A gun barrel is a crucial part of gun-type ranged weapons such as small firearms, artillery pieces and air guns. It is the straight shooting tube made of rigid high-strength metal, through which a contained rapid expansion of high-pressure gas is introduced behind a projectile in order to propel it out of the front end at a high velocity; the hollow interior of the barrel is called the bore. The measurement of the diameter of the bore is called the caliber. Caliber is measured in inches or millimetres; the first firearms were made at a time when metallurgy was not advanced enough to cast tubes capable of withstanding the explosive forces of early cannons, so the pipe needed to be braced periodically along its length for reinforcement, producing an appearance somewhat reminiscent of storage barrels being stacked together, hence the English name. Gun barrels are metal. However, the early Chinese, the inventors of gunpowder, used bamboo, which has a strong tubular stalk and is cheaper to obtain and process, as the first barrels in gunpowder projectile weapons such as the fire lances.
The Chinese were the first to master cast-iron cannon barrels, used the technology to make the earliest infantry firearms — the hand cannons. Early European guns were made of wrought iron with several strengthening bands of the metal wrapped around circular wrought iron rings and welded into a hollow cylinder. Bronze and brass were favoured by gunsmiths because of their ease of casting and their resistance to the corrosive effects of the combustion of gunpowder or salt water when used on naval vessels. Early firearms were muzzle-loading, with the gunpowder and the shot loaded from the front end of the barrel, were capable of only a low rate of fire due to the cumbersome loading process; the later-invented breech-loading designs provided a higher rate of fire, but early breechloaders lacked an effective way of sealing the escaping gases that leaked from the back end of the barrel, reducing the available muzzle velocity. During the 19th century, effective breechblocks were invented that sealed a breechloader against the escape of propellant gases.
Early cannon barrels were thick for their caliber. This was because manufacturing defects such as air bubbles trapped in the metal were common back in the days, played key factors in many gun explosions. A gun barrel must be able to hold in the expanding gas produced by the propellants to ensure that optimum muzzle velocity is attained by the projectile as it is being pushed out. If the barrel material cannot cope with the pressure within the bore, the barrel itself might suffer catastrophic failure and explode, which will not only destroy the gun but present a life-threatening danger to people nearby. Modern small arms barrels are made of carbon steel or stainless steel materials known and tested to withstand the pressures involved. Artillery pieces are made by various techniques providing reliably sufficient strength. In firearms terminology, fluting refers to the removal of material from a cylindrical surface creating rounded grooves, for the purpose of reducing weight; this is most done to the exterior surface of a rifle barrel, though it may be applied to the cylinder of a revolver or the bolt of a bolt-action rifle.
Most flutings on rifle barrels and revolver cylinders are straight, though helical flutings can be seen on rifle bolts and also rifle barrels. While the main purpose of fluting is just to reduce weight and improve portability, when adequately done it can retain the structural strength and rigidity and increase the overall specific strength. Fluting will increase the surface-to-volume ratio and make the barrel more efficient to cool after firing, though the reduced material mass means the barrel will heat up during firing; the chamber is the cavity at the back end of a breech-loading gun's barrel where the cartridge is inserted in position ready to be fired. In most firearms, the chamber is an integral part of the barrel made by reaming the rear bore of a barrel blank, with a single chamber within a single barrel. In revolvers, the chamber is a component of the gun's cylinder and separate from the barrel, with a single cylinder having multiple chambers that are rotated in turns into alignment with the barrel in anticipation of being fired.
