Honor Oak Park railway station
Honor Oak Park railway station serves the suburban area of Honor Oak in the London Borough of Lewisham. It is located between Brockley and Forest Hill, the station is operated by London Overground, with London Overground and Southern trains serving the station. Thameslink and some Southern services pass through the station and it is located in Travelcard Zone 3. The line on which it stands was opened in 1839, but this station was opened by the London, Brighton. There are four tracks through the station, with platforms on the outer Slow lines and these platforms are connected to the booking office by a footbridge. The station has benefited from the London Overground East London Line extension, completed in May 2010, commuter areas such as Canary Wharf, Liverpool Street, Kings Cross and Waterloo are just one change of train away. From 2018/19 you will be able to interchange with Crossrail service at Whitechapel. This would enable most of London to be accessible in a short time compared to now. This will coincide with Crossrail being constructed at Whitechapel ensuring that East-to-West as well as South-to-North London will be accessible from Honor Oak Park.
Honor Oak Park is served by 12 trains in each direction off peak, Southern operates 4-8 car trains throughout the day, with 10 carriage trains at peak hours. Off Peak frequencies are, London Buses routes P4 and P12 serve the station
Network Rail is the owner and infrastructure manager of most of the rail network in England and Wales. Network Rail is an arms length public body of the Department for Transport with no shareholders, since 1 September 2014, Network Rail has been classified as a public sector body. Britains railway system was built by companies, but it was nationalised by the Transport Act 1947. Infrastructure and passenger and freight services were separated at that time, between 1994 and 2002 the infrastructure was owned and operated by Railtrack. The Hatfield train crash on 17 October 2000 was a moment in the collapse of Railtrack. The costs of modernising the West Coast Main Line were spiralling, the purchase was completed on 3 October 2002. The SRA was abolished in November 2006, the company moved its headquarters to Kings Place,90 York Way, from 40 Melton Street, Euston, in August 2008. In October 2008, Sir Ian McAllister announced that he would not stand for re-election as chairman of Network Rail and he had held the position for six years.
He noted that as Network Rail moved to a new phase in its development it was appropriate for a new chairman to lead it there, many track safety initiatives have been introduced in the time Network Rail has been responsible for this area. This ruling came into force in January 2009 for maintenance and property workers and in April 2009 for infrastructure, in 2009, allegations appeared in the media from the Transport Salaried Staffs Association concerning treatment of Network Rail employees. Former chief executive Iain Coucher was accused of financial impropriety involving unspecified payments to his business partner Victoria Pender during his tenure at Network Rail, an internal investigation held by Network Rail in 2010, vetted by its auditors PricewaterhouseCoopers, uncovered no evidence of wrongdoing. An independent enquiry headed by Anthony White QC in 2011 further examined the claims, critical commentary appeared in the media concerning the knighthood awarded to John Armitt in the 2012 New Year Honours for services to engineering and construction.
The reorganisation has been interpreted as a move back towards vertical integration of track, in 2016 Network Rail failed to check whether the Flying Scotsman could fit through tunnels along the Borders Route resulting in the cancellation of a trip just 24 hours before departure. Scottish Transport Minister Derek Mackay branded the affair a debacle, Network Rails attempt to electrify the West Coast Mainline has been dogged by poor planning and cost overruns, the projected cost has ballooned from by £1.2 billion to £2. It however owns a fleet of departmental stock, although it owns over 2,500 railway stations, it manages only 18 of the biggest and busiest of them, all the other stations being managed by one or other of the various train operating companies. Network Rail has a 15-year lease on Square One in Manchester with 800 staff in one of Manchesters largest refurbished office spaces, Network Rail should not be confused with National Rail. National Rail is not an organisation, but merely a brand, used to explain, the majority of Network Rail lines carry freight traffic, some lines are freight only.
