Canon FD lens mount
The Canon FD lens mount is a physical standard for connecting a photographic lens to a 35mm single-lens reflex camera body. The standard was developed by Canon of Japan and was introduced in March 1971 with the Canon F-1 camera, it served as the Canon SLR interchangeable lens mounting system until the 1987 introduction of the Canon EOS series cameras, which use the newer EF lens mount. The FD mount lingered through the release of the 1990 Canon T60, the last camera introduced in the FD system, the end of the Canon New F-1 product cycle in 1992; the FD mount replaced Canon's earlier FL mount. Though never explained by Canon, others have attempted to assign a meaning to the "FD" designation. One such attempt states that the "FD" notation stands for "Focal-plane shutter with Dual linkage for diaphragm control"; this is twice the previous lens series, which used the "FL" designation, said to mean "Focal-plane shutter, Linked mount."Over the 21-plus years of production, Canon introduced 134 different FD lenses ranging from 7.5mm through 1,200mm in seventeen different fixed focal lengths and nineteen different zoom ranges, one of the most, if not the most, extensive manual focus lens lines produced.
The Canon FD system enjoyed huge popularity in the 1970s and 1980s, when it established and grew a market share with professional photographers as well as having equipped over a million consumer users. Indeed, sales of the Canon AE-1 camera alone exceeded one million. Canon obsoleted. Thus, the FD mount system, with no provision for auto-focus, is now commercially obsolete, Canon FD cameras and lenses are available for low prices on the second-hand market; this makes the system attractive to 35mm film photographers who demand the highest optical quality, while not needing auto focus capability. FD lenses can be used on many mirrorless interchangeable-lens cameras with a suitable adapter, they are a popular alternative to modern lenses among some users. The FD lens mount is a breech-lock mount, a variation of the common triple-flanged bayonet attachment; the advantage of the breech-lock over the bayonet is that neither the contact surfaces between the body and lens, nor the signalling mechanisms, rotate against each other when the lens is mounted.
This prevents any mechanical wear, which could conceivably reduce the precise lens-to-film distance or introduce communication errors between lens and body. Canon's first iteration of the FD breech-lock, extended forward from the earlier R- and FL-series lenses, utilized a rotating mounting ring at the rear of the lens, its minor disadvantage was a somewhat slower lens change than a bayonet. There are three different versions of breech ring FD lenses: The first version had a chrome plated front barrel and a green "o" for auto exposure; the second version had a black front barrel and still had a green "o" for auto exposure. The third version had a black front barrel, a green "A" for auto exposure; these different versions are detailed below under variants. Second-generation FD lenses, first marketed in 1981 as New FD, are mounted like bayonet-mount lenses in that the photographer twists the entire lens body to mount and dismount, though the actual mating surfaces still remain fixed; this retained.
The letters SC or SSC to indicate the lens coating were no longer put on the lenses. Canon documents stated. Canon chose a bayonet-style mount for its EOS system's EF lenses, where there is no precision mechanical coupling. Like its FL predecessor, the FD mount system allowed automatic diaphragm function, but in addition, a new signal pin supported full-aperture metering. A second signal pin for the "auto" setting of the aperture dial, plus a linkage to allow the camera to set the degree of diaphragm opening, enabled integral auto-exposure; the first camera to utilize this was the 1971 Canon F-1. The Canon EF of 1973 had automatic exposure built-in, as did the popular Canon A-series cameras beginning in 1976. Thus, starting with the first FD lenses produced in late 1970, all FD lenses had the capability of supporting full-aperture metering and multiple Automatic Exposure modes using both shutter-preferred and aperture-preferred modes. Programmed AE was possible with no modifications to the lens mount, though at the time of its introduction Canon did not have an AE camera body in the FD line.
