Canon de 100 mm Modèle 1891

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Canon de 100 mm Modèle 1891
Экипаж болгарского крейсера Надежда(2).jpg
Deck-mounted gun aboard the Bulgarian torpedo gunboat Nadezhda
TypeNaval gun
Coastal artillery
Place of originFrance
Service history
In service1891-1945
Used bySee users
WarsWorld War I
World War II
Production history
DesignerCanet
Designed1889
ManufacturerSchneider et Cie.
Produced1891
VariantsModèle 1892
Modèle 1893
Modèle 1895
Modèle 1897
Specifications
Mass1,700 kg (3,700 lb)
Length4.6 m (15 ft 1 in)
Barrel length4.4 m (14 ft 5 in)
L/45 (cal)

ShellFixed QF ammunition
100 x 869 mm R
Shell weightSee ammunition
Caliber100 mm (3.9 in)
ActionHydro-spring recuperator
BreechCanet screw breech
Traverse360°
Rate of fire10 rpm
Muzzle velocity710–740 m/s (2,300–2,400 ft/s)[1]
Maximum firing range9.5 km (5.9 mi)

The Canon de 100 mm Modèle 1891 was a French naval gun developed in the late 1800s that armed a variety of warships before World War I and during World War II. In addition to its naval role it was also deployed as coastal artillery.

History[edit]

The Canon de 100 mm Modèle 1891 was French naval gun designed by the French designer Gustave Canet and produced at Schneider et Cie of Le Creusot in 1889. Five models were produced: Modèle 1891, Modèle 1892, Modèle 1893, Modèle 1895 and Modèle 1897. At some point in the guns development there was a switch from Separate loading QF ammunition to Fixed QF ammunition;[2] however the dimensions of the guns and their performance stayed largely the same.[1]

Construction[edit]

The Modèle 1891 was constructed of an A tube, with a Canet screw breech which screwed onto the A tube. There was also a jacket and three layers of reinforcing hoops which all screwed into the breech.[1]

Coastal Artillery[edit]

In addition to their naval role this family of guns was also used as coastal artillery by France and Poland. In French service there were two main models the Canon de 100 mm Modèle 1889 T97 and Canon de 100 mm Modèle 1897 T97.[3]

Poland also had two Modèle 1891 guns in service as coastal artillery under the designation Canet 100 mm wz. 1891.[4] The two Polish guns were purchased in March 1924 with a French loan to rearm the Polish army, they were intended to arm two ex-Russian Filin-class gunboats[5] purchased from Finland the ORP General Haller and ORP Komendant Pilsudski. However it was found that the guns were too heavy for the ships and two Russian made Canet 75mm 50 caliber Pattern 1892 were fitted instead.[6]

In 1932 the two guns formed the 13th coastal artillery battery was created at Oksywie to defend the approaches to the Port of Gdynia. In September 1939 the captain of the battery was Capt. Art. Antoni Ratajczyk and his deputy was Mar. Stanislaw Brychcy. One of the guns was knocked out of action on the first day of fighting, while second gun fired over a hundred rounds before being captured.[7]

Naval Use[edit]

Canon de 100 mm Modèle 1891 guns armed a variety of ships such as armored cruisers, coastal defense ships, destroyers, gunboats, minesweepers, pre-dreadnought battleships, protected cruisers and seaplane tenders of the French, Bulgarian,[8] Haitian, Polish, Portuguese,[9] Romanian[10] and Turkish[11] navies.

