Canopus is the brightest star in the southern constellation of Carina, is located near the trailing edge of the constellation around 310 light years from the Sun. Its proper name is considered to originate from the mythological Canopus, a navigator for Menelaus, king of Sparta; the star has the Bayer designation α Carinae, Latinised to Alpha Carinae and abbreviated Alpha Car or α Car. Canopus is the second-brightest star in the night sky, after Sirius. Canopus' visual magnitude is −0.74, it has an absolute magnitude of −5.71. This is an aging bright giant of spectral type A9 or F0, so it is white when seen with the naked eye; the star is undergoing core helium burning and is in the so-called blue loop phase of its evolution, having passed through the red giant branch after exhausting the hydrogen at its core. It has expanded to 71 times the Sun's radius; the star is radiating over 10,000 times the luminosity of the Sun from its enlarged photosphere at an effective temperature of around 7,000 K.
It is an X-ray source, being emitted from its corona. The prominent appearance of this star means it has been the subject of mythological lore among many ancient peoples; the acronychal rising marked the date of the Ptolemaia festival in Egypt. In Hinduism, it was named Agastya after the revered Vedic sage. For Chinese astronomers, it was known as the Old Man of the South Pole. In the southern hemisphere and Sirius are both visible high in the sky and reach the meridian just 21 minutes apart. Brighter than first magnitude, Canopus can be seen by naked eye in the early twilight. Most visible in the Southern Hemisphere summer, Canopus culminates at midnight on December 27, at 9 PM on February 11, it is a circumpolar star when seen from points with latitude south of 37°18' S. Since Canopus is so far south in the sky, it never rises in mid- to far-northern latitudes; this is just south of Athens and San Francisco, close to Seville and Agrigento. It is exactly the latitude of Lick Observatory on Mt. Hamilton, from which it is visible because of the effects of elevation and atmospheric refraction, which add another degree to its apparent altitude.
Under ideal conditions it has been spotted as far north as latitude 37°31' from the Pacific coast. Another northernmost record of visibility came from Mount Nemrut in Turkey, latitude 37°59', it is more visible in places such as the Gulf Coast and Florida, the island of Crete where the best season for viewing it around 9 p.m. is during late January and early February. Canopus has a B–V color index of +0.15 where 0 is a blue-white, indicating it is white, although has been described as yellow-white. Its spectral type has been recorded as F0 and more A9, it has less yellow than Altair or Procyon, whose color indices have been measured at 0.22 and 0.42, respectively. It may be that some observers have perceived it as yellow-tinged because it is low in the sky and hence subject to atmospheric effects. Patrick Moore argued that it white to him. Before the launch of the Hipparcos satellite telescope, distance estimates for Canopus varied from 96 light-years to 1200 light-years. Had the latter distance been correct, Canopus would have been one of the most luminous stars in the Milky Way galaxy.
Hipparcos established Canopus as being 310 light-years from the Solar System. Canopus has an MK spectral type of A9 II, although it has been classified as F0Ib on account of its high luminosity, or F0II, its position in the H-R diagram indicates that it is a massive giant star in the core-helium burning phase. This is an intermediate mass star that has left the red giant branch and has entered the blue loop with a increased effective temperature, measured to be 6,998 K. Long baseline interferometry has been used to calculate its angular diameter at 6.9 mas. Combined with distance calculated by Hipparcos, this gives it a radius of 71 times that of the Sun. If it were at the centre of the Solar System, it would extend 90% of the way to the orbit of Mercury, it is over ten thousand times more luminous than the Sun. Canopus is a source of X-rays, which are produced by its corona, magnetically heated to several million K; the temperature has been stimulated by fast rotation combined with strong convection percolating through the star's outer layers.
