Indulgentiarum Doctrina is an apostolic constitution about indulgences issued by Pope Paul VI on 1 January 1967. It responds to suggestions made at the Second Vatican Council, it revised the practical application of the traditional doctrine relating to indulgences; the title is taken from the opening words of the original Latin text. According to the Catechism of the Catholic Church, "The forgiveness of sin and restoration of communion with God entail the remission of the eternal punishment of sin, but temporal punishment of sin remains."Paul VI explained that sin brings punishments inflicted by God's sanctity and justice, which must be expiated either here on earth or else in the life to come. "These punishments are imposed by the just and merciful judgment of God for the purification of souls, the defense of the sanctity of the moral order and the restoration of the glory of God to its full majesty." Such expiation takes the form of penance, traditionally described as prayers and alms, but includes works of mercy and charity.
"That punishment or the vestiges of sin may remain to be expiated or cleansed and that they in fact do after the remission of guilt is demonstrated by the doctrine on purgatory. In purgatory, in fact, the souls of those'who died in the charity of God and repentant, but before satisfying with worthy fruits of penance for sins committed and for omissions' are cleansed after death with purgatorial punishments"; the document stressed that the Church's aim was not to help the faithful make due satisfaction for their sins, but chiefly to bring them to greater fervour of charity. For this purpose, Paul VI decreed that partial indulgences granted as the equivalent of a certain number of days, quarantines, or years of canonical penance supplement, to the same degree, the remission that those performing the indulgenced action gain by the charity and contrition with which they do it. "For all men who walk this earth daily commit at least venial sins. "Indulgences cannot be gained without a sincere conversion of outlook and unity with God".
An indulgence is the remission before God of the temporal punishment due sins forgiven as far as their guilt is concerned. "The aim pursued by ecclesiastical authority in granting indulgences is not only that of helping the faithful to expiate the punishment due to sin but that of urging them to perform works of piety and charity—particularly those which lead to growth in faith and which favor the common good."An indulgence is partial or plenary accordingly, as it removes either part or all of the temporal punishment due sin. Indulgences can always be applied to the dead by way of suffrage; the apostolic constitution ordered a revision of the official list of indulgenced prayers and good works, called the Raccolta, "with a view to attaching indulgences only to the most important prayers and works of piety and penance". This removed from the list of indulgenced prayers and good works, now called the Enchiridion Indulgentiarum, many prayers for which various religious institutes and similar groups had succeeded in the course of centuries in obtaining grants of indulgences, but which could not be classified as among "the most important".
Religious institutes and the like, to which grants of plenary indulgences, for instance for visiting a particular church or shrine, had been made, were given a year from the date of promulgation of Indulgentiarum Doctrina to have them confirmed, any that were not confirmed within two years became null and void. The Enchiridion Indulgentiarum reached its fourth edition in Latin in 1999, is available on the Holy See's website. An English translation of the second edition is available online; the Enchiridion Indulgentiarum differs from the Raccolta in that it lists "only the most important prayers and works of piety and penance". On the other hand, it includes new general grants of partial indulgences that apply to a wide range of prayerful actions, it indicates that the prayers that it does list as deserving veneration on account of divine inspiration or antiquity or as being in widespread use are only examples of those to which the first these general grants applies: "Raising the mind to God with humble trust while performing one's duties and bearing life's difficulties, adding, at least mentally, some pious invocation".