Structurally, the chamber consists of the body and neck, the contour of which correspond to the casing shape of the cartridge it is designed to hold. The rear opening of the chamber is the breech of the whole barrel, sealed tight from behind by the bolt, making the front direction the path of least resistance during firing; when the cartridge's primer is struck by the firing pin, the propellant is ignited and deflagrates, generating high-pressure gas expansion within the cartridge case. However, the chamber restrains the cartridge case from moving, allowing the bullet to separate cleanly from the casing and be propelled forward along the barrel to exit out of the front end as a projectile; the act of chambering a gun refers to the process of loading a cartridge into the gun's chamber, either manually as in single loading, or via operating the weapon's own action as in pump action, lever action, bolt action or self-loading actions. In the case of an air gun, a pellet itself has no casing to be retained and will be inserted into the chamber (often called "seating
75mm 50 caliber Pattern 1892
The 75mm 50 caliber Pattern 1892 was a Russian naval gun developed in the years before the Russo-Japanese War that armed the majority of warships of the Imperial Russian Navy during the Russo-Japanese War and World War I. The majority of ships built or refit between 1890-1922 carried Pattern 1892 guns. During its career the role of the guns evolved from one of anti-torpedo boat defense to coastal artillery and anti-aircraft use. In 1891 a Russian naval delegation was shown three guns designed by the French designer Canet. One was a 75 mm/50 caliber gun, one a 120 mm/45 caliber gun and the last was a 152mm/45 caliber gun. All three guns used fixed QF ammunition which produced a rate of fire of 15 rpm for the 75 mm gun, 12 rpm for the 122 mm gun and 10 rpm for the 152 mm gun; the Russians were impressed and in 1892 they negotiated a production license for all three guns. 75mm/50 caliber Pattern 1892 guns were produced at the Obhukov factory and the Perm factory between 1892 and 1922. By 1901 the Obhukov factory had produced 234 guns, with another 268 produced between 1909-1917.
The Perm factory produced 70 guns between 1900-1907, with another 155 produced between 1914-1922. The original naval mounts produced between 1892-1913 had low angles of elevation -7° to +20°. Mounts produced between 1914-1928 were high angle mounts -7° to +75° suitable for use as coastal artillery and anti-aircraft guns, it is estimated that 100 guns were used by the Finns. The majority of guns came from Russian coastal artillery installations with a smaller number being captured aboard warships the Russian Navy left behind. In 1924 the Finns still had 95 coastal artillery and anti-aircraft guns in their inventory. In 1941 it was estimated. In 1944 Finnish coastal artillery and Navy still had 66 guns, of which 10 guns were serving on ships. 75/50 guns armed a variety of ships such as armored cruisers, dreadnought battleships, light cruisers, minesweepers, Pre-dreadnought battleships, protected cruisers and submarines of the Imperial Russian Navy. After the 1917 October Revolution the successor states of Estonia, Finland and the Soviet Union all used this gun.
The last Finnish warship to carry 75/50 guns was the minelayer Ruotsinsalmi, decommissioned in 1975. Armored Cruisers Bayan-class - The four ships of this class had a tertiary armament of twenty, 75/50 guns in single mounts. Eight were in casemates amidships. While another twelve were on single, shielded mounts. General admiral-class The two ships of this class had a tertiary armament consisting of two or four, 75/50 guns, on single mounts, after refits in 1910 and 1925. Destroyers Lieutenant Shestakov-class - The four ships of this class had a secondary armament of five, 75/50 guns, in single mounts. Dreadnought Battleships Gangut-class - Two ships of this class the Sevastopol and Poltava had an AA armament of two, 75/50 guns, in single mounts, after 1916-1917 refits. Imperatritsa Mariya-class - The three ships of this class had an AA armament of three to eight, 75/50 guns, in single mounts. Gunboats Filin-class guard ship - The four ships of this class had a primary armament of one or two, 75/50 guns, in single mounts and aft.
