A midshipman is an officer of the junior-most rank, in the Royal Navy, United States Navy, many Commonwealth navies. Commonwealth countries which use the rank include Canada, Bangladesh, New Zealand, South Africa, Pakistan, Sri Lanka, Kenya. In the 17th century, a midshipman was a rating for an experienced seaman, the word derives from the area aboard a ship, either where the original rating worked on the ship, or where he was berthed. Beginning in the 18th century, a commissioned officer candidate was rated as a midshipman, the seaman rating began to die out. By the Napoleonic era, a midshipman was an apprentice officer who had served at least three years as a volunteer, officer's servant or able seaman, was equivalent to a present-day petty officer in rank and responsibilities. After serving at least three years as a midshipman or master's mate, he was eligible to take the examination for lieutenant. Promotion to lieutenant was not automatic, many midshipmen took positions as master's mates for an increase in pay and responsibility aboard ship.
Midshipmen in the United States Navy were trained and served to midshipmen in the Royal Navy, although unlike their counterparts in the Royal Navy, a midshipman was a warrant officer rank until 1912. During the 19th century, changes in the training of naval officers in both the Royal Navy and the United States Navy led to the replacement of apprenticeship aboard ships with formal schooling in a naval college. Midshipman began to mean an officer cadet at a naval college. Trainees now spent around four years in a college and two years at sea prior to promotion to commissioned officer rank. Between the mid-19th and mid-20th centuries, time at sea declined to less than a year as the entry age was increased from 12 to 18. Ranks equivalent to midshipman exist in many other navies. Using US midshipman or pre-fleet board UK midshipman as the basis for comparison, the equivalent rank would be a naval cadet in training to become a junior commissioned officer. Using post-fleet board UK midshipman for comparison, the rank would be the most junior commissioned officer in the rank structure, similar to a US ensign in role and responsibility.
In many Romance languages, the literal translation of the local term for "midshipman" into English is "Navy Guard", including the French garde marine, Spanish guardia marina, Portuguese guarda-marinha, Italian guardiamarina. Today, these ranks all refer to naval cadets, but they were selected by the monarchy, were trained on land as soldiers; the rank of midshipman originated during the Tudor and Stuart eras, referred to a post for an experienced seaman promoted from the ordinary deck hands, who worked in between the main and mizzen masts and had more responsibility than an ordinary seaman, but was not a military officer or an officer in training. The first published use of the term midshipman was in 1662; the word derives from an area aboard a ship, but it refers either to the location where midshipmen worked on the ship, or the location where midshipmen were berthed. By the 18th century, four types of midshipman existed: midshipman, midshipman extraordinary and midshipman ordinary; some midshipmen were older men, while most were officer candidates who failed to pass the lieutenant examination or were passed over for promotion, some members of the original rating served, as late as 1822, alongside apprentice officers without themselves aspiring to a commission.
By 1794, all midshipmen were considered officer candidates, the original rating was phased out. Beginning in 1661, boys who aspired to become officers were sent by their families to serve on ships with a "letter of service" from the crown, were paid at the same rate as midshipmen; the letter instructed the admirals and captains that the bearer was to be shown "such kindness as you shall judge fit for a gentleman, both in accommodating him in your ship and in furthering his improvement". Their official rating was volunteer-per-order, but they were known as King's letter boys, to distinguish their higher social class from the original midshipman rating. Beginning in 1677, Royal Navy regulations for promotion to lieutenant required service as a midshipman, promotion to midshipman required some time at sea. By the Napoleonic era, the regulations required at least three years of services as a midshipman or master's mate and six years of total sea time. Sea time was earned in various ways, most boys served this period at sea in any lower rating, either as a servant of one of the ship's officers, a volunteer, or a seaman.