In this way, the Enchiridion Indulgentiarum, in spite of its smaller size, classifies as indulgenced an immensely greater number of prayers than were treated as such in the Raccolta. There are four general grants of indulgence, which are meant to encourage the faithful to infuse a Christian spirit into the actions of their daily lives and to strive for perfection of charity; these indulgences are partial, their worth therefore depends on the fervour with which the person performs the recommended actions: Raising the mind to God with humble trust while performing one's duties and bearing life's difficulties, adding, at least mentally, some pious invocation. Devoting oneself or one's goods compassionately in a spirit of faith to the service of one's brothers and sisters in need. Abstaining in a spirit of penance from something licit and pleasant. Giving open witness to one's faith before others in particular circumstances of everyday life. Among the particula
The Investiture Controversy or Investiture Contest was a conflict between church and state in medieval Europe over the ability to appoint local church officials through investiture. By undercutting imperial power, the controversy led to nearly 50 years of civil war in Germany. According to historian Norman Cantor, the investiture controversy was "the turning-point in medieval civilization", marking the end of the Early Middle Ages with the Germanic peoples' "final and decisive" acceptance of Christianity. More it set the stage for the religious and political system of the High Middle Ages, it began as a power struggle between Pope Gregory VII and Emperor Henry IV in 1076. There was a brief but significant investiture struggle between Pope Paschal II and King Henry I of England from 1103 to 1107; the conflict ended in 1122, when Pope Callixtus II and Emperor Henry V agreed on the Concordat of Worms, which differentiated between the royal and spiritual powers and gave the emperors a limited role in selecting bishops.
The outcome was a papal victory, but the Emperor still retained considerable power. In the 11th and 12th centuries, a series of popes challenged the authority of European monarchies about who had the authority to appoint local church officials such as bishops of cities and abbots of monasteries. After the decline of the Western Roman Empire, investiture was performed by members of the ruling nobility despite theoretically being a task of the church. Many bishops and abbots were themselves part of the ruling nobility. Given that most members of the European nobility practiced primogeniture, willed their titles of nobility to the eldest surviving male heir, surplus male siblings sought careers in the upper levels of the church hierarchy; this was true where the family may have established a proprietary church or abbey on their estate. Since Otto the Great the bishops had been princes of the empire, had secured many privileges, had become to a great extent feudal lords over great districts of the imperial territory.
The control of these great units of economic and military power was for the king a question of primary importance due to its effect on imperial authority. It was essential for a nobleman to appoint someone who would remain loyal. Since a substantial amount of wealth and land was associated with the office of a bishop or abbot, the sale of church offices—a practice known as "simony"—was an important source of income for leaders among the nobility, who themselves owned the land and by charity allowed the building of churches; the crisis began when supporters of the Gregorian Reform decided to rebel against simony by forcefully taking the power of investiture from the ruling secular power, the Holy Roman Emperor, placing that power wholly within control of the church. The Gregorian reformers knew this would not be possible so long as the emperor maintained the ability to appoint the pope, so their first step was to forcibly gain the papacy from the control of the emperor; when Emperor Henry IV became a six-year-old German king in 1056, the reformers seized the papacy while the king was still a child.
In 1059, a church council in Rome declared, with In Nomine Domini, that leaders of the nobility would have no part in the selection of popes and created the College of Cardinals as a body of electors made up of church officials. Having regained control of the election of the pope, the church was now ready to tackle investiture and simony. In 1075, Pope Gregory VII composed the Dictatus Papae. One clause asserted, it declared that the Roman church was founded by God alone – that the papal power was the sole universal power. By this time, Henry IV was no longer a child, he continued to appoint his own bishops, he reacted to this declaration by sending Gregory VII a letter in which he withdrew his imperial support of Gregory as pope in no uncertain terms: the letter was headed "Henry, king not through usurpation but through the holy ordination of God, to Hildebrand, at present not pope but false monk". It called for the election of a new pope, his letter ends, "I, king by the grace of God, with all of my Bishops, say to you, come down, come down!", is quoted with "and to be damned throughout the ages", a addition.
The situation was made more dire when Henry IV installed his chaplain, Tedald, a Milanese priest, as Bishop of Milan, when another priest of Milan, had been chosen in Rome by the pope for candidacy. In 1076 Gregory responded by excommunicating Henry, deposed him as German king, releasing all Christians from their oath of allegiance. Enforcing these declarations was a different matter, but the advantage came to be on the side of Gregory VII. German princes and the aristocracy were happy to hear of the king's deposition, they used religious reasons to continue the rebellion started at the First Battle of Langensalza in 1075, for seizure of royal holdings. Aristocrats claimed local lordships over peasants and property, built forts, outlawed, built up localized fiefdoms to secure their autonomy from the empire. Thus, because of these combining factors, Henry IV had no choice but to back down, needing time to marshal his forces to fight the rebellion. In 1077, he traveled to Canossa in northern Italy to apologize in person.
