Taman Negara is in Peninsular Malaysia. It was established in 1938/1939 as the King George V National Park after Theodore Hubback lobbied the sultans of Pahang and Kelantan to set aside a piece of land that covers the three states for the creation of a protected area, it was renamed Taman Negara after independence. Taman Negara has a total area of 4,343 km2 and it is one of the world's oldest deciduous rainforest, estimated to be more than 130 million years old. Attractions found near Kuala Tahan include a canopy walkway, Gua Telinga, Lata Berkoh. Visitors can enjoy the tropical rainforest, birdwatching or jungle trekking and the river views along the Tahan River; the park encompasses three states, Pahang and Terengganu, each with its own legislation. The Taman Negara Enactment No. 2 of 1939 is enforced in the state of Pahang, the Taman Negara Enactment No. 14 of 1938 in the state of Kelantan and the Taman Negara Enactment No. 6 of 1939 in the state of Terengganu. The enactments have similar contents.
Taman Negara Pahang is the largest at 2,477 km2, followed by Taman Negara Kelantan at 1,043 km2 and Taman Negara Terengganu at 853 km2. At an estimated age of more than 130 million years old, it is reputed to be the "oldest tropical rainforest", although the title more belongs to the Daintree Rainforest in Queensland, estimated to be between 135 million years old and 180 million years old; the park has been developed into a famous ecotourism destination in Malaysia. There are several geological and biological attractions in the park. Gunung Tahan is the highest point of the Malay Peninsula. All visitors to the park must get permits from the Department of National Parks. Taman Negara is home to some rare mammals, such as the Malayan tiger, Malayan gaur and Asian elephant; as well as birds such as the great argus, red junglefowl, the rare Malayan peacock-pheasant are still found here in some numbers. Tahan River has been preserved to protect a type of game fish. Keretapi Tanah Melayu's KTM Intercity and Express trains stop at Jerantut railway station.
Visitors to Taman Negara can disembark here. Local tour operators arrange transportation from Kuala Lumpur to the entrance of the Park at Kuala Tahan; this may involve a 3-4 hour bus journey to Jerantut and Kuala Tembeling Jetty followed by a 2.5 hour river boat ride to Kuala Tahan. Entrance permits and park tours are included in the package. From Kuala Lumpur, buses may depart from Terminal Bersepadu Selatan and Hentian Pekeliling going to the nearest town, Jerantut. From here travel to Kuala Tembeling Kuala Tahan. List of national parks of Malaysia Gunung Tahan highest point in peninsula Malaysia. Taman Negara travel guide from Wikivoyage Tourism Malaysia - Taman Negara Department of Wildlife and National Parks Jerantut KTM Railway Station
An aerial lift known as a cable car, is a means of cable transport in which cabins, gondolas or open chairs are hauled above the ground by means of one or more cables. Aerial lift systems are employed in mountainous territory where roads are difficult to build and use, have seen extensive use in mining. Aerial lift systems are easy to move, are and have been used to cross rivers and ravines. In more recent times, the cost-effectiveness and flexibility of aerial lifts has seen an increase of gondola lift being integrated into urban public transport systems; the following abbreviations are used in the trade and in the industry: A cable car or an aerial tramway, aerial tram is a type of cable car which uses one or two stationary ropes for support while a third moving rope provides propulsion. The grip of an aerial tramway can not be decoupled. Aerial trams used for urban transport include Portland Aerial Tram. A gondola lift is a type of cable car, supported and propelled by cables from above, it consists of a loop of steel cable, strung between two stations, sometimes over intermediate supporting towers.
The cable is driven by a bullwheel in a terminal, connected to an engine or electric motor. They are considered continuous systems since they feature a haul rope which continuously moves and circulates around two terminal stations. Depending on the combination of cables used for support and/or haulage and the type of grip, the capacity and functionality of a gondola lift will differ dramatically; because of the proliferation of such systems in the Alpine regions of Europe, the French language name of Télécabine is used in an English language context. Gondola lifts are used for urban transportation. Examples include the Singapore Cable Car, Ngong Ping Skyrail, Metrocable, Mi Teleférico, Emirates Air Line. Gondola lifts should not be confused with aerial tramways as the latter operates with fixed grips and shuttles back and forth between two end terminals. A ropeway conveyor or material ropeway is a subtype of gondola lift, from which containers for goods rather than passenger cars are suspended.