Light Cruisers Admiral Nakhimov-class - One ship of this class the Chervona Ukraina had a secondary armament of four, 75/50 guns, in single mounts. Svetlana-class - One ship of this class the Svetlana had a secondary armament of four, 75/50 guns, in single mounts. Minelayers Amur-class - The two ships of this class had a primary armament of five, 75/50 guns, in single mounts. Ruotsinsalmi-class - The two ships of this class had a primary armament of one, 75/50 gun, in forward, in single mounts. Minesweepers Rautu-class - The two ships of this class had a primary armament of one, 75/50 gun, in forward, single mounts. Pre-dreadnought Battleships Borodino-class - The five ships of this class had a tertiary armament of twenty, casemated, 75/50 guns, in single mounts. Evstafi-class - The five ships of this class had a tertiary armament of fourteen, shielded, 75/50 guns, in single mounts. Imperator Alexandr II-class - One ship of this class the Imperator Nikolay I had a tertiary armament of six or eight, 75/50 guns, in single mounts, after a 1904 refit.
Peresvet-class - The three ships of this class had a tertiary armament of twenty, 75/50 guns, in single mounts. Of these guns, eight were mounted in casemates, four on the main deck, four on the battery deck and the last four at the corners of the superstructure on the forecastle deck. Protected Cruisers Bogatyr-class cruiser - The four ships of this class had a secondary armament of twelve, 75/50 guns, in single mounts. Pallada-class - The two ships of this class had a secondary armament of twenty four, 75/50 guns, in single mounts. Vityaz-class - One ship of this class the Rynda had a secondary armament of four, 75/50 guns, in single mounts, after a 1905 refit. Submarines Bars-class - This class of twenty four ships had a secondary armament of one, 75/50 gun, on forward mounts. Morzh-class - One ship of this class the Tyulen had a secondary armament of one, 75/50 gun, on a forward mount. Narval-class - This class of three ships had a secondary armament of one or two, 75/50 guns, on single mounts.
Ammunition was of fixed QF type. A complete round weighed between 9.6–10.6 kg. The gun was able to fire: Armor Piercing High Explosive Illumination Incendiary Shrapnel Friedman, Norman. Naval Weapons of World War One. Barnsley, South Yorkshire, UK: Seaforth. ISBN 978-1-84832-100-7. Http://www.navweaps.com/Weapons/WNRussian_29-50_m1891.php http://www.jaegerplatoon.net/COASTAL_ARTILLERY1.htm
Haitian gunboat Crête-à-Pierrot
Crête-à-Pierrot was a gunboat in the Haitian Navy. It was destroyed by Admiral Hammerton Killick in 1902 to prevent it falling into the hands of a German warship; the ship displaced 950 tons. It was powered by a triple expansion steam engine driving a single screw propeller, giving a speed of 16 knots. Armament comprised a 16 cm, 12 cm and four 10 cm guns, four Nordenfelt machine guns and two Maxim machine guns; the Haitian Government commissioned an armed cruiser to be designed by Sir E J Reed and built by Earle's Shipbuilding & Engineering Co at Hull, England. The ship was launched as Crête-à-Pierrot, named for the revolutionary battle of Crête-à-Pierrot, on 7 November 1895. After arming in France, it was added to the Haitian Navy in 1896 and considered the Navy's crown jewel, the best of the four ships it possessed at the time. Crête-à-Pierrot's first commander was Captain Gilmour, from Scotland, who served under contract to Haiti. In 1902 Haiti was enveloped in a civil war over who would become president after the sudden resignation of Tirésias Simon Sam.
Crête-à-Pierrot was controlled by Admiral Hammerton Killick and supporters of Anténor Firmin and was used to blockade ports where Pierre Nord Alexis was gathering troops. There was a plan to use Crête-à-Pierrot to transport Firmin to Port-au-Prince while Jean Jumeau marched on Port-au-Prince by land. In September 1902, Crête-à-Pierrot seized a German ammunition ship, Markomannia en route to provide ammunition to Alexis' forces. Alexis asked Germany for help subduing a pirate ship. In response, Germany sent the gunboat SMS Panther to capture Crête-à-Pierrot. On 6 September, Crête-à-Pierrot was in port at Gonaïves, with Killick and most of the crew on Shore leave when Panther appeared. Killick ordered his crew to abandon ship; when all but four crew members had evacuated the ship Killick, inspired by the tale of Captain LaPorte, wrapped himself in a Haitian flag, fired the aft magazine, blew up the ship rather than let the Germans take her. Killick and the remaining four crew members went down with the ship.