As penance for his sins, echoing his own punishment of the Saxons after the First Battle of Langensalza, he wore a hair sh
Pastor bonus is an apostolic constitution promulgated by Pope John Paul II on 28 June 1988. It instituted a number of reforms in the process of running the central government of the Roman Catholic Church, as article 1 states "The Roman Curia is the complex of dicasteries and institutes which help the Roman Pontiff in the exercise of his supreme pastoral office for the good and service of the whole Church and of the particular Churches, it thus strengthens the unity of the faith and the communion of the people of God and promotes the mission proper to the Church in the world". Pastor bonus laid out in considerable detail the organization of the Roman Curia, specifying the names and composition of each dicastery, enumerating which competencies, or responsibilities, each dicastery was charged with overseeing, it replaced the previous governing document, Regimini Ecclesiæ universæ, released by Paul VI in 1967. It delineated the roles of the Secretariat of State, Tribunals, Pontifical Councils, Administrative Services and Pontifical Commissions of the Roman Curia.
It established the norms for the ad limina visits of bishops to Rome and the relationship between the Holy See and the particular Churches and episcopal conferences. Among the changes formulated in the constitution was the re-integration of the Council for Public Affairs of the Church into the Secretariat of State as the Section for Relations with States; the Council for Public Affairs of the Church had been a section of the Secretariat of State, but was made an independent dicastery by Pope Paul VI in 1967. The constitution opened membership in dicasteries to priests, deacons and lay persons. For centuries, only cardinals were eligible for membership in the organs of the Holy See, but Pope Paul VI allowed diocesan bishops to be members following calls for collegiality at the Second Vatican Council. Pastor bonus continued the opening of the central government of the church by allowing representatives of all the faithful to have a role in the Roman Curia; as of March 2016, Pastor bonus has been amended by Quaerit semper in 2011, Ministrorum institutio and Fides per doctrinam in 2013, Confermando una tradizione in 2014.
In the Apostolic Letter Ministrorum institutio of 16 January 2013, Pope Benedict XVI transferred the governance of seminaries from the Congregation for Catholic Education to the Congregation for the Clergy. On the same day the Apostolic Letter Fides per doctrinam transferred the competence of catechesis from the Congregation for Clergy to the Pontifical Council for Promoting New Evangelization. In October 2013, Pope Francis and his Council of Cardinals were reviewing Pastor bonus for possible further revisions. On 24 February 2014, Francis issued the Apostolic Letter Fidelis dispensator et prudens establishing the Council for the Economy to oversee the administrative and financial structures and activities of the dicasteries of the Roman Curia, the institutions linked to the Holy See, the Vatican City State, it established the Secretariat for the Economy as a dicastery of the Roman Curia. Original text Full text, translated to English by Francis C. C. F. Kelly, James H. Provost, Michel Thériault and revised by Canadian Conference of Catholic Bishops and the Secretariat of State, authorized by the Secretariat of State.
Wooden, Cindy. "Changing needs, changing names: Reform of Curia is Vatican tradition", Catholic New Service, 13 July 2014 at the Library of Congress Web Archives
Donation of Constantine
The Donation of Constantine is a forged Roman imperial decree by which the 4th-century emperor Constantine the Great transferred authority over Rome and the western part of the Roman Empire to the Pope. Composed in the 8th century, it was used in the 13th century, in support of claims of political authority by the papacy. Lorenzo Valla, an Italian Catholic priest and Renaissance humanist, is credited with first exposing the forgery with solid philological arguments in 1439–1440, although the document's authenticity had been contested since 1001. In many of the existing manuscripts, including the oldest one, the document bears the title Constitutum domini Constantini imperatoris; the Donation of Constantine was included in the 9th-century Pseudo-Isidorean Decretals collection. The text, purportedly a decree of Roman Emperor Constantine I dated 30 March, in a year mistakenly said to be both that of his fourth consulate and that of the consulate of Gallicanus, contains a detailed profession of Christian faith and a recounting of how the emperor, seeking a cure for his leprosy, was converted and baptized by Pope Sylvester I.