Ropeway conveyors are found around large mining concerns, can be of considerable length. The COMILOG Cableway, which ran from Moanda in Gabon to Mbinda in the Republic of the Congo, was over 75 km in length; the Norsjö aerial tramway in Sweden had a length of 96 kilometers. A funitel is a type of cable car used to transport skiers, although at least one is used to transport finished cars between different areas of a factory, it differs from a standard gondola through the use of two overhead arms, attached to two parallel overhead cables, providing more stability in high winds. The name funitel is a blend of the French words telepherique; when used to transport skiers, funitels are a fast way to get to a higher altitude. However, because skis or snowboard have to be taken off and held during the trip, because of the absence of seats, funitels can sometimes be uncomfortable for long trips, in the same way other large gondolas can be. Funitels combine a short time between successive cabins with a high capacity per cabin.
A Funifor is a type of a haul rope loop per cabin. The Funifor design is patented by Doppelmayr Garaventa Group. Two reversible cabins run on parallel tracks; the drives of the two cabins are not interconnected. At the top of each track, the haul rope for that track loops back to the bottom instead of looping over to serve the other track as occurs with a normal aerial tramway; this feature allows for single cabin operation. The independent drive allows for evacuations to occur by means of a bridge connected between the two adjacent cabins; the main advantage of the Funifor system is its stability in high wind conditions owing to the horizontal distance between the two guide ropes comprising each track. In developing countries with rough terrain, simple hand-powered cable-cars may be used for crossing rivers. Examples include the tuin used in Nepal. An elevated passenger ropeway, or chairlift, is a type of cable car, which consists of a continuously circulating steel cable loop strung between two end terminals and over intermediate towers, carrying a series of chairs.
They are the primary onhill transport at most ski areas, but are found at amusement parks, various tourist attractions, in urban transport. Depending on carrier size and loading efficiency, a passenger ropeway can move up 4000 people per hour, the fastest lifts achieve operating speeds of up to 12 m/s; the two-person double chair, which for many years was the workhorse of the ski industry, can move 1200 people per hour at rope speeds of up to 2.5 m/s. The four person detachable chairlift can transport 2400 people per hour with an average rope speed of 5 m/s; some bi and tri cable elevated-ropeways and reversible tramways achieve much greater operating speeds. Fixed-grip lifts are shorter than detachable-grip lifts due to rope load. A detachable chairlift or high-speed chairlift is a type of passenger cable car
Central Catchment Nature Reserve
The Central Catchment Nature Reserve is the largest nature reserve in Singapore, occupying 2880 hectares Forming a large green lung in the geographical centre of the city, it houses several recreational sites, including the Singapore Zoo, the Night Safari and the River Safari, as well as several newer facilities built to encourage public appreciation of the reserve, such as the HSBC TreeTop Walk. The reserve sits within the boundaries of the Central Water Catchment, it is one of the four gazetted nature reserves in Singapore. The other three are the Labrador Nature Reserve, gazetted since 1 January 2002, Sungei Buloh Wetland Reserve and Bukit Timah Nature Reserve. All four nature reserves along with the parks are protected under the Parks & Trees Act 2005; the nature reserve acts as a catchment area for the surrounding reservoirs. The country's main reservoirs – MacRitchie, Upper Seletar, Upper Peirce and Lower Peirce are located within the reserve. Most forests in the CCNR were cleared for logging and cultivation unlike Bukit Timah Nature Reserve, which remain undisturbed.
The CCNR now consists of a mixture of young and mature secondary forests with virgin primary forest surrounding the reservoirs. Bordering MacRitchie reservoir are remnants of rubber plantations from the 19th century. Walkways and boardwalks in the reserve, which range from 3 to 11 kilometres long, allow visitors to enjoy a closer feel to nature; the reserve is visited by hikers and trekkers due to its terrain and scenery. A hike can lead to the nearby Bukit Timah Nature Reserve; the nature reserve boasts a rich biodiversity with over 500 animal species including crab-eating macaque, common treeshrew, Sunda slow loris and Sunda pangolin. Central Catchment Nature Reserve is the only place in Singapore where the banded leaf monkey remains, with a population, diminished. Wild birds such as crimson sunbird, greater racket-tailed drongo and kingfishers are found in the reserve, too; some species of critically endangered bats have been spotted. The reserve has many species of butterflies, it is home to some 1,600 species of flora.
The reserve, along with the adjacent Bukit Timah Nature Reserve, has been identified by BirdLife International as the Central Forest Important Bird Area because it supports populations of vulnerable straw-headed bulbuls and brown-chested jungle flycatchers. The nature reserve contains a 250-metre suspension bridge; the HSBC TreeTop Walk opened to public on 5 November 2004. It connects the two highest points in MacRitchie -- Bukit Kalang. At the highest point, the bridge hangs 25 metres from the forest floor; the difficulty level of the trail ranges from moderate to difficult. The suspension bridge serves an important role in forest canopy research, giving researchers access to areas well off the ground. To preserve the tranquility of the environment and for safety reasons, the number of people allowed on the walkway is capped at 30. Visitors will only be able to travel along the narrow walkway in one direction, by entering from the Bukit Pierce entrance and exiting through the Petaling Trail. Rangers are deployed along the 10.3-kilometre trail to ensure safety.