By the 1730s, the rating volunteer-per-order was phased out and replaced with a system where prospective midshipmen served as servants for officers. For example, a captain was allowed four servants for every 100 men aboard his ship. In 1729, the Royal Naval Academy in Portsmouth – renamed the Royal Naval College in 1806 – was founded, for 40 students aged between 13 and 16, who would take three years to complete a course of study defined in an illustrated book, would earn two years of sea time as part of their studies; the rating of midshipman-by-order, or midshipman ordinary, was used for graduates of the Royal Naval College, to distinguish them from midshipmen who had served aboard ship, who were paid more. The school was unpopular in the Navy, because officers enjoyed the privilege of having servants and preferred the traditional method of training officers via apprenticeship. In 1794, officers' servants were abolished and a new class of volunteers called'volunteer class I' was created for boys between the ag
Australia the Commonwealth of Australia, is a sovereign country comprising the mainland of the Australian continent, the island of Tasmania and numerous smaller islands. It is the world's sixth-largest country by total area; the neighbouring countries are Papua New Guinea and East Timor to the north. The population of 25 million is urbanised and concentrated on the eastern seaboard. Australia's capital is Canberra, its largest city is Sydney; the country's other major metropolitan areas are Melbourne, Brisbane and Adelaide. Australia was inhabited by indigenous Australians for about 60,000 years before the first British settlement in the late 18th century, it is documented. After the European exploration of the continent by Dutch explorers in 1606, who named it New Holland, Australia's eastern half was claimed by Great Britain in 1770 and settled through penal transportation to the colony of New South Wales from 26 January 1788, a date which became Australia's national day; the population grew in subsequent decades, by the 1850s most of the continent had been explored and an additional five self-governing crown colonies established.
On 1 January 1901, the six colonies federated. Australia has since maintained a stable liberal democratic political system that functions as a federal parliamentary constitutional monarchy, comprising six states and ten territories. Being the oldest and driest inhabited continent, with the least fertile soils, Australia has a landmass of 7,617,930 square kilometres. A megadiverse country, its size gives it a wide variety of landscapes, with deserts in the centre, tropical rainforests in the north-east and mountain ranges in the south-east. A gold rush began in Australia in the early 1850s, its population density, 2.8 inhabitants per square kilometre, remains among the lowest in the world. Australia generates its income from various sources including mining-related exports, telecommunications and manufacturing. Indigenous Australian rock art is the oldest and richest in the world, dating as far back as 60,000 years and spread across hundreds of thousands of sites. Australia is a developed country, with the world's 14th-largest economy.
It has a high-income economy, with the world's tenth-highest per capita income. It is a regional power, has the world's 13th-highest military expenditure. Australia has the world's ninth-largest immigrant population, with immigrants accounting for 26% of the population. Having the third-highest human development index and the eighth-highest ranked democracy globally, the country ranks in quality of life, education, economic freedom, civil liberties and political rights, with all its major cities faring well in global comparative livability surveys. Australia is a member of the United Nations, G20, Commonwealth of Nations, ANZUS, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, World Trade Organization, Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation, Pacific Islands Forum and the ASEAN Plus Six mechanism; the name Australia is derived from the Latin Terra Australis, a name used for a hypothetical continent in the Southern Hemisphere since ancient times. When Europeans first began visiting and mapping Australia in the 17th century, the name Terra Australis was applied to the new territories.
Until the early 19th century, Australia was best known as "New Holland", a name first applied by the Dutch explorer Abel Tasman in 1644 and subsequently anglicised. Terra Australis still saw occasional usage, such as in scientific texts; the name Australia was popularised by the explorer Matthew Flinders, who said it was "more agreeable to the ear, an assimilation to the names of the other great portions of the earth". The first time that Australia appears to have been used was in April 1817, when Governor Lachlan Macquarie acknowledged the receipt of Flinders' charts of Australia from Lord Bathurst. In December 1817, Macquarie recommended to the Colonial Office. In 1824, the Admiralty agreed that the continent should be known by that name; the first official published use of the new name came with the publication in 1830 of The Australia Directory by the Hydrographic Office. Colloquial names for Australia include "Oz" and "the Land Down Under". Other epithets include "the Great Southern Land", "the Lucky Country", "the Sunburnt Country", "the Wide Brown Land".