In gratitude, he determined to bestow on the seat of Peter "power, dignity of glory, vigour, honour imperial", "supremacy as well over the four principal sees, Antioch and Constantinople, as over all the churches of God in the whole earth". For the upkeep of the church of Saint Peter and that of Saint Paul, he gave landed estates "in Judea, Asia, Africa and the various islands". To Sylvester and his successors he granted imperial insignia, the tiara, "the city of Rome, all the provinces and cities of Italy and the western regions". What may be the earliest known allusion to the Donation is in a letter of 778, in which Pope Hadrian I exhorts Charlemagne, whose father, Pepin the Younger, had made the Donation of Pepin granting the Popes sovereignty over the Papal States, to follow Constantine's example and endow the Roman Catholic church; the first pope to directly invoke the decree was Pope Leo IX, in a letter sent in 1054 to Michael I Cerularius, Patriarch of Constantinople. He cited a large portion of the document, believing it genuine, furthering the debate that would lead to the East–West Schism.
In the 11th and 12th centuries, the Donation was cited in the investiture conflicts between the papacy and the secular powers in the West. In his Divine Comedy, written in the early 14th century, the poet Dante Alighieri wrote: "Ahi, Costantin, di quanto mal fu matre, / non la tua conversion, ma quella dote / che da te prese il primo ricco patre!". During the Middle Ages, the Donation was accepted as authentic, although the Emperor Otto III did raise suspicions of the document "in letters of gold" as a forgery, in making a gift to the See of Rome, it was not until the mid-15th century, with the revival of Classical scholarship and textual criticism, that humanists, the papal bureaucracy, began to realize that the document could not be genuine. Cardinal Nicholas of Cusa spoke of it as an apocryphal work; the Catholic priest Lorenzo Valla argued in his philological study of the text that the language used in manuscript could not be dated to the 4th century. The language of the text suggests that the manuscript can most be dated to the 8th century.
Valla believed the forgery to be so obvious that he leaned toward believing that the Church had knowledge that the document was inauthentic. Valla further argued that papal usurpation of temporal power had corrupted the church, caused the wars of Italy, reinforced the "overbearing, tyrannical priestly domination."This was the first instance of modern, scientific diplomatics. Independently of both Cusa and Valla, Reginald Pecocke, Bishop of Chichester, reached a similar conclusion. Among the indications that the Donation must be a fake are its language and the fact that, while certain imperial-era formulas are used in the text, some of the Latin in the document could not have been written in the 4th century; the purported date of the document is inconsistent with the content of the document itself, as it refers both to the fourth consulate of Constantine as well as the consulate of Gallicanus. Pope Pius II wrote a tract in 1453, five years before becoming Pope, to show that, though the Donation was a forgery, the papacy owed its lands to Charlemagne and its powers of the keys to Peter.