The CCNR provides free guided tours to the general public. This is part of National Parks Board's efforts to educate people about the conservation of nature areas in Singapore; the CCNR is the only location in Singapore where the nationally critically endangered banded leaf monkeys can be found. Due to rapid urbanisation and habitat loss, the population at Bukit Timah Nature Reserve had been exterminated; the banded leaf monkey is one of four primate species native to Singapore. Today, they are restricted to a small area within the Central Water Catchment with a population of about 40 individuals; the National Biodiversity Centre, in partnership with the Evolution Lab of the National University of Singapore, initiated an ecological study of banded leaf monkeys to propose conservation management recommendations and maintain a viable population in the long term. Comprehensive surveys were conducted to determine the population number, home range and communication, food choices and anthropogenic interferences on the monkeys.
Bukit Timah Nature Reserve List of parks in Singapore Syonan Jinja National Parks Board's website Central Catchment Nature Reserve
Rotorua is a city on the southern shores of Lake Rotorua from which the city takes its name, located in the Bay of Plenty Region of New Zealand's North Island. It is the seat of the Rotorua District, a territorial authority encompassing Rotorua and several other nearby towns; the majority of the Rotorua District is in the Bay of Plenty Region, but a sizeable southern section and a small western section are in the Waikato Region. Rotorua is in the heart of the North Island, 60 kilometres south of Tauranga, 80 km north of Taupo, 105 km east of Hamilton, 230 km southeast of the nation's most populous city, Auckland. Rotorua has an estimated permanent population of 59,500, making it the country's 10th largest urban area, the Bay of Plenty's second largest urban area behind Tauranga; the Rotorua District has a total estimated population of 72,500, of which 3,600 live in the Waikato section. Rotorua is a major destination for both international tourists, it is known for its geothermal activity, features geysers – notably the Pohutu Geyser at Whakarewarewa – and hot mud pools.
This thermal activity is sourced to the Rotorua caldera. Rotorua is home to the Toi Ohomai Institute of Technology; the Lakes of Rotorua are a collection of many lakes surrounding Rotorua. The name Rotorua comes from Māori, the full name for the city and lake is Te Rotorua-nui-a-Kahumatamomoe. Roto means'lake' and rua means'two' or in this case'second' – Rotorua thus meaning'Second lake'. Kahumatamomoe was the uncle of the ancestral explorer of the Te Arawa, it was the second major lake the chief discovered, he dedicated it to his uncle. It is the largest of a multitude of lakes found to the northeast, all connected with the Rotorua Caldera and nearby Mount Tarawera; the name can mean the appropriate'Crater lake'. The area was settled by Māori of the Te Arawa Iwi in the 14th century. During the early 1820s Ngapuhi led by chief Hongi Hika launced a series of raids into the Bay of Plenty as a part of the Musket Wars, in 1823 a Ngapuhi raiding party led by Hongi Hika attacked Te Arawa at their Pa on Mokoia Island defeating them.
The first European in the area was Phillip Tapsell, trading from the Bay of Plenty coast at Maketu from 1828. He married into Te Arawa and became regarded by them. Missionaries Henry Williams and Thomas Chapman visited in 1831 and Chapman and his wife established a mission at Te Koutu in 1835; this was abandoned within a year but Chapman returned in 1838 and established a second mission at Mokoia Island. The lakeshore was a prominent site of skirmishes during the New Zealand Wars of the 1860s. A "special town district" was created in the 1883, to promote Rotorua's potential as a spa destination; the town was connected to Auckland with the opening of the Rotorua Branch railway and commencement of the Rotorua Express train in 1894, resulting in the rapid growth of the town and tourism from this time forward. Rotorua was established as a borough in 1922, elected its first mayor in 1923, declared a city in 1962 before becoming a District in 1979; the Rotorua region enjoys a mild temperate climate.