This was a design triumph for Canon that no other camera or lens maker was able to equal in 1970. Every other camera manufacturer had to make one or more alterations to its lens mount to enable full aperture metering, AE and or Programmed AE operation; the FD mount has no support for either electrical or mechanical lens-body communication required for autofocus, a primary reason for its retirement.. While Canon could have adapted its mount to support auto-focus, as did other manufacturers, the company instead chose to make a clean break with the past and design a new interface with support for electrical signaling and control; the earliest breech-lock Canon FD lenses are recognizable by a c
A camera is an optical instrument to capture still images or to record moving images, which are stored in a physical medium such as in a digital system or on photographic film. A camera consists of a lens which focuses light from the scene, a camera body which holds the image capture mechanism; the still image camera is the main instrument in the art of photography and captured images may be reproduced as a part of the process of photography, digital imaging, photographic printing. The similar artistic fields in the moving image camera domain are film and cinematography; the word camera comes from camera obscura, which means "dark chamber" and is the Latin name of the original device for projecting an image of external reality onto a flat surface. The modern photographic camera evolved from the camera obscura; the functioning of the camera is similar to the functioning of the human eye. The first permanent photograph was made in 1825 by Joseph Nicéphore Niépce. A camera works with the light of the visible spectrum or with other portions of the electromagnetic spectrum.
A still camera is an optical device which creates a single image of an object or scene and records it on an electronic sensor or photographic film. All cameras use the same basic design: light enters an enclosed box through a converging/convex lens and an image is recorded on a light-sensitive medium. A shutter mechanism controls the length of time. Most photographic cameras have functions that allow a person to view the scene to be recorded, allow for a desired part of the scene to be in focus, to control the exposure so that it is not too bright or too dim. On most digital cameras a display a liquid crystal display, permits the user to view the scene to be recorded and settings such as ISO speed and shutter speed. A movie camera or a video camera operates to a still camera, except it records a series of static images in rapid succession at a rate of 24 frames per second; when the images are combined and displayed in order, the illusion of motion is achieved. Traditional cameras capture light onto photographic film.
Video and digital cameras use an electronic image sensor a charge coupled device or a CMOS sensor to capture images which can be transferred or stored in a memory card or other storage inside the camera for playback or processing. Cameras that capture many images in sequence are known as movie cameras or as ciné cameras in Europe; however these categories overlap as still cameras are used to capture moving images in special effects work and many modern cameras can switch between still and motion recording modes. A wide range of film and plate formats have been used by cameras. In the early history plate sizes were specific for the make and model of camera although there developed some standardisation for the more popular cameras; the introduction of roll film drove the standardization process still further so that by the 1950s only a few standard roll films were in use. These included 120 film providing 8, 12 or 16 exposures, 220 film providing 16 or 24 exposures, 127 film providing 8 or 12 exposures and 135 providing 12, 20 or 36 exposures – or up to 72 exposures in the half-frame format or in bulk cassettes for the Leica Camera range.
For cine cameras, film 35 mm wide and perforated with sprocket holes was established as the standard format in the 1890s. It was used for nearly all film-based professional motion picture production. For amateur use, several smaller and therefore less expensive formats were introduced. 17.5 mm film, created by splitting 35 mm film, was one early amateur format, but 9.5 mm film, introduced in Europe in 1922, 16 mm film, introduced in the US in 1923, soon became the standards for "home movies" in their respective hemispheres. In 1932, the more economical 8 mm format was created by doubling the number of perforations in 16 mm film splitting it after exposure and processing; the Super 8 format, still 8 mm wide but with smaller perforations to make room for larger film frames, was introduced in 1965. Traditionally used to "tell the camera" the film speed of the selected film on film cameras, film speed numbers are employed on modern digital cameras as an indication of the system's gain from light to numerical output and to control the automatic exposure system.
Film speed is measured via the ISO system. The higher the film speed number the greater the film sensitivity to light, whereas with a lower number, the film is less sensitive to light. On digital cameras, electronic compensation for the color temperature associated with a given set of lighting conditions, ensuring that white light is registered as such on the imaging chip and therefore that the colors in the frame will appear natural. On mechanical, film-based cameras, this function is served by the operator's choice of film stock or with color correction filters. In addition to using white balance to register natural coloration of the image, photographers may employ white balance to aesthetic end, for example, white balancing to a blue object in order to obtain a warm color temperature; the lens of a camera brings it to a focus on the sensor. The design and manufacture of the lens is critical to the quality of the photograph being taken; the technological revolution in camera design in the 19th century revolutionized optical glass manufacture and lens design with great benefits for modern lens manufacture in a wide range of optical instruments from reading glasses to microscopes.
