in Southern Africa was established, known as College House Residence, in 1918 the South African College was elevated to full university status with the power to award degrees, and renamed the University of Cape Town. UCT moved to the Groote Schuur Estate campus in 1928, during the apartheid era, roughly 1960-1990, many UCT students consistently opposed apartheid, and the university was a bastion of liberalism. However, the demographics of the university did not begin to change meaningfully until the 1980s,1987 saw frequent clashes between protesting students and police, with reporting of police presence on the campus being censored by the government.
On 24 April 1987 the police entered the campus and this marked the first time since 1972 that South Africas police services had suppressed a demonstration at a white university, the UCT crest was designed in 1859 by Charles Davidson Bell, Surveyor-General of the Cape Colony at the time. Bell was an accomplished artist who designed medals and the triangular Cape stamp, the main teaching campus, known as Upper Campus, is located on the Rhodes Estate on the slopes of Devils Peak. This campus contains, in a compact site, the faculties of Science, Commerce. Upper Campus is centered on Jameson Hall, the location for graduation and other ceremonial events, the original buildings and layout of Upper Campus were designed by JM Solomon and built between 1928 and 1930. Since that time, many buildings have been added as the university has grown. Upper Campus is home to the library, The Chancellor Oppenheimer library which holds the majority of the Universitys 1.3 million volume collection. Contiguous with Upper Campus, but separated from it by university sports fields, the state of the art artificial grass soccer field has been approved by FIFA for training for World Cup teams.
The Upper and Lower Campuses together are referred to as the main campus. The Faculty of Health Sciences is located on the Medical School campus next to the Groote Schuur Hospital in Observatory, the Fine Arts and Drama departments are located on the Hiddingh Campus in central Cape Town. The Universitys original building, now known as the Egyptian Building, the only other campus built in this style was the Medical College of Virginia in Richmond, Virginia in the United States. The UCT Graduate School of Business is located on the Breakwater Lodge Campus at the Victoria & Alfred Waterfront. For his contribution of the tract of land which the campus was founded on, the statue was removed in April 2015 following pressure from student groups due to its perceived representation of South Africas racist past and the universitys inadequate representation of blacks
Later Stone Age
The Later Stone Age is a period in African prehistory that follows the Early Stone Age and Middle Stone Age. All three periods are often confused with the Lower Paleolithic, Middle Paleolithic, and Upper Paleolithic, in the 1920s, it became clear to archaeologists that the existing chronological system of Upper and Lower Paleolithic was not a suitable correlate to the prehistoric past in Africa. The terms Early and Later Stone Age were developed to address this issue, some scholars, still view these two chronologies as parallel, arguing that they both represent the development of behavioral modernity. The Later Stone Age is associated with the advent of human behavior in Africa, although definitions of this concept. The transition from the Middle Stone Age to the Later Stone Age is thought to have occurred first in eastern Africa between 50,000 and 39,000 years ago. It is thought that Later Stone Age peoples and/or their technologies spread out of Africa over the several thousand years. LSA peoples were linked with biologically and behaviorally modern populations of hunter/gatherers.
This definition has changed since its creation with the discovery of ostrich eggshell beads, the Later Stone Age was long distinguished from the earlier Middle Stone Age as the time in which modern human behavior developed in Africa. This definition has become more tenuous as evidence for modern human behaviors is found in sites which predate the LSA significantly. The LSA follows the Middle Stone Age and begins about 50,000 years ago, the LSA is characterized by a wider variety in stone artifacts than in the previous MSA period. These artifacts vary with time and location, unlike Middle Stone Age technology which appeared to have been unchanged for several hundreds of thousands of years. LSA technology is characterized by the use of bone tools. The LSA was associated with human behavior, but this view was modified after discoveries in MSA sites such as Blombos Cave. LSA sites greatly outnumber MSA sites in Africa, a trend that could indicate an increase in population numbers, the greater number of LSA sites could result from bias towards better preservation of younger sites which have had fewer chances to be destroyed.
Differences in stone tool technologies are used to distinguish between the Middle Stone Age and the Later Stone Age. They have been broken into four stages within the LSA. Microlithic industries with bladelets dated between ca.18,000 and ca.12,000 B. P, bladelet-poor industries dating between 12,000 and 8000 B. P. The end of the Later Stone Age took place when groups adopted technologies such as metallurgy to replace the use of stone tools, Upper Paleolithic Middle Stone Age Enkapune Ya Muto Mumba Cave Mumbwa Cave Deacon, Hilary
South Africa, officially the Republic of South Africa, is the southernmost country in Africa. South Africa is the 25th-largest country in the world by land area and it is the southernmost country on the mainland of the Old World or the Eastern Hemisphere. About 80 percent of South Africans are of Sub-Saharan African ancestry, divided among a variety of ethnic groups speaking different Bantu languages, the remaining population consists of Africas largest communities of European and multiracial ancestry. South Africa is a multiethnic society encompassing a variety of cultures, languages. Its pluralistic makeup is reflected in the recognition of 11 official languages. The country is one of the few in Africa never to have had a coup détat, the vast majority of black South Africans were not enfranchised until 1994. During the 20th century, the black majority sought to recover its rights from the dominant white minority, with this struggle playing a role in the countrys recent history. The National Party imposed apartheid in 1948, institutionalising previous racial segregation, since 1994, all ethnic and linguistic groups have held political representation in the countrys democracy, which comprises a parliamentary republic and nine provinces.
