A dome is an architectural element that resembles the hollow upper half of a sphere. The precise definition has been a matter of controversy, there are a wide variety of forms and specialized terms to describe them. A dome can rest upon a rotunda or drum, and can be supported by columns or piers that transition to the dome through squinches or pendentives, a lantern may cover an oculus and may itself have another dome. Domes have a long architectural lineage that extends back into prehistory and they have been constructed from mud, stone, brick, metal and plastic over the centuries. The symbolism associated with domes includes mortuary and governmental traditions that have developed over time. Domes have been found from early Mesopotamia, which may explain the forms spread and they are found in Persian, Hellenistic and Chinese architecture in the Ancient world, as well as among a number of contemporary indigenous building traditions. They were popular in Byzantine and medieval Islamic architecture, and there are examples from Western Europe in the Middle Ages.
The Renaissance style spread from Italy in the Early modern period, advancements in mathematics and production techniques since that time resulted in new dome types. The domes of the world can be found over religious buildings, legislative chambers, sports stadiums. The English word dome ultimately derives from the Latin domus —which, up through the Renaissance, labeled a revered house, such as a Domus Dei, or House of God, the French word dosme came to acquire the meaning of a cupola vault, specifically, by 1660. A dome is a rounded vault made of either curved segments or a shell of revolution, sometimes called false domes, corbel domes achieve their shape by extending each horizontal layer of stones inward slightly farther than the lower one until they meet at the top. A false dome may refer to a wooden dome, true domes are said to be those whose structure is in a state of compression, with constituent elements of wedge-shaped voussoirs, the joints of which align with a central point. The validity of this is unclear, as domes built underground with corbelled stone layers are in compression from the surrounding earth, as with arches, the springing of a dome is the level from which the dome rises.
The top of a dome is the crown, the inner side of a dome is called the intrados and the outer side is called the extrados. The haunch is the part of an arch that lies halfway between the base and the top. The word cupola is another word for dome, and is used for a small dome upon a roof or turret. Cupola has used to describe the inner side of a dome. Drums, called tholobates, are cylindrical or polygonal walls with or without windows that support a dome, a tambour or lantern is the equivalent structure over a domes oculus, supporting a cupola
Ancient Greek includes the forms of Greek used in ancient Greece and the ancient world from around the 9th century BC to the 6th century AD. It is often divided into the Archaic period, Classical period. It is antedated in the second millennium BC by Mycenaean Greek, the language of the Hellenistic phase is known as Koine. Koine is regarded as a historical stage of its own, although in its earliest form it closely resembled Attic Greek. Prior to the Koine period, Greek of the classic and earlier periods included several regional dialects, Ancient Greek was the language of Homer and of fifth-century Athenian historians and philosophers. It has contributed many words to English vocabulary and has been a subject of study in educational institutions of the Western world since the Renaissance. This article primarily contains information about the Epic and Classical phases of the language, Ancient Greek was a pluricentric language, divided into many dialects. The main dialect groups are Attic and Ionic, Arcadocypriot, some dialects are found in standardized literary forms used in literature, while others are attested only in inscriptions.
There are several historical forms, homeric Greek is a literary form of Archaic Greek used in the epic poems, the Iliad and Odyssey, and in poems by other authors. Homeric Greek had significant differences in grammar and pronunciation from Classical Attic, the origins, early form and development of the Hellenic language family are not well understood because of a lack of contemporaneous evidence. Several theories exist about what Hellenic dialect groups may have existed between the divergence of early Greek-like speech from the common Proto-Indo-European language and the Classical period and they have the same general outline, but differ in some of the detail. The invasion would not be Dorian unless the invaders had some relationship to the historical Dorians. The invasion is known to have displaced population to the Attic-Ionic regions, the Greeks of this period believed there were three major divisions of all Greek people—Dorians and Ionians, each with their own defining and distinctive dialects.