Pioneers included Leitz. Camera lenses are
An autofocus optical system uses a sensor, a control system and a motor to focus on an automatically or manually selected point or area. An electronic rangefinder has a display instead of the motor. Autofocus methods are distinguished by their type as being either active, passive or hybrid variants. Autofocus systems rely on one or more sensors to determine correct focus; some AF systems rely on a single sensor. Most modern SLR cameras use through-the-lens optical sensors, with a separate sensor array providing light metering, although the latter can be programmed to prioritize its metering to the same area as one or more of the AF sensors. Through-the-lens optical autofocusing is now speedier and more precise than can be achieved manually with an ordinary viewfinder, although more precise manual focus can be achieved with special accessories such as focusing magnifiers. Autofocus accuracy within 1/3 of the depth of field at the widest aperture of the lens is common in professional AF SLR cameras.
Most multi-sensor AF cameras allow manual selection of the active sensor, many offer automatic selection of the sensor using algorithms which attempt to discern the location of the subject. Some AF cameras are able to detect whether the subject is moving towards or away from the camera, including speed and acceleration data, keep focus on the subject — a function used in sports and other action photography; the data collected from AF sensors is used to control an electromechanical system that adjusts the focus of the optical system. A variation of autofocus is an electronic rangefinder, a system in which focus data are provided to the operator, but adjustment of the optical system is still performed manually; the speed of the AF system is dependent on the widest aperture offered by the lens. F-stops of around f/2 to f/2.8 are considered optimal in terms of focusing speed and accuracy. Faster lenses than this have low depth of field, meaning that it takes longer to achieve correct focus, despite the increased amount of light.
Most consumer camera systems will only autofocus reliably with lenses that have a widest aperture of at least f/5.6, while professional models can cope with lenses that have a widest aperture of f/8, useful for lenses used in conjunction with teleconverters. Between 1960 and 1973, Leitz patented an array of corresponding sensor technologies. At photokina 1976, Leica had presented a camera based on their previous development, named Correfot, in 1978 they displayed an SLR camera with operational autofocus; the first mass-produced autofocus camera was the Konica C35 AF, a simple point and shoot model released in 1977. The Polaroid SX-70 Sonar OneStep was the first autofocus single-lens reflex camera, released in 1978; the Pentax ME-F, which used focus sensors in the camera body coupled with a motorized lens, became the first autofocus 35 mm SLR in 1981. In 1983 Nikon released the F3AF, their first autofocus camera, based on a similar concept to the ME-F; the Minolta 7000, released in 1985, was the first SLR with an integrated autofocus system, meaning both the AF sensors and the drive motor were housed in the camera body, as well as an integrated film advance winder —, to become the standard configuration for SLR cameras from this manufacturer, Nikon abandoned their F3AF system and integrated the autofocus-motor and sensors in the body.
Canon, elected to develop their EOS system with motorised lenses instead. In 1992, Nikon changed back to lens integrated motors with their AF-S range of lenses. Active AF systems measure distance to the subject independently of the optical system, subsequently adjust the optical system for correct focus. There are various ways including ultrasonic sound waves and infrared light. In the first case, sound waves are emitted from the camera, by measuring the delay in their reflection, distance to the subject is calculated. Polaroid cameras including the Spectra and SX-70 were known for applying this system. In the latter case, infrared light is used to triangulate the distance to the subject. Compact cameras including the Nikon 35TiQD and 28TiQD, the Canon AF35M, the Contax T2 and T3, as well as early video cameras, used this system. A newer approach included in some consumer electronic devices, like mobile phones, is based on the time-of-flight principle, which involves shining a laser or LED light to the subject and calculating the distance based on the time it takes for the light to travel to the subject and back.