A few lines that carry passenger traffic are not part of the National Rail network, conversely, a few National Rail services operate over track which is not part of the Network Rail network
The London Underground is a public rapid transit system serving London and some parts of the adjacent counties of Buckinghamshire and Hertfordshire in the United Kingdom. The network has expanded to 11 lines, and in 2015–16 carried 1.34 billion passengers, the 11 lines collectively handle approximately 4.8 million passengers a day. The system has 270 stations and 250 miles of track, despite its name, only 45% of the system is actually underground in tunnels, with much of the network in the outer environs of London being on the surface. In addition, the Underground does not cover most southern parts of Greater London, the current operator, London Underground Limited, is a wholly owned subsidiary of Transport for London, the statutory corporation responsible for the transport network in Greater London. As of 2015, 92% of operational expenditure is covered by passenger fares, the Travelcard ticket was introduced in 1983 and Oyster, a contactless ticketing system, in 2003. Contactless card payments were introduced in 2014, the LPTB was a prominent patron of art and design, commissioning many new station buildings and public artworks in a modernist style.
Other famous London Underground branding includes the roundel and Johnston typeface, to prepare construction, a short test tunnel was built in 1855 in Kibblesworth, a small town with geological properties similar to London. This test tunnel was used for two years in the development of the first underground train, and was later, in 1861, the worlds first underground railway, it opened in January 1863 between Paddington and Farringdon using gas-lit wooden carriages hauled by steam locomotives. It was hailed as a success, carrying 38,000 passengers on the opening day, the Metropolitan District Railway opened in December 1868 from South Kensington to Westminster as part of a plan for an underground inner circle connecting Londons main-line termini. The Metropolitan and District railways completed the Circle line in 1884, built using the cut and this opened in 1890 with electric locomotives that hauled carriages with small opaque windows, nicknamed padded cells. The Waterloo and City Railway opened in 1898, followed by the Central London Railway in 1900, the Metropolitan Railway protested about the change of plan, but after arbitration by the Board of Trade, the DC system was adopted.
When the Bakerloo was so named in July 1906, The Railway Magazine called it an undignified gutter title, by 1907 the District and Metropolitan Railways had electrified the underground sections of their lines. In January 1913, the UERL acquired the Central London Railway, the Bakerloo line was extended north to Queens Park to join a new electric line from Euston to Watford, but World War I delayed construction and trains reached Watford Junction in 1917. During air raids in 1915 people used the stations as shelters. An extension of the Central line west to Ealing was delayed by the war, the Metropolitan promoted housing estates near the railway with the Metro-land brand and nine housing estates were built near stations on the line. Electrification was extended north from Harrow to Rickmansworth, and branches opened from Rickmansworth to Watford in 1925, the Piccadilly line was extended north to Cockfosters and took over District line branches to Harrow and Hounslow. In 1933, most of Londons underground railways and bus services were merged to form the London Passenger Transport Board, the Waterloo & City Railway, which was by in the ownership of the main line Southern Railway, remained with its existing owners.
In the same year that the London Passenger Transport Board was formed, in the following years, the outlying lines of the former Metropolitan Railway closed, the Brill Tramway in 1935, and the line from Quainton Road to Verney Junction in 1936
The Thames Tunnel is an underwater tunnel, built beneath the River Thames in London, connecting Rotherhithe and Wapping. It measures 35 feet wide by 20 feet high and is 1,300 feet long, running at a depth of 75 feet below the river surface measured at high tide, the tunnel was originally designed for horse-drawn carriages, but was never used for that purpose. It now forms part of the London Overground railway network under ownership of Transport for London. At the start of the 19th century, there was a pressing need for a new connection between the north and south banks of the Thames to link the expanding docks on each side of the river. The engineer Ralph Dodd tried, but failed, to build a tunnel between Gravesend and Tilbury in 1799, the Cornish miners were used to hard rock and did not modify their methods for soft clay and quicksand. This Thames Archway project was abandoned after the pilot tunnel flooded twice when 1,000 feet of a total of 1,200 feet had been dug. It only measured 2–3 feet by 5 feet, and was intended as the drain for a tunnel for passenger use.
The failure of the Thames Archway project led engineers to conclude that a tunnel is impracticable. However, the Anglo-French engineer Marc Brunel refused to accept this conclusion, in 1814 he proposed to Emperor Alexander I of Russia a plan to build a tunnel under the river Neva in St Petersburg. This scheme was turned down but Brunel continued to develop ideas for new methods of tunnelling, Brunel patented the tunnelling shield, a revolutionary advance in tunnelling technology, in January 1818. In 1823 Brunel produced a plan for a tunnel between Rotherhithe and Wapping, which would be dug using his new shield. Financing was soon found from private investors, including the Duke of Wellington, and a Thames Tunnel Company was formed in 1824, the first step was the construction of a large shaft on the south bank at Rotherhithe,150 feet back from the river bank. It was dug by assembling an iron ring 50 feet in diameter above ground, a brick wall 40 feet high and 3 feet thick was built on top of this, with a powerful steam engine surmounting it to drive the excavations pumps.