Contemporary opponents of papal powers in Italy emphasized the primacy of civil law and civil jurisdiction, now embodied once again in the Justinian Corpus Juris Civilis. The Florentine chronicler Giovanni Cavalcanti reported that, in the year of Valla's treatise, Filippo Maria Visconti, Duke of Milan, made diplomatic overtures toward Cosimo de' Medici in Florence, proposing an alliance against the Pope. In reference to the Donation, Visconti wrote: "It so happens that if Constantine consigned to Sylvester so many and such rich gifts –, doubtful, because such a privilege can nowhere be found – he could only have granted them for his lifetime: the Empire takes precedence over any lordship." Scholars further demonstrated that other elements, such as Sylvester's curing of Constantine, are legends which originated at a time. Wolfram Setz, a recent editor of Valla's work, has affirmed that at the time of Valla's refutation, Constantine's alleged "
Sacrosanctum Concilium, the Constitution on the Sacred Liturgy, is one of the constitutions of the Second Vatican Council. It was approved by the assembled bishops by a vote of 2,147 to 4 and promulgated by Pope Paul VI on 4 December 1963; the main aim was to achieve greater lay participation in the Catholic Church's liturgy. The title is taken from the opening lines of the document and means "this Sacred Council"; the numbers given correspond to section numbers within the text. Introduction General Principles for the Restoration and Promotion of the Sacred Liturgy The Nature of the Sacred Liturgy and Its Importance in the Church's Life The Promotion of Liturgical Instruction and Active Participation The Reform of the Sacred Liturgy General Norms Norms Drawn from the Hierarchic and Communal Nature of the Liturgy Norms Based Upon the Didactic and Pastoral Nature of the Liturgy Norms for Adapting the Liturgy to the Culture and Traditions of Peoples Promotion of Liturgical Life in Diocese and Parish The Promotion of Pastoral-Liturgical Action The Most Sacred Mystery of the Eucharist The Other Sacraments and the Sacramentals The Divine Office The Liturgical Year Sacred Music Sacred Art and Sacred Furnishings Appendix: A Declaration of the Second Ecumenical Council of the Vatican on Revision of the Calendar As is customary with Catholic documents, the name of this constitution, "Sacred Council" in Latin, is taken from the first line of the document: 1.
This sacred Council has several aims in view: it desires to impart an increasing vigor to the Christian life of the faithful. The Council therefore sees cogent reasons for undertaking the reform and promotion of the liturgy. One of the first issues considered by the council, the matter that had the most immediate effect on the lives of individual Catholics, was the renewal of the liturgy; the central idea was. Mother Church earnestly desires that all the faithful should be led to that conscious and active participation in liturgical celebrations, demanded by the nature of the liturgy; such participation by the Christian people as a chosen race, a royal priesthood, a holy nation, a redeemed people, is their right and duty by reason of their baptism. Popes Pius X, Pius XI, Pius XII asked that the people be taught how to chant the responses at Mass and that they learn the prayers of the Mass in order to participate intelligently. Now the bishops decreed that: "To promote active participation, the people should be encouraged to take part by means of acclamations, psalmody and songs."
Composers should "produce compositions which... for the active participation of the entire assembly of the faithful."After centuries when, with the Mass in Latin, Catholic piety centred around popular devotions, the bishops decreed that "Popular devotions... should be so drawn up that they harmonize with the liturgical seasons, accord with the sacred liturgy, are in some fashion derived from it, lead the people to it, since, in fact, the liturgy by its nature far surpasses any of them."On 24 August 2017 Pope Francis emphasized that "the reform of the liturgy is irreversible" and called for continued efforts to implement the reforms, repeating what Pope Paul VI had said one year before he died: "The time has come, now, to leave aside the disruptive ferments pernicious in one sense or the other, to implement according to its right inspiring criteria, the reform approved by us in application of the decisions of the council." The council fathers established guidelines to govern the renewal of the liturgy, which included and encouraged greater use of the vernacular in addition to Latin for the biblical readings and other prayers.
Implementation of the council's directives on the liturgy was to be carried out under the authority of Pope Paul VI by a special papal commission incorporated in the Congregation for Divine Worship and the Discipline of the Sacraments, and, in the areas entrusted to them, by national conferences of bishops, which, if they had a shared language, were expected to collaborate in producing a common translation. Magnum principium Mass of Paul VI Musicam sacram
A nomocanon is a collection of ecclesiastical law, consisting of the elements from both the Civil law and the Canon law. Nomocanons form part of the Oriental canon law of the Eastern Catholic Churches, are used by the Eastern Orthodox Churches. Collections of this kind were found only in Oriental canon law; the Greek Church has two principal nomocanonical collections. The first nomocanon, in the sixth century, is ascribed, though without certainty, to John Scholasticus, whose canons it utilizes and completes, he had drawn up a purely canonical compilation in 50 titles, composed an extract from the Justinian's Novellae in 87 chapters that relate the ecclesiastical matters. To each of the 50 titles was added the texts of the imperial laws on the same subject, with 21 additional chapters, nearly all borrowed from John's 87 chapters, thus the Nomocanon of John Scholasticus was made. The second nomocanon dates from the reign of the Byzantine Emperor Heraclius, at which time Latin was replaced by Greek as the official language of the imperial laws.