This technique is sometimes called laser autofocus, is present in many mobile phone models from several vendors. An exception to the two-step approach is the mechanical autofocus provided in some enlargers, which adjust the lens directly. Passive AF systems determine correct focus by performing passive analysis of the image, entering the optical system, they do not direct any energy, such as ultrasonic sound or infrared light waves, toward the subject. Passive autofocusing can be achieved by contrast measurement. Phase detection is achieved by comparing them. Through-the-lens secondary image registration (TTL
Single-lens reflex camera
A single-lens reflex camera is a camera that uses a mirror and prism system that permits the photographer to view through the lens and see what will be captured. With twin lens reflex and rangefinder cameras, the viewed image could be different from the final image; when the shutter button is pressed on most SLRs, the mirror flips out of the light path, allowing light to pass through to the light receptor and the image to be captured. Prior to the development of SLR, all cameras with viewfinders had two optical light paths: one path through the lens to the film, another path positioned above or to the side; because the viewfinder and the film lens cannot share the same optical path, the viewing lens is aimed to intersect with the film lens at a fixed point somewhere in front of the camera. This is not problematic for pictures taken at a middle or longer distance, but parallax causes framing errors in close-up shots. Moreover, focusing the lens of a fast reflex camera when it is opened to wider apertures is not easy.
Most SLR cameras permit upright and laterally correct viewing through use of a roof pentaprism situated in the optical path between the reflex mirror and viewfinder. Light, which comes both horizontally and vertically inverted after passing through the lens, is reflected upwards by the reflex mirror, into the pentaprism where it is reflected several times to correct the inversions caused by the lens, align the image with the viewfinder; when the shutter is released, the mirror moves out of the light path, the light shines directly onto the film. The Canon Pellix, along with several special purpose high speed cameras, were an exception to the moving mirror system, wherein the mirror was a fixed beamsplitting pellicle. Focus can be adjusted manually automatically by an autofocus system; the viewfinder can include a matte focusing screen located just above the mirror system to diffuse the light. This permits accurate viewing and focusing useful with interchangeable lenses. Up until the 1990s, SLR was the most advanced photographic preview system available, but the recent development and refinement of digital imaging technology with an on-camera live LCD preview screen has overshadowed SLR's popularity.
Nearly all inexpensive compact digital cameras now include an LCD preview screen allowing the photographer to see what the CCD is capturing. However, SLR is still popular in high-end and professional cameras because they are system cameras with interchangeable parts, allowing customization, they have far less shutter lag, allowing photographs to be timed more precisely. The pixel resolution, contrast ratio, refresh rate, color gamut of an LCD preview screen cannot compete with the clarity and shadow detail of a direct-viewed optical SLR viewfinder. Large format SLR cameras were first marketed with the introduction of C. R. Smith's Monocular Duplex. SLRs for smaller exposure formats were launched in the 1920s by several camera makers; the first 35mm SLR available to the mass market, Leica's PLOOT reflex housing along with a 200mm f4.5 lens paired to a 35mm rangefinder camera body, debuted in 1935. The Soviet Спорт a 24mm by 36mm image size, was prototyped in 1934 and went to market in 1937. K. Nüchterlein's Kine Exakta was the first integrated 35mm SLR to enter the market.
Additional Exakta models, all with waist-level finders, were produced up to and during World War II. Another ancestor of the modern SLR camera was the Swiss-made Alpa, innovative, influenced the Japanese cameras; the first eye-level SLR viewfinder was patented in Hungary on August 23, 1943 by Jenő Dulovits, who designed the first 35 mm camera with one, the Duflex, which used a system of mirrors to provide a laterally correct, upright image in the eye-level viewfinder. The Duflex, which went into serial production in 1948, was the world's first SLR with an instant-return mirror; the first commercially produced SLR that employed a roof pentaprism was the Italian Rectaflex A.1000, shown in full working condition on Milan fair April 1948 and produced from September the same year, thus being on the market one year before the east German Zeiss Ikon VEB Contax S, announced on May 20, 1949, produced from September. The Japanese adopted and further developed the SLR. In 1952, Asahi developed the Asahiflex and in 1954, the Asahiflex IIB.