Often non-west is called East Greek, Arcadocypriot apparently descended more closely from the Mycenaean Greek of the Bronze Age. Boeotian had come under a strong Northwest Greek influence, and can in some respects be considered a transitional dialect, thessalian likewise had come under Northwest Greek influence, though to a lesser degree. Most of the dialect sub-groups listed above had further subdivisions, generally equivalent to a city-state and its surrounding territory, Doric notably had several intermediate divisions as well, into Island Doric, Southern Peloponnesus Doric, and Northern Peloponnesus Doric. The Lesbian dialect was Aeolic Greek and this dialect slowly replaced most of the older dialects, although Doric dialect has survived in the Tsakonian language, which is spoken in the region of modern Sparta. Doric has passed down its aorist terminations into most verbs of Demotic Greek, by about the 6th century AD, the Koine had slowly metamorphosized into Medieval Greek
Pop up canopy
A pop-up canopy is a shelter that collapses down to a size that is portable. Typically, canopies of this come in sizes from five feet by five feet to ten feet by twenty feet. Larger or semi-permanent canopies are known as marquees, most pop-up canopies come in two pieces, the canopy frame and the canopy top. The canopy frame is constructed of steel or aluminium. Steel framed canopies are heavier and typically cost less than aluminium frames, stainless steel has been used because it is lighter than steel and stronger than aluminium. Tops for most canopies are made from a polyester fabric, most pop-up canopies are open-sided and without walls, distinguishing them from larger marquees or semi-permanent shelters. Pop up canopies have become popular for sporting events, festivals. They are known as pit tents when used in the context of amateur or semi-professional motorsport, some commercial canopy companies are even beginning to silk screen and digitally print on the custom canopy tops to promote the company using them.
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Canopus, known as Canobus, was an Ancient Egyptian coastal town, located in the Nile Delta. Its site is in the outskirts of modern-day Alexandria, around 25 kilometers from the center of that city. Canopus was located on the bank at the mouth of the westernmost branch of the Delta – known as the Canopic or Heracleotic branch. It belonged to the seventh Egyptian Nome, known as Menelaites and it was the principal port in Egypt for Greek trade before the foundation of Alexandria, along with Naucratis and Heracleion. Its ruins lie near the present Egyptian village of Abu Qir, the settlements Egyptian name was Peguat or Pikuat. The Greeks called it Canopus after a commander of the era of the Trojan War supposedly buried there. The English form of the name derives from the Latinized form used under Roman rule, Canopus was the site of a temple to the Egyptian god Serapis. The name of Canopus appears in the ﬁrst half of the 6th century BC in a poem by Solon, the exact date of the foundation of Canopus is unknown, but Herodotus refers to it as an ancient port.
Homeric myth claims that it was founded by Menelaus, and named after Canopus, the pilot of his ship, legend describes how Menelaus built a monument to his memory on the shore, around which the town grew up. The real origin of the name Canopus is said to be Ancient Egyptian Kah Nub, there is unlikely to be any connection with canopy. A temple to Osiris was built by Pharaoh Ptolemy The Good, according to Herodotus, very near to Canopus was an older shrine, Osiris was worshipped at Canopus under a peculiar form, that of a vase with a human head. In Ptolemy III Euergetes ninth regnal year, an assembly of priests at Canopus passed an honorific decree that, inter alia, conferred various new titles on the king and his consort. This was the earliest of the series of inscriptions of the Rosetta Stone Series. There are three such Decrees altogether, the town had a large trade in henna. In Roman times, the town was notorious for its dissoluteness, juvenals Satire VI referred to the debauchery that prevailed there.
The emperor Hadrian built a villa at Tivoli,18 miles away from Rome, one of these was borrowed from Canopus. The Egyptian city of Abu Qir, honoring two Christian martyrs, is located a few miles away from the ruins of Canopus and it is a village, at the end of a little peninsula north-east of Alexandria. It has a trade in quails, which are caught in nets hung along the shore, off Aboukir on 1 August 1798, the French Mediterranean fleet was destroyed within the roads by British Admiral Horatio Nelson on 25 July 1799
Mosquitoes are small, midge-like flies that constitute the family Culicidae. Females of most species are ectoparasites, whose tube-like mouthparts pierce the skin to consume blood. The word mosquito is Spanish for little fly, thousands of species feed on the blood of various kinds of hosts, mainly vertebrates, including mammals, reptiles and even some kinds of fish. Some mosquitoes attack invertebrates, mainly other arthropods, though the loss of blood is seldom of any importance to the victim, the saliva of the mosquito often causes an irritating rash that is a serious nuisance. Much more serious though, are the roles of species of mosquitoes as vectors of diseases. The oldest known mosquito with a similar to modern species was found in 79-million-year-old Canadian amber from the Cretaceous. An older sister species with more primitive features was found in Burmese amber that is 90 to 100 million years old, two mosquito fossils have been found that show very little morphological change in modern mosquitoes against their counterpart from 46 million years ago.