An hour Panther fired thirty shots at Crête-à-Pierrot to finish it off sailed away. The ship's rifles and machine guns were salvaged, along with the bodies of the crew that remained on board
The French Navy, informally "La Royale", is the maritime arm of the French Armed Forces. Dating back to 1624, the French Navy is one of the world's oldest naval forces, it has participated in conflicts around the globe and played a key part in establishing the French colonial empire. The French Navy consists of six main branches and various services: the Force d'Action Navale, the Forces Sous-marines, the Maritime Force of Naval Aeronautics, the Fusiliers Marins, the Marins Pompiers, the Maritime Gendarmerie; as of June 2014, the French Navy employed a total of 36,776 personnel along with 2,800 civilians. Its reserve element consisted of 4,827 personnel of the Operational Reserve; as a blue-water navy, it operates a wide range of fighting vessels, which include the nuclear-powered aircraft carrier Charles de Gaulle, various aeronaval forces, attack submarines and ballistic missile submarines, patrol boats and support ships. The history of French naval power dates back to the Middle Ages, had three loci of evolution: The Mediterranean Sea, where the Ordre de Saint-Jean de Jérusalem had its own navy, the Levant Fleet, whose principal ports were Fréjus and Toulon.
The Ordre, both a religious and military order, recruited knights from the families of French nobility. Members who had fulfilled their service at sea were granted the rank of Knights Hospitaller, elites who served as the officer corps; the Ordre was one of the ancestors of modern French naval schools including the French Naval Academy. The Manche along Normandy which, since William the Conqueror, always tendered capable marines and sailors from its numerous active seaports; the first true French Royal Navy was established in 1624 by Cardinal Richelieu, chief minister to King Louis XIII. During the French Revolution, la Marine Royale was formally renamed la Marine Nationale. Under the First French Empire and the Second French Empire, the navy was designated as the Imperial French Navy. Institutionally, the navy has never lost its short familiar nickname, la Royale; the symbol of the French Navy was since its origin a golden anchor, beginning in 1830, was interlaced by a sailing rope. This symbol was featured on all naval vessels and uniforms.
Although anchor symbols are still used on uniforms, a new naval logo was introduced in 1990. Authorized by Naval Chief of Staff Bernard Louzeau, the modern design incorporates the tricolour by flanking the bow section of a white warship with two ascending red and blue spray foams, the inscription "Marine nationale". Cardinal Richelieu supervised the Navy until his death in 1643, he was succeeded by his protégé, Jean Baptiste Colbert, who introduced the first code of regulations of the French Navy, established the original naval dockyards in Brest and Toulon. Colbert and his son, the Marquis de Seignelay, between them administered the Navy for twenty-nine years. During this century, the Navy cut its teeth in the Anglo-French War, the Franco-Spanish War, the Second Anglo-Dutch War, the Franco-Dutch War, the Nine Years' War. Major battles in these years include the Battle of Beachy Head, the Battles of Barfleur and La Hougue, the Battle of Lagos, the Battle of Texel; the 1700s opened with the War of the Spanish Succession, over a decade long, followed by the War of the Austrian Succession in the 1740s.
Principal engagements of these wars include the Battle of Vigo Bay and two separate Battles of Cape Finisterre in 1747. The most grueling conflict for the Navy, was the Seven Years' War, in which it was destroyed. Significant actions include the Battle of Cap-Français, the Battle of Quiberon Bay, another Battle of Cape Finisterre; the Navy regrouped and rebuilt, within 15 years it was eager to join the fray when France intervened in the American Revolutionary War. Though outnumbered everywhere, the French fleets held the British at bay for years until victory. After this conflict and the concomitant Anglo-French War, the Navy emerged at a new height in its history. Major battles in these years include the Battle of the Chesapeake, the Battle of Cape Henry, the Battle of Grenada, the invasion of Dominica, three separate Battles of Ushant. Within less than a decade, the Navy was decimated by the French Revolution when large numbers of veteran officers were dismissed or executed for their noble lineage.