No star closer than Canopus is more luminous than it, it has been the brightest star in Earth's night sky during three epochs over the past four million years. Other stars appear brighter only during temporary periods, during which they are passing the Solar System much closer than Canopus. About 90,000 years ago, Sirius moved close enough that it became brighter than Canopus, that will remain so for another 210,000 years, but in 480,000 years, Canopus will once again be the brightest, will remain so for a period of about 510,000 years. Canopus was proposed to be a member of the Scorpius-Centaurus Association, however it is not located near the subgroups of that association, has not been included as a Sco-Cen member in kinematic studies that used Hipparcos astrometric data. At present, Canopus is not thought to be a member of any nearby young stellar groups. In 2014, astronomer Eric Mamajek reported
Canopus known as Canobus, was an Ancient Egyptian coastal town, located in the Nile Delta. Its site is in the eastern outskirts of modern-day Alexandria, around 25 kilometers from the center of that city. Canopus was located on the western bank at the mouth of the westernmost branch of the Delta – known as the Canopic or Heracleotic branch, it belonged to the seventh Egyptian Nome, known as Menelaites, as Canopites, after it. It was the principal port in Egypt for Greek trade before the foundation of Alexandria, along with Naucratis and Heracleion, its ruins lie near the present Egyptian town of Abu Qir. The settlement's Egyptian name was Pikuat; the Greeks called it Canopus after a legendary commander of the era of the Trojan War buried there. The English form of the name derives from the Latinized form used under Roman rule. Canopus was the site of a temple to the Egyptian god Serapis; the name of Canopus appears in the first half of the 6th century BC in a poem by Solon. Early Egyptological excavations some 2 or 3 km from the area known today as Abu Qir have revealed extensive traces of the city with its quays, granite monuments with the name of Ramesses II, but they may have been brought in for the adornment of the place at a date.
The exact date of the foundation of Canopus is unknown, but Herodotus refers to it as an ancient port. Homeric myth claims that it was founded by Menelaus, named after Canopus, the pilot of his ship, who died there after being bitten by a serpent. Legend describes how Menelaus built a monument to his memory on the shore, around which the town grew up; the real origin of the name Canopus is said to be Ancient Egyptian Kah Nub, referring to the profits made by merchants trading through the port. There is unlikely to be any connection with "canopy". A temple to Osiris was built by king Ptolemy III Euergetes, but according to Herodotus near to Canopus was an older shrine, a temple of Heracles that served as an asylum for fugitive slaves. Osiris was worshipped at Canopus under a peculiar form: that of a vase with a human head. Through an old misunderstanding, the name "canopic jars" was applied by early Egyptologists to the vases with human and animal heads in which the internal organs were placed by the Egyptians after embalming.
In Ptolemy III Euergetes' ninth regnal year, a great assembly of priests at Canopus passed an honorific decree that, inter alia, conferred various new titles on the king and his consort, Berenice. Three examples of this decree are now known, inscribed in Egyptian and in classical Greek, they were second only to the more famous Rosetta Stone in providing the key to deciphering the ancient Egyptian language; this was the earliest of the series of bilingual inscriptions of the "Rosetta Stone Series" known as the Ptolemaic Decrees. There are three such Decrees altogether; the town had a large trade in henna. In Roman times, the town was notorious for its dissoluteness. Juvenal's Satire VI referred to the "debauchery"; the emperor Hadrian built a villa at Tivoli, 18 miles away from Rome, where he replicated for his enjoyment architectural patterns from all parts of the Roman Empire. One of these was borrowed from Canopus; the Egyptian town of Abu Qir, honoring two Christian martyrs, is located a few miles away from the ruins of Canopus.
It is a town, at the end of a little peninsula north-east of Alexandria. It has a trade in quails. Off Aboukir on 1 August 1798, the French Mediterranean fleet was destroyed within the roads by British Admiral Horatio Nelson on 25 July 1799. Napoleon Bonaparte destroyed there a Turkish army 18,000 strong. Egypt had many martyrs in the persecution of Diocletian, among others St. Athanasia with her three daughters, St. Cyrus and John. There was here a monastery called Metanoia, founded by monks from Tabennisi, where many a patriarch of Alexandria took shelter during the religious quarrels of the 5th century. Two miles east of Canopus was the famous Pharaonic temple of Manouthin, afterwards destroyed by monks, a church on the same spot dedicated to the Four Evangelists. St. Cyril of Alexandria solemnly transported the relics of the holy martyrs Cyrus and John into the church, which became an important place of pilgrimage, it was here that St. Sophronius of Jerusalem was healed of an ophthalmy, declared incurable by the physicians, whereupon he wrote the panegyric of the two saints with a compilation of seventy miracles worked in their sanctuary Canopus formed, with Menelaus and Schedia, a suffragan see subject to Alexandria in the Roman province of Aegyptus Prima.