These fossils are the oldest ever found to have blood preserved within their abdomens, the Old and New World Anopheles species are believed to have subsequently diverged about 95 million years ago. The mosquito Anopheles gambiae is currently undergoing speciation into the M and S molecular forms, some pesticides that work on the M form no longer work on the S form. Over 3,500 species of the Culicidae have already been described and they are generally divided into two subfamilies which in turn comprise some 43 genera. These figures are subject to change, as more species are discovered. The two main subfamilies are the Anophelinae and Culicinae, with their genera as shown in the subsection below, the distinction is of great practical importance because the two subfamilies tend to differ in their significance as vectors of different classes of diseases. Roughly speaking, arboviral diseases such as fever and dengue fever tend to be transmitted by Culicine species. Some transmit various species of malaria, but it is not clear that they ever transmit any form of human malaria.
Some species do however transmit various forms of filariasis, much as many Simuliidae do, Anopheline mosquitoes, again not necessarily in the genus Anopheles, sometimes bear pathogenic arboviruses, but it is not yet clear that they ever transmit them as effective vectors. However, all the most important vectors of malaria are Anopheline. Anophelinae Culicinae Mosquitoes are members of a family of nematocerid flies, mosquitoes resemble crane flies and chironomid flies. In particular, the females of species of mosquitoes are blood-eating pests and dangerous vectors of diseases
A floor is the bottom surface of a room or vehicle. Floors vary from simple dirt in a cave to many-layered surfaces modern technology, Floors may be stone, bamboo, metal or any other material that can support the expected load. The levels of a building are referred to as floors. Floors typically consist of a subfloor for support and a floor covering used to give a good walking surface, in modern buildings the subfloor often has electrical wiring and other services built in. As floors must meet needs, some essential to safety. Where a special floor structure like a floor is laid upon another floor both may be referred to as subfloors. Flooring is the term for a permanent covering of a floor, or for the work of installing such a floor covering. Both terms are used interchangeably but floor covering refers more to loose-laid materials, materials almost always classified as floor covering include carpet, area rugs, and resilient flooring such as linoleum or vinyl flooring. Materials commonly called flooring include wood flooring, laminated wood, ceramic tile, terrazzo, the choice of material for floor covering is affected by factors such as cost, noise insulation and cleaning effort.
Some types of flooring must not be installed below grade, examples include Floor medallions which provide a decorative centerpiece of a floor design, or Gratings used to drain water or to rub dirt off shoes. Floors may be built on beams or joists or use structures like prefabricated hollow core slabs, the subfloor builds on those and attaches by various means particular to the support structure but the support and subfloor together always provides the strength of a floor one can sense underfoot. These are manufactured in 2 ft ×2 ft squares and the edges fit together like a mortise, three layers are common only in high end highest quality construction. Wood clad and tile covered finished floors generally will require a higher quality subfloor. A ground-level floor can be a floor made of soil. Ground-level slab floors are prepared for pouring by grading the site, once the site has reached a suitable firm inorganic base material that is graded further so that it is flat and level, and topped by spreading a layer-cake of force dispersing sand and gravel.
Above the targeted bottom height a separate grid of rebar or welded wire mesh is usually added to reinforce the concrete, the under slab cast girders are used especially if it the slab be used structurally, i. e. to support part of the building. Floors in woodframe homes are constructed with joists centered no more than 16 inches apart. Heavy floors, such as made of stone, require more closely spaced joists
A chuppah, chipe, chupah, or chuppa, is a canopy under which a Jewish couple stand during their wedding ceremony. It consists of a cloth or sheet, sometimes a tallit, stretched or supported over four poles, a chuppah symbolizes the home that the couple will build together. In a more general sense, chupah refers to the method by which nesuin, according to some opinions, it is accomplished by the couple standing under the canopy, there are other views. A traditional chuppah, especially within Orthodox Judaism, recommends that there be open sky exactly above the chuppah, if the wedding ceremony is held indoors in a hall, sometimes a special opening is built to be opened during the ceremony. Many Hasidim prefer to conduct the entire ceremony outdoors and it is said that the couples ancestors are present at the chuppah ceremony. This room was decorated with large hanging sheets of colored, patterned cloth, replete with wall cushions. Their marriage is consummated when they have left together alone in this room.