The latter two both derive from Dorothea Mackellar's 1908 poem "My Country". Human habitation of the Australian continent is estimated to have begun around 65,000 to 70,000 years ago, with the migration of people by land bridges and short sea-crossings from what is now Southeast Asia; these first inhabitants were the ancestors of modern Indigenous Australians. Aboriginal Australian culture is one of the oldest continual civilisations on earth. At the time of first European contact, most Indigenous Australians were hunter-gatherers with complex economies and societies. Recent archaeological finds suggest. Indigenous Australians have an oral culture with spiritual values based on reverence for the land and a belief in the Dreamtime; the Torres Strait Islanders, ethnically Melanesian, obtained their livelihood from seasonal horticulture and the resources of their reefs and seas. The northern coasts and waters of Australia were visited s
Cannington, Western Australia
Cannington is a southern suburb of Perth, Western Australia. Its local government area is the City of Canning. Cannington's name derives from the Canning River, which forms part of the southwestern boundary of the suburb, it was first subdivided in 1882, a railway station was constructed in the 1890s opposite Station Street in East Cannington. For many years the areas of Cannington, East Cannington and Beckenham were known locally as "Waverley" and many buildings and businesses used the name Waverley to designate their locality, such as the Waverley Hotel and the Waverley Drive In Cinema; the origin of the alternative use of Waverley is designated to the Cecil Gibbs who first used it in naming the Waverley Hotel, a distinctive landmark over many generations. Between 1860 and 1883, William Lacey Gibbs accumulated most of what is Cannington, his slaughter yards were located near Westfield. His brother built the'Cecil / Waverley' Hotel on the corner of Albany Highway; the hotel was altered many times over the years and was demolished for widening of the Albany Highway.
Cannington is bounded by Nicholson Road to the southeast, the Armadale railway line to the northeast and Burton Streets to the northwest, Fleming Avenue and the Canning River to the southwest. Albany Highway runs through the western part of the suburb. Cannington contains one of the Perth metropolitan area's largest shopping complexes, Westfield Carousel, first built in 1972 and extensively refurbished and expanded in the 1990s, which includes a Hoyts cinema complex. Albany Highway contains a range of shops and small warehouses, as well as the City of Canning council offices. Bentley Hospital is just beyond the northwestern boundary on Mills Street. Along the Canning River is the Canning River Regional Park, which contains walking tracks and picnic facilities as well as the Woodloes Museum, a restored 1874 house built by architect and pioneer Francis Bird. Various sports and leisure facilities, including soccer fields, ten-pin bowling and an indoor athletics centre; the Canning showgrounds which includes the Cannington Raceway, a greyhound racetrack and Cannington Exhibition Centre.
Cannington Community College, a public primary and junior high school, Sevenoaks Senior College, a senior secondary college are located in Cannington. Cannington is on Albany Highway, a primary route into Perth's CBD, lies to the southeast of Leach Highway and to the northwest of Roe Highway. Manning Road provides access to Curtin University of Kwinana Freeway. Cannington is served by the Cannington Interchange, linking the area to the Perth CBD; the suburb is served by buses along Cecil Avenue, Albany Highway and other routes. All bus services are operated by Path Transit. Cannington has a broadly lower-middle-class, mixed-ethnic population and supports the Australian Labor Party at both Federal and state elections. City of Canning Westfield Carousel
Mount Pleasant, Western Australia
Mount Pleasant is a suburb of Perth, Western Australia, located within the City of Melville on the Canning River. It is bounded by Canning Highway to the north, the Canning River to the east, Cranford Avenue, Moolyeen Road and Canning Avenue to the south, Rogerson Road, Coomoora Road, Henley Road and Ardross Street to the west. Mount Pleasant Primary School is located within the boundaries of Mount Pleasant, Brentwood Primary School abuts Mount Pleasant in the south west of Mount Pleasant just south of Blue Gum Park. A high school, Applecross Senior High School, is located in the suburb of Ardross to the west of Mount Pleasant. Mount Pleasant hosts the Head of the River Rowing event, as part of the Public Schools Association, an elite boys schools association in Perth
HMS Success (1825)
HMS Success was an Atholl-class 28-gun sixth-rate wooden sailing ship notable for exploring Western Australia and the Swan River in 1827 as well as being one of the first ships to arrive at the fledgling Swan River Colony two years at which time she ran aground off Carnac Island. Her keel was laid at Pembroke Dock in August 1823 and she was launched on 31 August 1825, she was 114 ft long and 32 ft wide, was a sixth-rate ship with 28 guns, including twenty 32-pounders. She was sent by the Royal Navy on a mission to New South Melville Island, she made an expedition to the Swan River in 1827. Captain James Stirling was in command. There is a record of the expedition, An account of the expedition of H. M. S.'Success', Captain James Stirling, RN. from Sydney, to the Swan River, in 1827 by Augustus Gilbert. Another account The visit of Charles Fraser: to the Swan River in 1827, with his opinion on the suitableness of the district for a settlement was published in 1832. On 3 December 1829 Success was grounded on Carnac Reef.