The whole apparatus was estimated to weigh 1,000 tons, the soil below the rings sharp lower edge was removed manually by Brunels workers. The whole shaft thus gradually sank under its own weight, slicing through the ground rather like an enormous pastry cutter. The shaft became stuck at one point during its sinking as the pressure of the earth around it held it firmly in position, extra weight was required to make it continue its descent,50,000 bricks were added as temporary weights. It was realised that the problem was caused because the sides were parallel, years when the Wapping shaft was built. This non-cylindrical tapering design ensured it did not get stuck, by November 1825 the Rotherhithe shaft was in place and tunnelling work could begin
Crystal Palace railway station
Crystal Palace is a Network Rail and London Overground station in the London Borough of Bromley in south London. It is located in the Anerley area between the centres of Crystal Palace and Penge. It is one of two built to serve the site of the 1851 exhibition building, the Crystal Palace. The station was opened on 10 June 1854 by the West End of London and it was formerly known as Crystal Palace to differentiate it from the nearby and now demolished Crystal Palace railway station. The station serves trains running between London Bridge and London Victoria in addition to services terminating at Beckenham Junction and Sutton, since 23 May 2010, the station has been a terminus of the East London Line of the London Overground. This has been the catalyst for plans for a redevelopment of the station. From the outset trains were operated by the London, initially the station was the terminus of a spur line from Sydenham. In 1856 the station was able to take through train services to Wandsworth via West Norwood and Streatham Hill, in 1857, an eastward connection was made to Norwood Junction and in 1858 the WEL&CPR was extended as far as Beckenham.
From 1860 direct services were extended to London Victoria and this is a description of the station trainshed roof above the staircases at the west end. Originally the whole length of the platforms beyond the bottom of the staircases was covered by an elegant dual bow-spring arch iron roof. This was removed as a precautionary measure shortly after the collapse of the structure at Charing Cross in 1905. He envisaged the construction of a tunnel which would run from Crystal Palace to Cricklewood in north-west London and it was to be operated with an unusual monorail system patented by Kearney which would be powered by gravity, like a type of underground roller coaster. Kearney failed to support for his scheme and the line was never built. The line was electrified between Balham and Crystal Palace on 12 May 1911, using the LBSCR overhead system, in time for the Festival of Empire coinciding with the coronation of King George V. Electric trains from Victoria were advertised to complete the journey in fifteen minutes - a running time that has never been equalled.
The station is built on the junction of two lines, the station platforms lying on the Sydenham route, and the platforms on the southern spur to Norwood Junction. The southern platforms became the pair and the entrance to the station was moved to the south side of the building in the 1980s. A glazed ticket hall, which echoed the profile of the Crystal Palace with its roof structure, was constructed at this time on the southern flank of the Victorian building
Clapham Junction railway station
Clapham Junction railway station is a major railway station and transport hub near St Johns Hill in the south-west of Battersea in the London Borough of Wandsworth. Despite its name, it is not located in Clapham, a district situated some 1.5 kilometres east-south-east of the station, the station is the busiest UK station for interchanges between services. Before the railway came, the area was rural and specialised in growing lavender, the coach road from London to Guildford ran slightly south of the future station site, past The Falcon public house at the crossroads in the valley between St. Johns Hill and Lavender Hill. On 21 May 1838 the London and Southampton Railway became the London and South Western Railway and that was the first railway through the area but it had no station at the present site. The second line, initially from Nine Elms to Richmond, opened on 27 July 1846, Nine Elms was replaced in 1848 as the terminus by Waterloo Bridge station, now Waterloo. The line to Victoria opened by 1860, Clapham Junction opened on 2 March 1863, a joint venture of the L&SWR, the London and South Coast Railway and the West London Extension Railway as an interchange station for their lines.