Armored Cruisers

Coastal Defense Ships

  • Bouvines-class - The two ships of this class had an anti-torpedo boat armament consisting of eight, 100 mm guns. Four were mounted in individual casemates; the other four were on single pivot mounts with gun shields on the shelter deck directly above the four casemated guns on the corners of the superstructure.[14]

Destroyers

  • Aventurier-class - The four ships of this class had a primary armament consisting of four, 100 mm guns. One was on the forecastle, one between the funnels, and two on the quarterdeck, in front and behind the searchlight platform.[15]
  • Bisson-class - The six ships of this class had a primary armament consisting of two, 100 mm guns, on single mounts, fore and aft.[16]
  • Bouclier-class - The twelve ships of this class had a primary armament consisting of two, 100 mm guns, on single mounts, fore and aft.[17]
  • Enseigne Roux-class - The two ships of this class had a primary armament consisting of two, 100 mm guns, on single mounts, fore and aft.[18]

Gunboats

  • Crête-à-Pierrot - This ship had a tertiary armament consisting of four, 100 mm guns, on single mounts.[19]
  • K class river gunboats - The four ships of this class had a primary armament consisting of two, shielded, 100 mm guns, on single mounts, fore and aft.[20]
  • Surprise-class - The three ships of this class had a primary armament consisting of two, shielded, 100 mm guns, on single mounts, fore and aft.[21]
  • Nadezhda - This ship had a primary armament consisting of two, shielded, deck-mounted guns on single mounts.[22]

Minesweepers

  • Chamois-class - The five ships of this class commissioned before World War II had a primary armament consisting of one, shielded, 100 mm gun, on a forward mount, due to shortages of the intended 100/45 M1933 guns.

Pre-dreadnought Battleships

  • Bouvet - This ship had an anti-torpedo boat armament consisting of eight, 100 mm guns, in single mounts, amidships.[23]
  • Charlemagne-class - The three ships of this class had an anti-torpedo boat armament consisting of eight, shielded, 100 mm guns, in single mounts on the superstructure.[24]
  • Iéna - This ship had an anti-torpedo boat armament consisting of eight, shielded, 100 mm guns, in single mounts on the shelter deck.[25]
  • Masséna - This ship had an anti-torpedo boat armament consisting of eight, 100 mm guns, in single mounts, amidships.[26]
  • Suffren - This ship had an anti-torpedo boat armament consisting of eight, shielded, 100 mm guns, in single mounts, on the shelter deck and on the superstructure.[27]

Protected Cruisers

  • Destrées-class - The two ships of this class had a secondary armament consisting of four, shielded, 100 mm guns, in sponsons, amidships.[28]
  • Dupleix-class - The three ships of this class had a secondary armament consisting of four, 100 mm guns, in single mounts, on the forecastle deck.[29]
  • Linois-class - The three ships of this class had a secondary armament consisting of two, 100 mm guns, in single mounts.[30]

Seaplane Tender

  • Foudre - This ship had a primary armament consisting of eight, 100 mm guns, in single mounts.[31]

Ammunition[edit]

Ammunition was fixed QF type 100 x 869 mm R . A complete cartridge weighed 24 kg (53 lb) and projectiles weighed 14–16 kg (31–35 lb).[32]

The gun was able to fire:

Users[edit]

References[edit]

  • Friedman, Norman (2011). Naval Weapons of World War One. Barnsley, South Yorkshire, UK: Seaforth. ISBN 978-1-84832-100-7.