She was repaired, with assistance from HMS Cruizer. In 1832 Success was engaged in harbour service. In January 1840, Success was a receiving ship in Portsmouth, she was broken up in 1849. Success Bank, the suburb of Success and a number of other features in Western Australia are named after the ship
Azolla is a genus of seven species of aquatic ferns in the family Salviniaceae. They are reduced in form and specialized, looking nothing like other typical ferns but more resembling duckweed or some mosses. Azolla filiculoides is one of just two fern species. Azolla nilotica Decne. Ex Mett. Azolla pinnata R. Br. Azolla cristata Kaulf. Azolla filiculoides Lam. List sources:At least six extinct species are known from the fossil record: Azolla intertrappea Sahni & H. S. Rao, 1934 Azolla berryi Brown, 1934 Azolla prisca Chandler & Reid, 1926 Azolla tertiaria Berry, 1927 Azolla primaeva Arnold, 1955 Azolla boliviensis Vajda & McLoughlin, 2005 Azolla is a productive plant, it doubles its biomass in 3–10 days, depending on conditions, yield can reach 8–10 tonnes fresh matter/ha in Asian rice fields. 37.8 t fresh weight/ha has been reported for Azolla pinnata in India. Azolla filiculoides is of the family Azollaceae in Tasmania, it is a common native aquatic plant in Tasmania. It is common on farm dams and other still water bodies.
The plants are small and float, but can be abundant and form large mats. The plants are red, have small water repellent leaves. Azolla floats on the surface of water by means of numerous, small overlapping scale-like leaves, with their roots hanging in the water, they form a symbiotic relationship with the cyanobacterium Anabaena azollae, which fixes atmospheric nitrogen, giving the plant access to the essential nutrient. This has led to the plant being dubbed a "super-plant", as it can colonise areas of freshwater, grow at great speed - doubling its biomass every two to three days; the typical limiting factor on its growth is another essential mineral. An abundance of phosphorus, due for example to eutrophication or chemical runoff leads to Azolla blooms. Unlike all other known plants, the symbiotic microorganism is transferred directly from one generation to the next; this has made A. azollae dependent on its host, as several of its genes are either lost or has been transferred to the nucleus in Azolla’s cells.
The nitrogen-fixing capability of Azolla has led to Azolla being used as a biofertiliser in parts of southeast Asia. Indeed, the plant has been used to bolster agricultural productivity in China for over a thousand years; when rice paddies are flooded in the spring, they can be inoculated with Azolla, which quickly multiplies to cover the water, suppressing weeds. The rotting plant material releases nitrogen to the rice plants, providing up to nine tonnes of protein per hectare per year. Azolla are weeds in many parts of the world covering some bodies of water; the myth that no mosquito can penetrate the coating of fern to lay its eggs in the water gives the plant its common name "mosquito fern". Most of the species can produce large amounts of deoxyanthocyanins in response to various stresses, including bright sunlight and extremes of temperature, causing the water surface to appear to be covered with an intensely red carpet. Herbivore feeding induces accumulation of deoxyanthocyanins and leads to a reduction in the proportion of polyunsaturated fatty acids in the fronds, thus lowering their palatability and nutritive value.