Two titulars are mentioned by Lequien, one in 325, the other in 362. Over time the land around Canopus was weakened by a combination of earthquakes and rising sea levels. Finds of pottery and coins appear to stop at the end of the 2nd century BC. At this point after a severe flood, the eastern suburbs succumbed to liquefaction of the soil on which it was built; the hard clay turned into a liquid and the buildings collapsed. The western suburbs became the present day Egyptian coastal city of Abu Qir. In 1933 ruins were sighted under the water by an RAF commander, flying over Abu Qir Bay. Egyptian scholar Prince Omar Toussoun subsequently undertook
USS Canopus (AS-34)
USS Canopus was a Simon Lake-class submarine tender of the United States Navy, operational from 1965 to 1994. Canopus's keel was laid on 2 March 1964 and she was launched on 12 February 1965, at Ingalls Shipbuilding Corporation in Pascagoula, Mississippi. Canopus was completed and delivered to the Navy in record breaking time on 25 October 1965. Canopus joined Submarine Squadron 18 at Charleston and was commissioned on 4 November 1965. After a short outfitting period, Canopus sailed for the Caribbean on 7 January 1966. Canopus visited Guantánamo Bay, for shakedown training, she returned to Charleston Naval Shipyard on 24 February for the usual post-shakedown work. In mid-April 1966, Canopus completed her acceptance trials and upon final loading and outfitting deployed to the Cooper River FBM Replenishment Site on 24 June. Canopus started refitting submarines of Squadron 18. On 24 September 1966, Canopus deployed from Charleston, South Carolina, arriving in Rota, Spain, on 10 October. Canopus reported to the Commander of Submarine Squadron 16 for duty.
While at Rota, Canopus accomplished more Polaris refits than any other submarine tender in a comparable amount of time. On 20 April 1969, Canopus was relieved by Holland and sailed for Bremerton, via the Panama Canal. In Bremerton, Canopus was extensively overhauled and thereby gained the title of the first submarine tender in the United States Navy capable of refitting and maintaining a submarine with the Poseidon Missile System. After completion of this overhaul, Canopus sailed for Holy Loch, via the Panama Canal. In May 1970, she relieved the Simon Lake at Holy Loch, she reported to the Commander of Submarine Squadron 14. On 29 November 1970, a fire broke out in the CPO baggage room, injuring ten; the fatalities were two prisoners, the guard who had freed them from the brig. Canopus remained in Holy Loch until November 1975. During this time, Canopus was instrumental in establishing several new maintenance concepts while completing, on schedule, every submarine refit during the 67 months at Holy Loch.
During the last year at Holy Loch, Canopus received numerous awards including the Ney Award for the best large mess afloat, the second consecutive Battle Efficiency "E", the CINCLANTFLT Golden Anchor Award for personnel retention, the Navy Unit Commendation for her role in the first FBM Submarine Extended Refit Period. In 1976, Canopus underwent an extensive refit at Charleston Naval Shipyard and returned to Guantanamo Bay, for refresher training. Canopus returned to Rota, Spain, in December 1976; as a result of the shipyard overhaul in Charleston, Canopus brought new and improved capabilities to Rota for the support of Submarine Squadron 16. In June 1979, Canopus relieved Simon Lake at South Carolina. Canopus now reported to the Commander of Squadron 18. In January 1980, Canopus went 200 miles off the coast to conduct drills. In March 1980, Canopus made a liberty cruise to Cape Canaveral, Florida. In 1984 after being relieved by Holland, Canopus underwent an overhaul at Charleston Naval Shipyard - which lasted until 1985.
Refresher training and shake-down was conducted out of Cuba. After a short stay at Charleston, Canopus sailed in July 1985 to Naval Submarine Base Kings Bay, where she relieved Simon Lake - assuming upkeep and refit duties for the SSBNs of Subron 16. Canopus was located at Kings Bay during the early 1990s. During a ceremony held at the Warrior Wharf there on Friday, 7 October 1994, Canopus' 29 years of service was celebrated. Plans to scrap the vessel in the United Kingdom ran into controversy in view of the risks posed by toxic chemicals and asbestos. In 2010, scrapping of the Canopus was completed at Able UK. Photo gallery of USS Canopus at NavSource Naval History USS Canopus Association website Canopus ship photos website
Canopus Lake is a small lake within Clarence Fahnestock State Park in northern Putnam County, New York, United States. The lake is 1/4 mile wide at its widest point. To its east is Pelton Pond; the lake is on NY 301 just west of the Taconic State Parkway. The beach at the lake is called the "jewel of the park" and is used for swimming and fishing. In the winter, some cross-country skiers use the flat surface as a trail; the Appalachian Trail parallels the west side of the lake
A flying boat is a fixed-winged seaplane with a hull, allowing it to land on water, that has no type of landing gear to allow operation on land. It differs from a floatplane as it uses a purpose-designed fuselage which can float, granting the aircraft buoyancy. Flying boats may be stabilized by wing-like projections from the fuselage. Flying boats were some of the largest aircraft of the first half of the 20th century, exceeded in size only by bombers developed during World War II, their advantage lay in using water instead of expensive land-based runways, making them the basis for international airlines in the interwar period. They were commonly used for maritime patrol and air-sea rescue, their use trailed off after World War II because of the investments in airports during the war. In the 21st century, flying boats maintain a few niche uses, such as dropping water on forest fires, air transport around archipelagos, access to undeveloped areas. Many modern seaplane variants, whether float or flying boat types, are convertible amphibious aircraft where either landing gear or flotation modes may be used to land and take off.