South Africa is often referred to as the Rainbow Nation to describe the multicultural diversity. The World Bank classifies South Africa as an economy. Its economy is the second-largest in Africa, and the 34th-largest in the world, in terms of purchasing power parity, South Africa has the seventh-highest per capita income in Africa. However and inequality remain widespread, with about a quarter of the population unemployed, South Africa has been identified as a middle power in international affairs, and maintains significant regional influence. The name South Africa is derived from the geographic location at the southern tip of Africa. Upon formation the country was named the Union of South Africa in English, since 1961 the long form name in English has been the Republic of South Africa. In Dutch the country was named Republiek van Zuid-Afrika, replaced in 1983 by the Afrikaans Republiek van Suid-Afrika, since 1994 the Republic has had an official name in each of its 11 official languages. Mzansi, derived from the Xhosa noun umzantsi meaning south, is a name for South Africa.
South Africa contains some of the oldest archaeological and human fossil sites in the world, extensive fossil remains have been recovered from a series of caves in Gauteng Province. The area is a UNESCO World Heritage site and has termed the Cradle of Humankind
Bosnia and Herzegovina
Bosnia and Herzegovina, sometimes called Bosnia-Herzegovina, and, in short, often known informally as Bosnia, is a country in Southeastern Europe located on the Balkan Peninsula. Sarajevo is the capital and largest city, in the central and eastern interior of the country the geography is mountainous, in the northwest it is moderately hilly, and the northeast is predominantly flatland. The inland is a larger region and has a moderate continental climate, with hot summers and cold. The southern tip of the country has a Mediterranean climate and plain topography and Herzegovina is a region that traces permanent human settlement back to the Neolithic age and after which it was populated by several Illyrian and Celtic civilizations. Culturally and socially, the country has a rich history, the Ottomans brought Islam to the region, and altered much of the cultural and social outlook of the country. This was followed by annexation into the Austro-Hungarian Monarchy, which lasted up until World War I.
In the interwar period, Bosnia was part of the Kingdom of Yugoslavia and after World War II, following the dissolution of Yugoslavia, the country proclaimed independence in 1992, which was followed by the Bosnian War, lasting until late 1995. The country is home to three ethnic groups or, constituent peoples, as specified in the constitution. Bosniaks are the largest group of the three, with Serbs second and Croats third, a native of Bosnia and Herzegovina, regardless of ethnicity, is identified in English as a Bosnian. The terms Herzegovinian and Bosnian are maintained as a rather than ethnic distinction. Moreover, the country was simply called Bosnia until the Austro-Hungarian occupation at the end of the 19th century and Herzegovina has a bicameral legislature and a three-member Presidency composed of a member of each major ethnic group. The Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina is itself complex and consists of 10 cantons, the country has been a member of the Council of Europe since April 2002 and a founding member of the Mediterranean Union upon its establishment in July 2008.
The name is believed to have derived from the hydronym of the river Bosna coursing through the Bosnian heartland. According to philologist Anton Mayer the name Bosna could be derived from Illyrian Bass-an-as which would be a diversion of the Proto-Indo-European root bos or bogh, meaning the running water. According to English medievalist William Miller the Slavic settlers in Bosnia adapted the Latin designation Basante, to their own idiom by calling the stream Bosna, the name Herzegovina originates from Bosnian magnate Stephen Vukčić Kosačas title, Herceg of Hum and the Coast. Hum, formerly Zahumlje, was a medieval principality that was conquered by the Bosnian Banate in the first half of the 14th century. Bosnia is located in the western Balkans, bordering Croatia to the north and west, Serbia to the east and it has a coastline about 20 kilometres long surrounding the city of Neum. It lies between latitudes 42° and 46° N, and longitudes 15° and 20° E, the countrys name comes from the two regions Bosnia and Herzegovina, which have a very vaguely defined border between them
The Areni-1 cave complex is located near the Areni village in southern Armenia along the Arpa River. In 2010, it was announced that the earliest known shoe was found at the site, in January 2011, the earliest known winery in the world was announced to have been found. Also in 2011, the discovery of a straw skirt dating to 3900 BC was reported, in 2009, the oldest brain was discovered