Azolla cannot survive winters with prolonged freezing, so is grown as an ornamental plant at high latitudes where it cannot establish itself enough to become a weed. It is not tolerant of salinity. Azolla reproduces sexually, asexually by splitting. Like all ferns, sexual reproduction leads to spore formation, but Azolla sets itself apart from other members of its group by producing two kinds. During the summer months, numerous spherical structures called sporocarps form on the undersides of the branches; the male sporocarp looks like the egg mass of an insect or spider. It is two millimeters in diameter, inside are numerous male sporangia. Male spores are small and are produced inside each microsporangium. Curiously, microspores tend to adhere in clumps called massulae. Female sporocarps are much smaller, containing one functional spore. Since an individual female spore is larger than a male spore, it is termed a megaspore. Azolla has microscopic male and female gametophytes; the female gametophyte protrudes from the megaspore and bears a small number of archegonia, each containing a single egg.
The microspore forms a male gametophyte with a single antheridium which produces eight swimming sperm. The barbed glochidia on the male spore clusters cause them to cling to the female megaspores, thus facilitating fertilization. In addition to its traditional cultivation as a bio-fertilizer for wetland paddy, azolla is finding increasing use for sustainable production of livestock feed. Azolla is rich in proteins, essential amino acids and minerals. Studies describe feeding azolla to dairy cattle, pigs and chickens, with reported increases in milk production, weight of broiler chickens and egg production of layers, as compared to conventional f
Kelmscott, Western Australia
Kelmscott is a southeastern suburb of Perth, Western Australia in the local government area of the City of Armadale. It is 23 kilometres southeast of Perth along the Albany Highway. Kelmscott was one of the early towns established in the Swan River Colony and was named after Kelmscott, the birthplace of the first Anglican clergyman in the colony, Thomas Hobbes Scott; the suburb of Kelmscott is bisected by the Canning River. On the western side of the river is the flat coastal plain upon which most of Perth is situated; this area includes the Stargate Kelmscott and Kelmscott Village shopping areas along Albany Highway, the light industrial area, the Kelmscott Senior High School and a residential area. To the east, the suburb rises into the western Darling Scarp. Kelmscott celebrated its 175th anniversary on 9 October 2005; the highlight of the celebrations was the running of the Hotham Valley Railway steam locomotive Pm706 from Perth railway station to Kelmscott station, with stops at Cannington, Gosnells Armadale station.
This was the first running of steam "under the wires" on the Transperth network for some time. The event was specially arranged by the Public Transport Authority, whose Minister is the member of parliament for the local electorate. Kelmscott is home of the first Red Rooster restaurant, as well as Australia's busiest drive-through KFC service. Kelmscott Primary School - one of the first primary schools established in Western Australia. Kelmscott Senior High School years 7-12. Clifton Hills Independent Primary School Grovelands Primary School. John Wollaston Anglican Community School - K-12; the Kelmscott Show, run by the Kelmscott Agricultural Society, has been held annually since 1897. The Head of the River rowing regatta takes place annually during Autumn at the Champion Lakes Regatta Centre; the people of Kelmscott have an annual bench press competition. On the 6 February 2011, a declared total fire ban day, a bushfire occurred on private property adjacent to the Brookton Highway in the Roleystone / Kelmscott area.
There were a total of 72 homes destroyed and 37 homes damaged. This is the single biggest house loss in Western Australia to a single bushfire event; some loyal Kelmscott residents managed to return to their homes in the fire zone, as described by Premier Colin Barnett, could be seen on their balconies giving hope to fellow residents that their properties were safe. Kelmscott railway station Media related to Kelmscott, Western Australia at Wikimedia Commons