The Frenchman Alphonse Pénaud filed the first patent for a flying machine with a boat hull and retractable landing gear in 1876, but Austrian Wilhelm Kress is credited with building the first seaplane Drachenflieger in 1898, although its two 30 hp Daimler engines were inadequate for take-off and it sank when one of its two floats collapsed. On 6 June 1905 Gabriel Voisin took off and landed on the River Seine with a towed kite glider on floats; the first of his unpowered flights was 150 yards. He built a powered floatplane in partnership with Louis Blériot, but the machine was unsuccessful. Other pioneers attempted to attach floats to aircraft in Britain, Australia and the USA. On 28 March 1910 Frenchman Henri Fabre flew the first successful powered seaplane, the Gnome Omega-powered hydravion, a trimaran floatplane. Fabre's first successful take off and landing by a powered seaplane inspired other aviators and he designed floats for several other flyers; the first hydro-aeroplane competition was held in Monaco in March 1912, featuring aircraft using floats from Fabre, Curtiss and Farman.
This led to the first scheduled seaplane passenger services at Aix-les-Bains, using a five-seat Sanchez-Besa from 1 August 1912. The French Navy ordered its first floatplane in 1912. In 1911–12 François Denhaut constructed the first seaplane with a fuselage forming a hull, using various designs to give hydrodynamic lift at take-off, its first successful flight was on 13 April 1912. Throughout 1910 and 1911 American pioneering aviator Glenn Curtiss developed his floatplane into the successful Curtiss Model D land-plane, which used a larger central float and sponsons. Combining floats with wheels, he made the first amphibian flights in February 1911 and was awarded the first Collier Trophy for US flight achievement. From 1912 his experiments with a hulled seaplane resulted in the 1913 Model E and Model F, which he called "flying-boats". In February 1911 the United States Navy took delivery of the Curtiss Model E, soon tested landings on and take-offs from ships using the Curtiss Model D. In Britain, Captain Edward Wakefield and Oscar Gnosspelius began to explore the feasibility of flight from water in 1908.
They decided to make use of Windermere in England's largest lake. The latter's first attempts to fly attracted large crowds, though the aircraft failed to take off and required a re-design of the floats incorporating features of Borwick’s successful speed-boat hulls. Meanwhile, Wakefield ordered a floatplane similar to the design of the 1910 Fabre Hydravion. By November 1911, both Gnosspelius and Wakefield had aircraft capable of flight from water and awaited suitable weather conditions. Gnosspelius's flight was short-lived. Wakefield’s pilot however, taking advantage of a light northerly wind took off and flew at a height of 50 feet to Ferry Nab, where he made a wide turn and returned for a perfect landing on the lake’s surface. In Switzerland, Emile Taddéoli equipped the Dufaux 4 biplane with swimmers and took off in 1912. A seaplane was used during the Balkan Wars in 1913, when a Greek "Astra Hydravion" did a reconnaissance of the Turkish fleet and dropped 4 bombs. In 1913, the Daily Mail newspaper put up a £10,000 prize for the first non-stop aerial crossing of the Atlantic, soon "enhanced by a further sum" from the Women's Aerial League of Great Britain.
American businessman Rodman Wanamaker became determined that the prize should go to an American aircraft and commissioned the Curtiss Aeroplane and Motor Company to design and build an aircraft capable of making the flight. Curtiss' development of the Flying Fish flying boat in 1913 brought him into contact with John Cyril Porte, a retired Royal Navy Lieutenant, aircraft designer and test pilot, to become an influential British aviation pioneer. Recognising that many of the early accidents were attributable to a poor understanding of handling while in contact with the water, the pair's efforts went into developing practical hull designs to make the transatlantic crossing possible. At the same time the British boat building firm J. Samuel White of Cowes on the Isle of Wight set up a new aircraft division and produced a flying boat in the United Kingdom; this was displayed at the London Air Show at Olympia in 1913. In that same year, a collaboration between the S. E. Saunders boatyard of East Cowes and the Sopwith Aviation Company produced the "Bat Boat", an aircraft with a consuta laminated hull that could operate from land or on water, which today we call an amphibious aircraft.