When the station was built, much of Battersea was the site of heavy industry while Clapham, Side and Clapham Common W. Side, London despite being well away from those park-side streets. Additional station buildings were erected in 1874 and 1876, batterseas slums unfit for human habitation were entirely replaced with council and charitable housing between 1918 and 1975. A £39.5 million planning application from Metro Shopping Fund was withdrawn before governmental planning committee consideration on 20 May 2009, the change would have been at Clapham Junction. On the morning of 12 December 1988 two collisions involving three commuter trains occurred slightly south-west of the station, thirty-five people died and more than 100 were injured. On the morning of 16 December 1991, a bomb ripped through tracks on one of the stations platforms, the Provisional Irish Republican Army claimed responsibility. The station is named Clapham Junction because it is at the junction of rail lines. Latchmere Main Junction connecting the WLL to the Brighton Line at Falcon Junction, West London Extension Junction and Junction for Waterloo, relaid for Eurostar empty-stock moves from the Windsor Lines to the WLL.
Pouparts Junction where the low-level and high-level approaches to Victoria split, each day about 2,000 trains, over half of them stopping, pass through the station, more than through any other station in Europe. At peak times 180 trains per hour pass through of which 117 stop and it is not the busiest station by number of passengers, most of whom pass through. Interchanges make some 40% of the activity and on that basis too it is the busiest station in the UK, in 2011 the station had three entrances, all with staffed ticket offices, though only the south-east entrance is open 24 hours a day. The most heavily used of the three, this leads from St Johns Hill via an indoor shopping centre into a subway some 15 ft wide. The north entrance, which has restricted opening hours, leads from Grant Road to the same subway, the subway is crowded during rush hours, with the ticket barriers at the ends being pinch points
Clapham North tube station
Clapham North is an Underground station in Clapham, London. It is on the Northern line between Clapham Common and Stockwell, the station is located in Travelcard Zone 2, at the northern end of Clapham High Street, and a short walk away from Clapham High Street railway station. The station opened as Clapham Road on 3 June 1900 as part of an extension of the City & South London Railway to Clapham Common, the original station building was replaced in 1924, when the line was modernised and the original building was remodelled by Charles Holden. The ticket hall was rebuilt after the installation of escalators and Figgiss station facade was replaced with biscuit-cream faience slabs, in turn, the station has recently had its façade reclad. The stations name was changed to Clapham North on 13 September 1926 after the line was extended to Morden that year, Clapham North is one of eight London Underground stations which has a deep-level air-raid shelter beneath it. London Buses routes 50,88,155,322,345, P5, original station building in 1914 Rebuilt station building in 1927
World Geodetic System
The World Geodetic System is a standard for use in cartography and navigation including GPS. It comprises a standard system for the Earth, a standard spheroidal reference surface for raw altitude data. The latest revision is WGS84, established in 1984 and last revised in 2004, earlier schemes included WGS72, WGS66, and WGS60. WGS84 is the coordinate system used by the Global Positioning System. The coordinate origin of WGS84 is meant to be located at the Earths center of mass, the error is believed to be less than 2 cm. The WGS84 meridian of longitude is the IERS Reference Meridian,5.31 arc seconds or 102.5 metres east of the Greenwich meridian at the latitude of the Royal Observatory. The WGS84 datum surface is a spheroid with major radius a =6378137 m at the equator. The polar semi-minor axis b equals a times, or 6356752.3142 m, currently, WGS84 uses the EGM96 geoid, revised in 2004. This geoid defines the sea level surface by means of a spherical harmonics series of degree 360. The deviations of the EGM96 geoid from the WGS84 reference ellipsoid range from about −105 m to about +85 m, EGM96 differs from the original WGS84 geoid, referred to as EGM84.
Efforts to supplement the national surveying systems began in the 19th century with F. R. Helmerts famous book Mathematische und Physikalische Theorien der Physikalischen Geodäsie. Austria and Germany founded the Zentralbüro für die Internationale Erdmessung, a unified geodetic system for the whole world became essential in the 1950s for several reasons, International space science and the beginning of astronautics. The lack of inter-continental geodetic information, efforts of the U. S. Army and Air Force were combined leading to the DoD World Geodetic System 1960. Heritage surveying methods found elevation differences from a local horizontal determined by the level, plumb line. As a result, the elevations in the data are referenced to the geoid, the latter observational method is more suitable for global mapping. The sole contribution of data to the development of WGS60 was a value for the ellipsoid flattening which was obtained from the nodal motion of a satellite. Prior to WGS60, the U. S.