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ a b c Friedman, Norman (2011-01-01). Naval weapons of World War One. Seaforth. ISBN 9781848321007. OCLC 786178793.
  2. ^ DiGiulian, Tony. "France Miscellaneous 100 mm (3.9") Guns - NavWeaps". www.navweaps.com. Retrieved 2017-04-23.
  3. ^ "Canons de 100 mm TR - FortiffSéré". www.fortiffsere.fr. Retrieved 2017-04-23.
  4. ^ "Kilka ciężkich dni baterii Canet". trojmiasto.pl (in Polish). Retrieved 2017-04-30.
  5. ^ "General Haller gunboats (1921) - Polish Navy (Poland)". www.navypedia.org. Retrieved 2017-04-23.
  6. ^ "Bateria nadbrzeżna 100mm wz. 1891 "Canet" - Kampania Wrześniowa 1939.pl". www.1939.pl. Retrieved 2017-04-23.
  7. ^ [Scypion], Waldemar Sadaj. "Armata Canet 100 mm". www.dws-xip.pl. Retrieved 2017-04-23.
  8. ^ "NADEZHDA torpedo gunboat (1898)- Bulgarian Navy (Bulgaria)". www.navypedia.org. Retrieved 2017-04-23.
  9. ^ "RAINHA DONA AMÉLIA protected cruiser (1901) - Portuguese Navy (Portugal)". www.navypedia.org. Retrieved 2017-04-23.
  10. ^ "Capitan Dumitrescu ASW gunboats (1917-1918/1920) - Romanian Navy (Romania)". www.navypedia.org. Retrieved 2017-04-23.
  11. ^ "Aydin Reis gunboats (1914) - Ottoman / Turkish Navy (Ottoman Empire / Turkey)". www.navypedia.org. Retrieved 2017-04-23.
  12. ^ "Gloire armoured cruisers (1903 - 1904) - French Navy (France)". www.navypedia.org. Retrieved 2017-04-23.
  13. ^ "Gueydon armoured cruisers (1902 - 1905) - French Navy (France)". www.navypedia.org. Retrieved 2017-04-23.
  14. ^ "Bouvines coast defence battleships (1894 - 1896) - French Navy (France)". www.navypedia.org. Retrieved 2017-04-23.
  15. ^ "Aventurier destroyers (1914) - French Navy (France)". www.navypedia.org. Retrieved 2017-04-23.
  16. ^ "Bisson destroyers (1913 - 1914) - French Navy (France)". www.navypedia.org. Retrieved 2017-04-23.
  17. ^ "Bouclier destroyers (1911 - 1913) - French Navy (France)". www.navypedia.org. Retrieved 2017-04-23.
  18. ^ "Enseigne Roux destroyers (1916 - 1923) - French Navy (France)". www.navypedia.org. Retrieved 2017-04-23.
  19. ^ "CRÈTE-À-PIERROT gunvessel (1895) - Navy of Haiti (Haiti)". www.navypedia.org. Retrieved 2017-04-23.
  20. ^ "K river gunboats (1915) - French Navy (France)". www.navypedia.org. Retrieved 2019-04-26.
  21. ^ "Surprise gunboats (1896 - 1900) - French Navy (France)". www.navypedia.org. Retrieved 2017-04-23.
  22. ^ Navypedia: NADEZHDA torpedo gunboat (1898)
  23. ^ "BOUVET battleship (1898) - French Navy (France)". www.navypedia.org. Retrieved 2017-04-23.
  24. ^ "CHARLEMAGNE battleships (1897 - 1900) - French Navy (France)". www.navypedia.org. Retrieved 2017-04-23.
  25. ^ "IÉNA battleship (1902) - French Navy (France)". www.navypedia.org. Retrieved 2017-04-23.
  26. ^ "MASSÉNA battleship (1898) - French Navy (France)". www.navypedia.org. Retrieved 2017-04-23.
  27. ^ "SUFFREN battleship (1903) - French Navy (France)". www.navypedia.org. Retrieved 2017-04-23.
  28. ^ "D`Estrées protected cruisers (1899 - 1900) - French Navy (France)". www.navypedia.org. Retrieved 2017-04-23.
  29. ^ "DUPLEIX armoured cruisers (1903 - 1904) - French Navy (France)". www.navypedia.org. Retrieved 2017-04-23.
  30. ^ "LINOIS protected cruisers (1895 - 1898) - French Navy (France)". www.navypedia.org. Retrieved 2017-04-23.
  31. ^ "FOUDRE torpedo depot ship (1897) - French Navy (France)". www.navypedia.org. Retrieved 2017-04-23.
  32. ^ "Bateria nadbrzezna 100mm wz. 1891 "Canet" - Kampania Wrzesniowa 1939.pl". www.1939.pl. Retrieved 2017-04-23.

External links[edit]