For we recite in the Jerusalem Talmud, Sotah 46a, Those bridal chambers, they hang within them patterned sheets and gold-embroidered ribbons, the word chuppah appears in the Hebrew Bible. There were for centuries regional differences in what constituted a huppah, Solomon Freehof finds that the wedding canopy was unknown before the 16th century. Alfred J. Kolatch notes that it was during the Middle Ages that the chupa. in use today became customary, daniel Sperber notes that for many communities prior to the 16th Century, the huppah consisted of a veil worn by the bride. In others, it was a spread over the shoulders of the bride. Numerous illustrations of Jewish weddings in medieval Europe, North Africa, moses Isserles notes that the portable marriage canopy was widely adopted by Ashkenazi Jews in the generation before he composed his commentary to the Shulchan Aruch. In Biblical times, a couple consummated their marriage in a room or tent, in Talmudic times, the room where the marriage was consummated was called the chuppah.
Jewish weddings consist of two parts, the betrothal ceremony, known as erusin or kiddushin, and the actual wedding ceremony. The first ceremony prohibits the bride to all men and cannot be dissolved without a religious divorce. The second ceremony permits the bride to her husband, the two ceremonies usually took place separately. After the ceremony the bride and groom would spend an hour together in a room, and the bride would enter the chuppah and, after gaining her permission. In the Middle Ages these two stages were combined into a single ceremony and the chuppah lost its original meaning
A gazebo is a pavilion structure, sometimes octagonal or turret-shaped, often built in a park, garden or spacious public area. Gazebos are freestanding or attached to a wall, roofed. They provide shade, ornamental features in a landscape, some gazebos in public parks are large enough to serve as bandstands or rain shelters. Gazebos include pavilions, alhambras, follies, such structures are popular in warm and sunny climates. They feature in the literature of China and many other classical civilizations, examples of such structures are the garden houses at Montacute House in Somerset, England. The gazebo at Elton on the Hill in Nottinghamshire, thought to date from the late 18th or early 19th century, is a square crenelated, brick and it is part of an extensive system of red-brick walled gardens. In contemporary England and North America, gazebos are typically built of wood and covered with roofing materials. Gazebos can be tent-style structures of poles covered by tensioned fabric, gazebos may have screens to aid in the exclusion of flying insects.
Temporary gazebos are often set up in the campsites of music festivals in the United Kingdom and North America, the etymology given by Oxford Dictionaries is Mid 18th century, perhaps humorously from gaze, in imitation of Latin future tenses ending in -ebo, compare with lavabo. L. L. Bacon put forward a derivation from Casbah, W. Sayers proposed Hispano-Arabic qushaybah, in a poem by Cordoban poet Ibn Quzman. The word gazebo was used by British architects John and William Halfpenny in their book Rural Architecture in the Chinese Taste, george Washington had a small eight-sided garden structure at Mount Vernon. Thomas Jefferson wrote about gazebos, called summerhouses or pavilions, although it is often referred to as a gazebo, the iconic structure from the 1965 film The Sound of Music is a greenhouse. Eric and the Dread Gazebo Bandstand Spring House Gazebo Chickee Chinese pavilion
A roof is part of a building envelope. It is the covering on the uppermost part of a building or shelter which provides protection from animals and weather, notably rain or snow, the word denotes the framing or structure which supports that covering. In most countries a roof protects primarily against rain, a verandah may be roofed with material that protects against sunlight but admits the other elements. The roof of a garden conservatory protects plants from cold and rain, a roof may provide additional living space, for example a roof garden. Old English hrof roof, top, heaven, figuratively, highest point of something, there are no apparent connections outside the Germanic family. English alone has retained the word in a sense, for which the other languages use forms corresponding to OE. In many parts of the ceramic tiles have been the predominant roofing material for centuries. Other roofing materials include asphalt, coal tar pitch, EPDM rubber, polyurethane foam, PVC, Teflon fabric, TPO, and wood shakes and shingles.