Rotorua is situated inland from the coast and is sheltered by high country to the south and east of the city, resulting in less wind than many other places in New Zealand. During the winter months June – August temperatures can drop below 0 °C. Frost is common in Rotorua during its winter months, with an average of 57 ground frosts annually, 20 nights per year below 0 °C. Snowfall in Rotorua is rare. On 15 August 2011 and 13 July 2017 snowflakes fell in the town centre, during the July 2017 snowfall, snow accumulated in the nearby Mamaku ranges and in the outer reaches of the district, where snowfall occurs on average once every three years. Inner suburbs Outer suburbs Thermal activity is at the heart of much of Rotorua's tourist appeal. Geysers and bubbling mud pools, hot thermal springs and Te Wairoa — so named after it was buried by the 1886 Mount Tarawera eruption— are within easy reach of Rotorua. In Kuirau Park, to the west end of Rotorua, hot bubbling mud pools dot the park. Visitors can soak their feet in hot pools.
A common nickname for Rotorua is "Sulphur City" due to the hydrogen sulphide emissions, which gives the city a smell similar to "rotten eggs", as well as "Rotten-rua" combining its legitimate name and the rotten smell prevalent. Another common nickname is "Roto-Vegas", likening the city's own strip of road flanked by businesses and restaurants to that of Las Vegas; the pungent smell in the central-east'Te Ngae' area is due to the dense sulphur deposits located next to the southern boundary of the Government Gardens, in the area known as'Sulphur Point'. The Rotorua region has 17 lakes, known collectively as the Lakes of Rotorua. Fishing, waterskiing and other water activities are popular in summer; the lakes are used for event venues. Lake Rotorua is used as a departure and landing point for float planes. Rotorua is home to botanical gardens and historic architecture. Known as a spa town and major tourist resort since the 1800s, many of its buildings hint at this history. Government Gardens, close to the lake-shore at the eastern edge of the town, are a particular point of pride.
The Rotorua Museum of Art and History is housed in the large Tudor-style bath house building while the Art Deco
Dicksonia antarctica is a species of evergreen tree fern native to eastern Australia, ranging from south-east Queensland, coastal New South Wales and Victoria to Tasmania. These ferns can grow to 15 m in height, but more grow to about 4.5–5 m, consist of an erect rhizome forming a trunk. They are hairy at the base of the stipe; the large, dark green, roughly-textured fronds spread in a canopy of 2–6 m in diameter. The shapes of the stems vary as there are multi-headed ones; the fronds are borne in flushes, with fertile and sterile fronds in alternating layers. The "trunk" of this fern is the decaying remains of earlier growth of the plant and forms a medium through which the roots grow; the trunk is solitary, without runners, but may produce offsets. They can be cut down and, if they are kept moist, the top portions can be replanted and will form new roots; the stump, will not regenerate since it is dead organic matter. In nature, the fibrous trunks are hosts for a range of epiphytic plants including other ferns and mosses.
The fern produces spores at the age of about 20 years. Reproduction by this species is from spores, but it can be grown from plantlets occurring around the base of the rhizome. In cultivation, it can be grown as a "cutting", a method not to be encouraged unless the tree-fern is doomed to die in its present position; this involves sawing the trunk through at ground level, removing the fronds. The fern grows on damp, sheltered woodland slopes and moist gullies, they occur at high altitudes in cloud forests. Dicksonia antarctica is the most abundant tree fern in South Eastern Australia; the plant can grow in acid and alkaline soils. It can grow in semi-shade, it resents drought or dryness at the roots, does best in moist soil. Dicksonia antarctica grows best in areas of rainfall of over 1,000 mm per year but in lower rainfall areas does well in moist gullies, it is tolerant of fire and re-shoots after re-location. It can provide habitat for epiphytes and provides shelter for more delicate fern species to flourish underneath.
Plant in organic soils and ensure the fern is kept watered. Dicksonia antarctica requires a minimum rainfall of 500 mm per year. In dry climates, a drip irrigation or spray system applied overhead is the most effective method of watering, it is best to leave old fronds on the plant in order to protect the trunk from desiccation. Winter protection of the trunk is recommended during severe cold weather; this plant is suited to garden planting and landscaping purposes. As an ornamental plant, it is hardy to about −5 °C, succeeding outdoors in the milder areas of Britain where it thrives and self-sows in Cornish and Scottish west coast gardens, it has gained the Royal Horticultural Society's Award of Garden Merit. Large Dicksonia antarctica available for sale come from old growth Tasmanian forests, may be hundreds of years old; the trunks are available from local suppliers who licence collection of minor species from Forestry Tasmania, the State Government GBE who manage forestry. The Soft Tree Fern can be used as a food source, with the pith of the plant being eaten either cooked or raw.