Army, the Army performed an adjustment to minimize the difference between astro-geodetic and gravimetric geoids. By matching the relative astro-geodetic geoids of the selected datums with an earth-centered gravimetric geoid, since the Army and Air Force systems agreed remarkably well for the NAD, ED and TD areas, they were consolidated and became WGS60
Tramlink is a light rail tram system serving Croydon and surrounding areas in South London, England. It began operation in 2000, the first tram system in London since 1952 and it is owned by London Trams, an arm of Transport for London, and operated by FirstGroup. The Tramlink is the fourth-busiest light rail network in the UK behind Manchester Metrolink and Wear Metro, in 1990 Croydon Council with London Regional Transport put the project to Parliament and the Croydon Tramlink Act 1994 resulted, which gave LRT the power to build and run Tramlink. In 1996 Tramtrack Croydon Limited won a 99-year Private Finance Initiative contract to design, operate, TCL was a partnership comprising FirstGroup, Bombardier Transportation, Sir Robert McAlpine and Amey, and Royal Bank of Scotland and 3i. TCL kept the revenue generated by Tramlink and LRT had to pay compensation to TCL for any changes to the fares, TCL subcontracted operations to CentreWest Buses. One of the leading to its creation was that the London Borough of Croydon has no London Underground service.
There are four routes, Route 1 – Elmers End to Croydon, Route 2 – Beckenham Junction to Croydon, Route 3 – New Addington to Wimbledon, and Route 4 – Therapia Lane to Elmers End. Route 2 runs parallel to the Crystal Palace to Beckenham Junction line of the Southern network between Birkbeck and Beckenham Junction – the National Rail track had been singled some years earlier. At Woodside the old station buildings stand disused, and the platforms have been replaced by accessible low platforms. From Woodside to near Sandilands and from near Sandilands almost to Lloyd Park, Tramlink follows the former Woodside and South Croydon Railway, including the Park Hill tunnels. The section of Route 3 between Wimbledon and West Croydon mostly follows the single-track British Rail route, closed on 31 May 1997 so that it could be converted for Tramlink, a partial obstruction near this point has necessitated the use of interlaced track. A Victorian footbridge beside Waddon New Road was dismantled to make way for the flyover over the West Croydon to Sutton railway line, the footbridge has been re-erected at Corfe Castle station on the Swanage Railway.
In March 2008, TfL announced that it had reached agreement to buy TCL for £98m, the purchase was finalised on 28 June 2008. The background to this purchase relates to the requirement that TfL compensates TCL for the consequences of any changes to the fares, in 2007 that payment was £4m, with an annual increase in rate. In October 2008 TfL introduced a new livery, using the blue and green of the routes on TfL maps, the colour of the cars was changed to green, and the brand name was changed from Croydon Tramlink to simply Tramlink. These refurbishments were completed in early 2009, the tram stops have low platforms,35 cm above rail level. They are unstaffed and have automated ticket machines, in general, access between the platforms involves crossing the tracks by pedestrian level crossing. There are 39 stops, most being 32.2 m long and they are virtually level with the doors and are all wider than 2 m
Canonbury is a residential district in the London Borough of Islington in the north of London. It is roughly in the area between Essex Road, Upper Street and Cross Street and either side of St Pauls Road, in 1253 land in the area was granted to the Canons of St Bartholomew’s Priory and became known as Canonbury. The area continued predominantly as open land until it was developed as a suburb in the nineteenth century. In common with similar inner London areas, it suffered decline when the construction of railways in the 1860s enabled commuting into the city from further afield. The gentrification of the area from the 1950s included new developments to replace war-damaged properties in Canonbury Park North and South as well as restoration of older buildings, east Canonbury is the south-eastern corner of the district, bordering on the Regents Canal. Parts of this area were transferred to the district from the London Borough of Hackney in a boundary adjustment, in the east is the New River Estate, a 1,200 dwelling council estate, completed in 1976 on 26 acres, and designed by Darbourne & Darke.