The construction of a roof is determined by its method of support and how the space is bridged. The pitch is the angle at which the roof rises from its lowest to highest point, most US domestic architecture, except in very dry regions, has roofs that are sloped, or pitched. Although modern construction such as drainpipes may remove the need for pitch, roofs are pitched for reasons of tradition. So the pitch is dependent upon stylistic factors, and partially to do with practicalities. Some types of roofing, for example thatch, require a steep pitch in order to be waterproof, other types of roofing, for example pantiles, are unstable on a steeply pitched roof but provide excellent weather protection at a relatively low angle. In regions where there is rain, an almost flat roof with a slight run-off provides adequate protection against an occasional downpour. Drainpipes remove the need for a sloping roof, a person that specializes in roof construction is called a roofer. The shape of roofs differs greatly from region to region, the main factors which influence the shape of roofs are the climate and the materials available for roof structure and the outer covering.
The basic shapes of roofs are flat, mono-pitched, hipped, there are many variations on these types. Roofs constructed of sections that are sloped are referred to as pitched roofs
A tent pronunciation is a shelter consisting of sheets of fabric or other material draped over, attached to a frame of poles or attached to a supporting rope. While smaller tents may be free-standing or attached to the ground, first used as portable homes by nomadic peoples, tents are now more often used for recreational camping and temporary shelters. Tents range in size from bivouac structures, just big enough for one person to sleep in, the bulk of this article is concerned with tents used for recreational camping which have sleeping space for one to ten people. Larger tents are discussed in a section below. Tents for recreational camping fall into two categories, Tents intended to be carried by backpackers are the smallest and lightest type. Small tents may be light that they can be carried for long distances on a touring bicycle. The second type are larger, heavier tents which are carried in a car or other vehicle. Depending on tent size and the experience of the person or people involved, Some very specialised tents have spring-loaded poles and can be pitched in seconds, but take somewhat longer to strike.
Tents were used at least as far back as the early Iron Age and they are mentioned in the Bible, for example, in the Genesis 4,20 Jabal is described as the first to live in tents and raise sheep and goats. The Roman Army used leather tents, copies of which have been used successfully by modern reenactors, various styles developed over time, some derived from traditional nomadic tents, such as the yurt. Most military tents throughout history were of a ridge design. The major technological advance was the use of linen or hemp canvas for the canopy versus leather for the Romans, the primary use of tents was still to provide portable shelter for a small number of men in the field. By World War I larger designs were being deployed in areas to provide shelter for support activities and supplies. Tents are used as habitation by nomads, recreational campers, Tents are typically used as overhead shelter for festivals, backyard parties, and major corporate events. They are used for covers, industrial shelters.
Tents have traditionally used by nomadic people all over the world, such as Native Americans, Mongolian and Tibetan Nomads. Armies all over the world have long used tents as part of their working life, Tents are preferred by the military for their relatively quick setup and take down times, compared to more traditional shelters. One of the worlds largest users of tents is the U. S. Department of Defense, the U. S. Department of Defense has strict rules on tent quality and tent specifications
Cabana or Cabaña may refer to either an indigenous hut or a recreational structure. A small hut built with a roof, most commonly built in tropical climates near natural bodies of water. A temporary, seasonal, or permanent free standing structure with, adjustable curtains or shades, and/or decorative drapes or solid walls. These are often at beach clubs, or adjacent to swimming pools at resorts and hotels and these are often small rooms with ground-level porches that have chairs and tables for relaxation and dining as well as storage for chairs and surfboards or other beach or pool playthings. The etymology of the word comes from the Spanish cabaña. A cabana can be fabricated from a variety of materials and in sizes, cabana frames can be made of, aluminum or steel with a polyester powder coat paint or other durable finish, treated wood, or composite construction grade plastics. Roofs or top covers, side walls, and curtains can made of exterior grade fabrics, thatched materials, prefabricated panels of lumber, more elaborate cabanas can include utilities such as power and entertainment connections, potable water, and/or natural gas.
Accessories can include lighting, ceiling fans, outdoor heaters, entertainment equipment, cold-hot food appliances. Furnishings can range from simple patio furniture to more designed outdoor furnishings