It was made by fusion of Canonic syntagma. Afterwards, this collection would be known as Nomocanon in 14 titles; this nomocanon was long held in esteem and passed into the Russian Church, but it was by degrees supplanted by Nomocanon of Photios in 883. The great systematic compiler of the Eastern Church, who occupies a similar position to that of Gratian in the West, was Photius, Patriarch of Constantinople in the 9th century, his collection in two parts—a chronologically ordered compilation of synodical canons and a revision of the Nomocanon—formed and still forms the classic source of ancient Church Law for the Greek Church. It was Nomocanon in 14 titles with the addition of 102 canons of Trullan Council, 17 canons of the Council of Constantinople of 861, three canons substituted by Photios for those of the Council of Constantinople in 869. Nomocanon in 14 titles was completed with the more recent imperial laws; this whole collection was commentated about 1170 by Theodore Balsamon, Greek Patriarch of Antioch residing at Constantinople.
Nomocanon of Photios was supplemented by this commentary and became Pedalion, a sort of Corpus Juris of the Eastern Orthodox Church, printed in 1800 by Patriarch Neophytos VII. Nomocanon of Photios retained in the law of the Greek Church and it was included in Syntagma, published by Rallis and Potlis. Though called Syntagma, the collection of ecclesiastical law of Matthew Blastares in 1335) is the real nomocanon, in which the texts of the laws and the canons are arranged in alphabetical order; the Nomocanon of Saint Sava or was the first Serbian constitution and the highest code in the Serbian Orthodox Church, finished in 1219. This legal act was well developed. St. Sava's Nomocanon was the compilation of Civil law, based on Roman Law and Canon law, based on Ecumenical Councils and its basic purpose was to organize functioning of the young Serbian kingdom and the Serbian church. During the Nemanjić dynasty Serbian medieval state was flourishing in the spheres of politics and culture; as the state developed the industry developed, so the law had to regulate various number of relations.
Therefore, with the development of economy, Roman Law was taken. In that time Serbia was not a tsarish empire, so its ruler could not create code of laws, which would regulate the relations in the state and church. Serbian rulers decrees. In order to overcome this problem and organize legal system, after acquiring religious independence, Saint Sava finished his Zakonopravilo in 1219. Zakonopravilo was accepted in Bulgaria and Russia, it was printed in Moscow in the 17th century. So, Roman-Byzantine law was transplanting among East Europe through Zakonopravilo. In Serbia, it was considered as the code of the divine law and it was implemented into Dušan's code, it was the only code among Serbs in the time of the Ottoman reign. During the Serbian Revolution priest Mateja Nenadović established Zakonopravilo as the code of the liberated Serbia, it was implemented in Serbian civil code. Zakonopravilo is still used in the Serbian Orthodox Church as the highest church code. Kormchaia Dušan's Code Serbian Empire Serbia in the Middle Ages Corpus Juris Civilis Constitution The entry of the Slavs into Christendom The Late Medieval Balkans: A Critical Survey from the Late Twelfth Century Herbermann, Charles, ed..
"Nomocanon". Catholic Encyclopedia. New York: Robert Appleton Company; this article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Herbermann, Charles, ed.. "Nomocanon". Catholic Encyclopedia. New York: Robert Appleton
The Didache known as The Teaching of the Twelve Apostles, is a brief anonymous early Christian treatise, dated by most modern scholars to the first century. The first line of this treatise is "The teaching of the Lord to the Gentiles by the twelve apostles"; the text, parts of which constitute the oldest extant written catechism, has three main sections dealing with Christian ethics, rituals such as baptism and Eucharist, Church organization. The opening chapters describe the wicked Way of Death; the Lord's Prayer is included in full. Baptism is by affusion if immersion is not practical. Fasting is ordered for Fridays. Two primitive Eucharistic prayers are given. Church organization was at an early stage of development. Itinerant apostles and prophets are important, serving as "chief priests" and celebrating the Eucharist. Meanwhile, local bishops and deacons have authority and seem to be taking the place of the itinerant ministry; the Didache is considered the first example of the genre of Church Orders.