It is a good source of starch. The 1889 book'The Useful Native Plants of Australia records that "The pulp of the top of the trunk is full of starch, is eaten by the aboriginals both raw and roasted; the native blacks of the colony used to split open about a foot and a-half of the top of the trunk, take out the heart, in substance resembling a Swedish turnip, of the thickness of a man's arm. This they either ate as bread. Plants For a Future: Dicksonia antarctica Australian National Botanic Gardens: Dicksonia antarctica – the soft tree fern Large, M. F. and J. E. Braggins 2004. Tree Ferns. Timber Press, Inc. ISBN 0-88192-630-2 Fern Files: Dicksonia antarctica
The Kulim District is a district and town in the state of Kedah, Malaysia. It is located on the southeast of Kedah; the town of Kulim, a mere 27 km east of Penang's capital city, George Town forms part of Greater Penang, Malaysia's second largest conurbation. The Kulim’s independence clock was officiated by the Sultan of Kedah and serves as the unofficial landmark for the city of Kulim; the construction of the clock was completed within 3 months and upon completion 1833-1888 Capital States Kedah: Kulim, was made formalized by DYMM Tuanku Sultan Badlishah Ibni Almarhum Yang Di Pertuan Paduka Seri Sultan Abdul Hamid Shah, KOM, CMG, KBE Sultan Kedah on 15 September 1957, or 2 weeks after the declaration of independence of Malaysia. Kulim District is divided into 15 mukims, which are: Bagan Sena Junjung Karangan Keladi Kulim Town Lunas Mahang Nagalilit Padang China Padang Meha Sedim Sidam Kanan Sungai Seluang Sungai Ular Terap Kulim District is administered by Kulim Municipal Council. Kulim Hi-Tech Park Ismail Omar the 9th Inspector General of Royal Malaysian Police Malaysian ambassador to France.
Gary Steven Robbat, professional football player for Johor Darul Takzim F. C. Suppiah Chanturu, professional football player for Johor Darul Takzim F. C. Muhammad Akram Mahinan, professional football player for Johor Darul Takzim II F. C. List of Kulim district representatives in the Federal Parliament List of Kulim district representatives in the State Legislative Assembly Butterworth–Kulim Expressway Northern Corridor Economic Region Penang Kulim travel guide from Wikivoyage Kulim’s Municipal Council Website Kulim 2035 Draft Plan
Dacrydium cupressinum known as rimu, is a large evergreen coniferous tree endemic to the forests of New Zealand. It is a member of the podocarps; the former name "red pine" has fallen out of common use. Rimu grows in the North Island, South Island and Stewart Island/Rakiura. Although the largest concentration of trees is now found on the West Coast of the South Island, the biggest trees tend to be in mixed podocarp forest near Taupo. A typical North Island habitat is in the Hamilton Ecological District, where Fuscospora truncata and rimu form the overstory. Associate ferns on the forest floor are Blechnum discolor, Blechnum filiforme, Asplenium flaccidum and Hymenophyllum demissum. An 800-year-old rimu tree can be seen at the Otari-Wilton's Bush in Wellington. Rimu is a slow-growing tree attaining a height of up to 50 m, although most surviving large trees are 20 to 35 m tall, it appears as an emergent from mixed broadleaf temperate rainforest, although there are pure stands. There are historical accounts of exceptionally tall trees, 61 m, from dense forest near National Park in the central North Island, now destroyed.
Its lifespan is 800 to 900 years. The straight trunk of the rimu is 1.5 m in diameter, but may be larger in old or tall specimens. The leaves are spirally arranged, awl-shaped, up to 7 mm long on juvenile plants, 1 mm wide, it is dioecious, with male and female cones on separate trees. The mature cones comprise a swollen red fleshy scale six to ten mm long bearing one apical seeds 4 mm long; the seeds are dispersed by birds which pass the seed on in their droppings. Rimu and other native trees such as kauri and totara were the main sources of wood for New Zealand, including furniture and house construction. However, many of New Zealand's original stands of rimu have been destroyed, recent government policies forbid the felling of rimu in public forests, though allowing limited logging on private land. Pinus radiata has now replaced rimu in most industries, although rimu remains popular for the production of high quality wooden furniture. There is limited recovery of stump and root wood, from trees felled many years before, for use in making bowls and other wood turned objects.
The inner bark can be used to treat burns and cuts. Although slow to establish, with a long juvenile period and high moisture requirements, rimu is grown as an ornamental tree in New Zealand, it is attractive at all growth stages quite narrow when young developing into a broader tree with weeping branches before progressing to its more upright adult form. While rimu does exhibit some variation in the wild, garden cultivars are unknown, except for one recent introduction,'Charisma', a compact, golden-foliaged form. "Dacrydium cupressinum". New Zealand Plant Conservation Network. Retrieved 2010-10-03