Nonetheless, the Navy fought vigorously through the French Revolutionary Wars as well as the Quasi-War. Significant actions include a fourth Battle of Ushant, the Battle of Groix, the Atlantic campaign of May 1794, the French expedition to Ireland, the Battle of Tory Island, the Battle of the Nile. Other engagements of the Revolutionary Wars ensued in the early 1800s, including the Battle of the Malta Convoy and the Algeciras Campaign; the Quasi-War wound down with single-ship actions including USS Constellation vs La Vengeance and USS Enterprise vs Flambeau. When Napoleon was crowned Emperor in 1804, he attempted to restore the Navy to a position that would enable his plan for an invasion of England, his dreams were dashed by the Battle of Trafalgar in 1805, where the British all but annihilated a combined Franco-Spanish fleet, a disaster that guaranteed British naval superiority throughout the Napoleonic Wars. Still, the Navy did not shrink from action: among the engagements of this time were the Battle of the Basque Roads, the Battle of Grand Port, the Mauritius campaign of 1809–11, the Battle of Lissa, After Nap
A gunboat is a naval watercraft designed for the express purpose of carrying one or more guns to bombard coastal targets, as opposed to those military craft designed for naval warfare, or for ferrying troops or supplies. In the age of sail, a gunboat was a small undecked vessel carrying a single smoothbore cannon in the bow, or just two or three such cannons. A gunboat could carry one or two masts or be oar-powered only, but the single-masted version of about 15 m length was most typical; some types of gunboat else mounted a number of swivel guns on the railings. The small gunboat had advantages: if it only carried a single cannon, the boat could manoeuvre in shallow or restricted areas – such as rivers or lakes – where larger ships could sail only with difficulty; the gun that such boats carried could be quite heavy. As such boats were cheap and quick to build, naval forces favoured swarm tactics: while a single hit from a frigate's broadside would destroy a gunboat, a frigate facing a large squadron of gunboats could suffer serious damage before it could manage to sink them all.
For example: in the Battle of Alvøen during the Gunboat War of 1807–1814, five Dano-Norwegian gunboats defeated the lone frigate HMS Tartar. Gunboats used in the Battle of Valcour Island on Lake Champlain during the American Revolutionary War were built on the spot, attesting to the speed of their construction. All navies of the sailing era kept a number of gunboats on hand. Gunboats saw extensive use in the Baltic Sea during the late 18th century as they were well-suited for the extensive coastal skerries and archipelagoes of Sweden and Russia; the rivalry between Sweden and Russia in particular led to an intense expansion of gunboat fleets and the development of new gunboat types. The two countries clashed during the Russo-Swedish war of 1788–90, a conflict that culminated in the massive Battle of Svensksund in 1790, in which over 30,000 men and hundreds of gunboats and other oared craft took part; the majority of these were vessels developed from the 1770s and onwards by the naval architect Fredrik Henrik af Chapman for the Swedish archipelago fleet.
The designs and refined by the rival Danish and Russian navies, spread to the Mediterranean and to the Black Sea. Two variants occurred most commonly: a larger 20 m "gun sloop" with two 24-pounders, one in the stern and one in the bow a smaller 15 m "gun yawl" with a single 24-pounderMany of the Baltic navies kept gunboats in service well into the second half of the 19th century. British ships engaged larger 22 m Russian gunboats off Turku in southeast Finland in 1854 during the Crimean War; the Russian vessels had the distinction of being the last oared vessels of war in history to fire their guns in anger. Gunboats played a key role in Napoleon Bonaparte's plan for the invasion of England in 1804. Denmark-Norway used them in the Gunboat War. Between 1803 and 1812 the United States Navy had a policy of basing its navy on coastal gunboats, experimenting with a variety of designs. President Thomas Jefferson and his Democratic-Republican Party opposed a strong navy, regarding gunboats as adequate to defend the United States' major harbors.