In 1957, the Asahi Pentax combined the right-hand thumb wind lever. Nikon and Yashica introduced their first SLRs in 1959; as a small matter of history, the first 35 mm camera to feature through the lens light metering may have been Nikon, with a prototype rangefinder camera, the SPX. According to the website below, the camera used Nikon'S' type rangefinder lenses. Through-the-lens light metering is known as "behind-the-lens metering". In the SLR design scheme, there were various placements made for the metering cells, all of which used CdS photocells; the cells were either located in the pentaprism housing, where they metered light transmitted through the focusing screen. Pentax was the first manufacturer to show an early prototype 35 mm behind-the-lens metering SLR camera, named the Pentax Spotmatic; the camera was shown at the 1960 photokina show. However, the first
Canon EOS is an autofocus single-lens reflex camera and mirrorless camera series produced by Canon Inc.. Introduced in 1987 with the Canon EOS 650, all EOS cameras used 35 mm film until October 1996 when the EOS IX was released using the new and short-lived APS film. In 2000, the D30 was announced, as the first digital SLR designed and produced by Canon. Since 2005, all newly announced EOS cameras have used digital image sensors rather than film; the EOS line is still in production as Canon's current digital SLR range, with the 2012 introduction of the Canon EOS M, Canon's mirrorless interchangeable-lens camera system. The name "EOS" was chosen for Eos, the Titan goddess of the dawn in Greek mythology, is pronounced as a word, although some spell out the letters, reading it as an initialism; the EOS emblem was created using Handel Gothic typography. It competes with the Nikon F series and its successors, as well as autofocus SLR systems from Olympus Corporation, Sony/Minolta, Panasonic/Leica.
At the heart of the system is the EF lens mount, which replaced the previous FD lens mount, which supported only manual-focus lenses. The bayonet-style EF lens mount. Breaking compatibility with the earlier FD mount, it was designed with no mechanical linkages between moving parts in the lens and in the camera; the aperture and focus are controlled with motors in the lens itself. This was similar in some ways to Canon's earlier attempt at AF with the T80. Other manufacturers including Contax, Nikon's 1983 F3AF and Olympus have since embraced this type of direct drive system, it is a large lens mount compared to most of its competition, enabling the use of larger aperture lenses. The flash system in the EOS cameras has gone through a number of evolutions since its first implementation; the basic EOS flash system was developed not for the first EOS camera, but rather for the last high-end FD-mount manual-focus camera, the T90, launched in 1986. This was the first Canon camera with through-the-lens flash metering, although other brands had been metering that way for some time.
It introduced the A-TTL system for better flash exposure in program mode, using infrared preflashes to gauge subject distance. This system was carried over into the early EOS cameras wholesale. A-TTL fell out of favor, was replaced by E-TTL; this used a pre-flash for advanced metering, used the autofocus system to judge where the main subject was for more accurate exposure. E-TTL II, an enhancement in the camera's firmware only, replaced E-TTL from 2004. Canon Speedlite-brand flashes have evolved alongside the cameras, they are capable of wired and wireless multi-flash setups, the latter using visible or infrared pulses to synchronise. Canon produces Speedlite accessories, including the OC-E3 Off-Camera Shoe Cord, which can be used to hand-hold the flash while allowing the camera to control it through the cord; the Off-Camera Shoe Cord is popular among portrait photographers who need to have more control over lighting than a camera mounted flash can offer. As of 2017, Canon has released no fewer than 70 EOS SLR and DSLR camera models, starting with the introduction of the EOS 650 in 1987.
In the 1990s, Canon worked with Kodak to produce digital camera bodies, starting with the EOS DCS 3 in 1995. The first digital EOS SLR camera wholly designed and manufactured by Canon was the EOS D30, released in 2000. Canon sold two EOS cameras designed to use the EOS IX and the EOS IX Lite. Canon sold a manual-focus camera, the Canon EF-M, which used the same EF lens mount as the EOS cameras, it lacked autofocus. It came equipped with a split-screen/microprism focusing screen for precise manual focusing. Through the tracking of eyeball movements, EOS cameras equipped with eye-controlled focusing were able to select the desired autofocus point in the scene, based on where the user was looking in the viewfinder frame. ECF was useful in sports photography where the subject may shift its position in the frame rapidly. EOS cameras equipped with ECF were the EOS A2E, EOS Elan IIE, EOS IXe, EOS-3, EOS Elan 7E, EOS Elan 7NE. Canon did not continue its use of eye-controlled focusing in its digital SLRs.