The Didache reveals how Jewish Christians saw themselves and how they adapted their practice for Gentile Christians. The Didache is similar in several ways to the Gospel of Matthew because both texts originated in similar communities; the opening chapters, which appear in other early Christian texts, are derived from an earlier Jewish source. The Didache is considered part of the group of second-generation Christian writings known as the Apostolic Fathers; the work was considered by some Church Fathers to be a part of the New Testament, while being rejected by others as spurious or non-canonical, In the end, it was not accepted into the New Testament canon. However, the Ethiopian Orthodox Church "broader canon" includes the Didascalia, a work which draws on the Didache. Lost for centuries, a Greek manuscript of the Didache was rediscovered in 1873 by Philotheos Bryennios, Metropolitan of Nicomedia, in the Codex Hierosolymitanus. A Latin version of the first five chapters was discovered in 1900 by J. Schlecht.
Many English and American scholars once dated the text to the late 2nd century AD, a view still held today, but most scholars now assign the Didache to the first century. The document is a composite work, the discovery of the Dead Sea Scrolls with its Manual of Discipline provided evidence of development over a considerable period of time, beginning as a Jewish catechetical work, developed into a church manual. Two uncial fragments containing Greek text of the Didache were found among the Oxyrhynchus Papyri and are now in the collection of the Sackler Library in Oxford. Apart from these fragments, the Greek text of the Didache has only survived in a single manuscript, the Codex Hierosolymitanus. Dating the document is thus made difficult both by the lack of hard evidence and its composite character; the Didache may have been compiled in its present form as late as 150, although a date closer to the end of the first century seems more probable to many. It is an anonymous work, a pastoral manual that Aaron Milavec states "reveals more about how Jewish-Christians saw themselves and how they adapted their Judaism for gentiles than any other book in the Christian Scriptures."
The Two Ways section is based on an earlier Jewish source. The community that produced the Didache could have been based in Syria, as it addressed the Gentiles but from a Judaic perspective, at some remove from Jerusalem, shows no evidence of Pauline influence. Alan Garrow claims that its earliest layer may have originated in the decree issued by the Apostolic council of AD 49-50, by the Jerusalem assembly under James the Just; the text was lost, but scholars knew of it through the writing of church fathers, some of whom had drawn on it. In 1873 in Istanbul, metropolitan Philotheos Bryennios found a Greek copy of the Didache, written in 1056, he published it in 1883. Hitchcock and Brown produced the first English translation in March 1884. Adolf von Harnack produced the first German translation in 1884, Paul Sabatier produced the first French translation and commentary in 1885; the Didache is mentioned by Eusebius as the Teachings of the Apostles along with the books recognized as non-canonical: "Let there be placed among the spurious works the Acts of Paul, the so-called Shepherd and the Apocalypse of Peter, besides these the Epistle of Barnabas, what are called the Teachings of the Apostles, the Apocalypse of John, if this be thought proper.
It is rejected by Nicephorus, Pseudo-Anastasius, Pseudo-Athanasius in Synopsis and the 60 Books canon. It is accepted by the Apostolic Constitutions Canon 85, John of Damascus and the Ethiopian Orthodox Church; the Adversus Aleatores by an imitator of Cyprian quotes it by name. Unacknowledged citations are common, if less certain; the section Two Ways shares the same language with the Epistle of Barnabas, chapters 18–20, sometimes word for word, sometimes added to, dislocated, or abridged, Barnabas iv, 9 either derives from Didache, 16, 2–3, or vice versa. There can be seen many similarities to the Epistles of both Polycarp and Ignatius of Antioch; the Shepherd of Hermas seems to reflect it, Irenaeus, Clement of Alexandria, Origen of Alexandria seem to use the work, so in the West do Optatus and the "Gesta apud Zenophilum." The Didascalia Apostolorum are founded upon the Didache. The Apostolic Churc