They proved useless against the British blockade during the War of 1812. With the introduction of steam power in the early 19th century, the Royal Navy and other navies built considerable numbers of small vessels propelled by side paddles and by screws; these vessels retained full sailing rigs and used steam engines for auxiliary propulsion. The British Royal Navy deployed two wooden paddle-gunboats in the Lower Great Lakes and St. Lawrence River during the Rebellions of 1837 in Upper and Lower Canada; the United States Navy deployed an iron-hulled paddle gunboat, USS Michigan, to the Great Lakes in 1844. Von der Tann became the first propeller-driven gunboat in the world. Conradi shipyards in Kiel built the steam-powered 120 long tons gunboat in 1849 for the small navy of Schleswig-Holstein. Called "Gunboat No. 1", Von der Tann was the most modern ship in the navy. She participated in the First Schleswig War of 1848–1851. Britain built a large number of wooden screw-gunboats during the 1850s, some of which participated in the Crimean War, Second Opium War and Indian Mutiny.
The requirement for gunboats in the Crimean War was formulated in 1854 to allow the Royal Navy to bombard shore facilities in the Baltic. The first ships the Royal Navy built. In mid-1854 the Royal Navy ordered six Gleaner-class gunboats followed in the year by an order for 20 Dapper-class gunboats. In May 1855 the Royal Navy deployed six Dapper-class gunboats in the Sea of Azov, where they raided and destroyed stores around its coast. In June 1855 the Royal Navy reentered the Baltic with a total of 18 gunboats as part of a larger fleet; the gunboats attacked various coastal facilities, operating alongside larger British warships from which they drew supplies such as coal. Gunboats experienced a revival during the American Civil War. Union and Confederate forces converted existing passenger-carrying boats into armed sidewheel steamers; some purpose-built boats, such as USS Miami, joined the fray. They mounted 12 or more guns, sometimes of rather large caliber, carried some armor. At the same time, Britain's gunboats from the Crimean War period were starting to wear out, so a new series of classes was ordered.
Construction shifted from a purely wooden hull to an iron–teak composite. In the 19th century and early 20th century, "gunboat" w
Schneider-Creusot, or Schneider et Cie, was a historic French iron and steel-mill which became a major arms manufacturer. After World War II, it evolved into Schneider Electric. In 1836, Adolphe Schneider and his brother Eugène Schneider bought iron-ore mines and forges around Le Creusot, they developed a business dealing in steel, railways and shipbuilding. The Creusot steam hammer was built in 1877. Somua, a subsidiary located near Paris, made machinery and vehicles, including the SOMUA S35 tank. Schneider CA1, the first French tank Ferré, a 46-meter long submarine Schneider-Creusot 030-T steam locomotive Schneider Coast Defense Train 75 mm Schneider-Danglis 06/09 Canon de 75 M modele 1919 Schneider Canon de 75 M modele 1928 76 mm mountain gun modèle 1909 Canet guns Canon de 75 modèle 1897 Canon de 75 modèle 1912 Schneider Canon de 75 modèle 1914 Schneider Canon anti-aérien de 75mm modèle 1939 Canon de 85 modèle 1927 Schneider Canon de 105 modèle 1930 Schneider 107 mm gun modèle 1910 120 mm Schneider-Canet M1897 long gun 122 mm howitzer modèle 1910 152 mm howitzer modèle 1909 152 mm howitzer modèle 1910 152 mm siege gun modèle 1910 155 mm Creusot Long Tom Canon de 155 C modèle 1917 Schneider Canon de 194 mle GPF Canon de 220 L mle 1917 Mortier de 220 modèle 1915/1916 Schneider Mortier de 280 modèle 1914 Schneider Starting in 1911, Jacques Schneider offered the Schneider Trophy.
It was a competition for seaplanes, with a prestigious prize. Lokomotive Schneider Creusot 1870