The EOS Elan 7NE was the last EOS camera to have this function. Most prosumer and professional level EOS cameras feature a large quick control dial on the camera back; the first consumer-level EOS camera with this feature is the EOS 760D/Rebel T6s, announced in February 2015. This feature allows easy adjustment of certain parameters using the thumb, the QCD is used for quick access to often-used functions that would otherwise require a more complicated procedure of button-presses and dial-clicks. Settings such as ISO button, Exposure Compensation button, so on) or menus are all available through the QCD. Cameras equipped with the QCD can be operated with one hand without taking the eye off the viewfinder; some useful functions that a QCD is programmed to do include setting exposure compensation, setting of aperture in manual exposure mode and scrolling of images and menus in digital EOS cameras. Top-line EOS cameras have either 61 or 65 user-selectable autofocus points. Autofocus is the cameras ability to focus automatically on an object by pressing down on the shutter button, in s
The Canon T80 is Canon's first autofocus 35mm single-lens reflex camera. It was introduced in April 1985 and discontinued in June 1986 and is part of the T series of FD mount cameras, is not compatible with Canon's EOS system and its autofocus EF-mount lenses. Instead, three special lenses, designated AC, were produced for the camera. Other FD-mount lenses can be used, but without autofocus capabilities; the autofocus system in the T80 works in the same manner as the focus assist system built into the earlier AL-1. A linear CCD is used to detect contrast in the focus area; when this area has the maximum contrast, the lens is in focus. This is a similar mechanism to that used in compact digital cameras; when a manual focus lens is used, the camera provides focus assistance in the same manner as the AL-1. The autofocus lenses contain a motor, electrical contacts in the lens mount connect this motor to the camera's circuits. Except for its autofocus capability, the T80 is similar to the earlier T70, with four programmed scene modes in addition to regular Program auto-exposure.
These are: Deep Focus -- the camera chooses a narrow aperture. Useful for landscapes, or other situations when the photographer needs to get everything in reasonable focus. Trades off against a slow shutter speed. Shallow Focus – the camera chooses a wide aperture to get a shallow depth of field. Useful for portraiture, to reduce background distractions. Stop Action – the camera chooses a fast shutter speed so that movement is stopped. Useful for sports, children etc. Flowing – the camera chooses a longer shutter speed for deliberate motion or panning blur. Program – the camera has more freedom of choice. Tends to prefer reasonably quick shutter speeds for minimal blurring. Film transport in the T80 is automatic, just as in the T70, in both directions; this leaves the top of the camera clean, since there is no advance lever or rewind knob. Film loading is automatic. Indicators on the top LCD display the status of loading and rewinding; the motor, the camera's other functions including the focusing motor in the lens, are powered by 4 AAA batteries housed in the base of the camera.
Three special autofocus AC lenses were produced for the T80. Each lens contains a motor to focus, unlike the body-integral AF system pioneered by Minolta. All are identifiable by a boxy area on the upper left containing the motor, a red ring around the front lens element; the lenses are: AC 50mm f/1.8 AC 35-70mm f/3.5-4.5 AC 75-200mm f/4.5All three, like the T80 itself, were only produced for a short time and are rare. The auto-focus function does not work on any other camera, although they can be used as manual-focus FD lenses; however they lack aperture rings, so they are only useful on FD camera bodies that could control the aperture from the body. There is one other Canon FD autofocus lens, the Canon New FD 35-70 mm f/4 AF; this was introduced in 1981, uses a similar autofocus system to the T80's lenses, with an integral autofocus motor. The lens has a self-contained autofocus system that does not require autofocus electronics in the camera body. Canon, unlike Minolta and Nikon, was convinced that having the motor in the lens was the optimal approach.
A Command Back 80 was available for the T80. Like the similar back available for the T90, it supports date stamping of images, alphanumeric coding of images, time exposures and time-lapse interval exposure. Canon AC Mount Canon T80 Camera at Photography in Malaysia. Media related to Canon T80 at Wikimedia Commons