George Orwell moved to 27b Canonbury Square in the autumn of 1944 - he and his wife having been bombed out of their previous flat, in Mortimer Crescent, Evelyn Waugh lived at 17a Canonbury Square from 1928 to 1930. Charles Dickens wrote a Christmas story about a lamplighter in Canonbury, leslie Forbes, the travel and detective story writer, and amateur historian Gavin Menzies both live in the area. Canonbury Tower - The manor house of Canonbury was constructed by William Bolton of St Bartholomew’s Priory between 1509 and 1532, at the dissolution it was granted to Thomas Cromwell. In the 1590s the manor house was rebuilt by Sir John Spencer, Lord Mayor of the City of London, the tower has been occupied by many historical figures, including Francis Bacon and Oliver Goldsmith. The Tower Theatre Company was based here from 1953 to 2003 and it is currently used as a Masonic research centre. Canonbury Square - An attractive square, developed between 1805 and 1830, it includes a variety of distinct styles, in 1812, when few properties had been built, the New North Road turnpike, now known as Canonbury Road, was constructed and bisects the square.
Many significant figures from the arts and literary worlds have lived on the square, including George Orwell, Evelyn Waugh, the Estorick Collection of Modern Italian Art is in Canonbury Square. New River Walk - The New River, a built by Sir Hugh Myddelton to supply fresh water to London, was completed in 1613. The walk is in two parts, with a break at Willowbridge, the southern section received an early National Lottery grant, and has a back-pumping scheme which simulates the water flow of the original aqueduct. Canonbury Grove - a road running parallel to part of New River Walk, arlington Square - Voted one of the UK’s best garden squares St Paul’s, at the junction of Essex Road and Balls Pond Road, was designed in 1826-28 by Charles Barry for the Church of England. Its parish was merged with St Jude and since 1997 the building has been used as a Steiner school, St Stephens Church, Church of England, is on Canonbury Road and was built in 1839. Greenpeace UK - offices based at Canonbury Villas and it focuses on the built environment and public transport, but takes a special interest in public services and open spaces
North London line
The North London line is a railway line of the London Overground, which passes through the inner suburbs of north London, England. Its route is a rough semicircle between the south-west and the north-east, avoiding central London, the line is owned and maintained by Network Rail and London Overground. It is an important freight route and is used by the Richmond to Stratford service of the London Overground, between Richmond and Gunnersbury, London Undergrounds District line shares tracks with London Overground services, although this part is owned and maintained by Network Rail. The line reopened on 1 June 2010 with a service and none on Sundays, and with the upgrade work completed. The construction of the Royal Victoria Dock necessitated a swing-bridge on the route south of Canning Town which was rerouted in 1850 via Custom House. The original route was retained as the Silvertown Tramway, a freight line connected at both ends to the new main line. The main central section opened from 1850 to 1852 as the East & West India Docks & Birmingham Junction Railway and this gave a link from the Euston main line near Primrose Hill to the docks at Poplar via Bow.
In the west, the North & South Western Junction Railway was opened in 1853 from Willesden Junction to a junction with the Hounslow Loop Line near Kew Bridge, the last link in the east was opened between the NLR near Victoria Park and Stratford in 1854. To obviate NLR trains running on the busy Euston main line, to give the NLR direct access to the City of London, the City extension to Broad Street was opened from Dalston Junction in 1865. The final part of the route was the opening of a link from South Acton to Richmond by the London & South Western Railway in 1869, the line from Broad Street to Kew Bridge and Richmond was electrified by the LNWR in 1916 on the 4th-rail DC system. In 1944, passenger services on the NLR Poplar branch ceased, freight traffic continued on the branch to the docks on the Isle of Dogs until 1980. The trackbed of the part of the branch, from Poplar to Bow, was used for the Docklands Light Railway branch to Stratford. The service was listed for closure in the 1963 Beeching Report and it was saved after a huge campaign.
The line was Grant Aided under the Transport Act 1968 and came under threat when the Conservative Government of 1970-71 proposed to reduce Grant Aid funding. That threat, eventually lifted, led to the founding of a new group, the North London Line Committee. In 1979, the North Woolwich to Stratford service was extended to Camden Road as the CrossTown LinkLine service, using the same Cravens-built diesel multiple unit trains. There were no stations until, in 1980, Hackney Wick was opened, near the site of the former Victoria Park station and Hackney Central was re-opened. New platforms were built at West Ham for interchange with the adjacent Underground station, in the 1980s, Broad Street station closed and the Tottenham Hale–Stratford link and the station at Lea Bridge ceased to be used by regular passenger trains