The "Bat Boat" completed s
Canopus in Argos
Canopus in Argos: Archives is a sequence of five science fiction novels by Nobel Prize in Literature-winning author Doris Lessing which portray a number of societies at different stages of development, over a great period of time. The focus is on accelerated evolution being aided by advanced species for less advanced species and societies; the novels do not relate a continuous storyline. Each book covers unrelated events, with the exception of Shikasta and The Sirian Experiments, which tell the story of accelerated evolution on Earth through the eyes of Canopeans and Sirians respectively. Shikasta – A secret history of Earth from the perspective of the advanced Canopus civilisation, thinking in eons rather than centuries; the history spans from the beginning of life into a future World War Three. It includes the trial of all Europeans for the crimes of colonialism; the Marriages Between Zones Three and Five – Depicts the influence of unknown higher powers on interactions between a series of civilizational "zones" of varying degrees of advancement that encircle the planet Earth.
One zone is representative of an overtly feminine high civilisation coupled by royal marriage to a militant and male civilisation. The novel culminates with the latter, civilisation allying with a tribal female realm again following directives from Canopus; the Sirian Experiments – Focuses, like Shikasta, on the history of Earth, but from the perspective of visitors from Sirius rather than Canopus. The Sirians are depicted as a managed society, with fascist overtones, that attempts experiments on lesser civilisations while trying to mitigate the stagnation of their ruling class; the story is told from the perspective of one of a peer group of five who rule Sirius. The Making of the Representative for Planet 8 – The story of the civilisation on a planet that, because of interstellar "re-alignments", is facing extinction, Canopus's relationship with them; the story is influenced by Robert Falcon Scott's Antarctic expedition, is Lessing's homage to it. The Sentimental Agents in the Volyen Empire – A story of Canopean agents on a less advanced planet.
The five books have appeared compiled in a single volume entitled Canopus in Argos: Archives. When Lessing began writing Shikasta she intended it to be a "single self-contained book", but as her fictional universe developed, she found she had ideas for more than just one book, ended up writing a series of five. The Canopus in Argos series as a whole falls into categories of social or soft science fiction because of its focus on characterisation and social-cultural issues, its lack of emphasis of the details of scientific technology; this set of writings represented a major shift of focus for Lessing, influenced by spiritual and mystical themes in Sufism, in particular by Idries Shah. She wrote several essays on Sufism which were published in her essay collection, Time Bites; the Canopus in Argos was not well received by some reviewers and readers, who felt that Lessing had abandoned her "rational worldview". This prompted her to write in the Preface to the third book, The Sirian Experiments: I would so like it if reviewers and readers could see this series, Canopus in Argos: Archive, as a framework that enables me to tell a beguiling tale or two.
Lessing discovered that many younger people who had read the Canopus series were not interested in her other works. They told her, "Oh, realism, I can't be bothered with that." The Making of the Representative for Planet 8 and The Marriages Between Zones Three and Five were adapted for the opera by composer Philip Glass with librettos written by Lessing. The Making of the Representative for Planet 8 The Marriages Between Zones Three and Five Dixson, Barbara. "Structural Complexity in Doris Lessing's Canopus Novels". Journal of the Fantastic in the Arts. Orlando, Florida: International Association for the Fantastic in the Arts. 2: 14–22. JSTOR 43308052.. Fahim, Shadia S.. Doris Lessing: Sufi Equilibrium and the Form of the Novel. Basingstoke, UK/New York, NY: Palgrave Macmillan/St. Martins Press. ISBN 0-312-10293-3. Galin, Müge. Between East and West: Sufism in the Novels of Doris Lessing. Albany, NY: State University of New York Press. ISBN 0-7914-3383-8. Canopus in Argos: Archives Doris Lessing homepage
Canopus 2 was a single stage, sub-orbital sounding rocket, built by Argentina. There were a total of three launches with no failures; the launch apogee was 150 kilometres in altitude. The vehicle had launch mass of 300 kilograms, it was capable of lifting a 50 kg payload to an altitude of 100 km, on some flights had an apogee of 150 kilometres. Canopus was used as the first stage of the Rigel sounding rocket between 1969 and 1973. "NTI: Country Overviews: Argentina: Missile Chronology". Nuclear Threat Initiative. June 2003. Archived from the original on February 19, 2006. Retrieved 2006-12-06. Canopus - Gunter's Space Page