Province of Reggio Emilia
The Province of Reggio Emilia is one of the nine provinces of the Italian Region of Emilia-Romagna. The capital city, the most densely populated comune in the province, is Reggio Emilia, it has an area of around 2,292 square kilometres and, As of 2017, has a population of 531,942. There are 42 comuni in the province. Rolo, the smallest commune in the province by area, is the commune farthest to the East. Ventasso is the commune farthest to the West; the border towns of the Province are Ventasso, the smallest commune by population, to the south and Luzzara in the north. Luzzara is the second largest commune in Emilia-Romagna and has the highest number of foreign nationals in the region; the province is home to the historical Canossa Castle, property of the countess Matilde. Representatives of the free municipalities of Reggio, Modena and Ferrara met in Reggio Emilia's Sala del Tricolore in 1797 to proclaim the Repubblica Cispadana, adopting the three colour green-white-red flag to represent their newly formed Republic.
Four faculties of the University of Modena and Reggio Emilia are located in Reggio Emilia. The Faculty of Engineering and Agriculture was established in Reggio Emilia in 1998, followed by the Faculties of Communication Sciences and of Education Sciences, it is home to the Orto Botanico dell'Università di Modena e Reggio Emilia. The Reggio Emilia approach to preschool education was started by the schools of Reggio Emilia after World War II and it's well-known all over the world, being one of the most advanced systems at present times, it is based and inspired on theories of Malaguzzi, Vygotsky, Dewey and Gardner. Reggio Emilia helds the International Centre Loris Malaguzzi, a modern structure where the Reggio Emilia approach is implemented and spread around the world. With sports arenas including the Stadio Giglio and Palabigi, Reggio Emilia is home to the basketball team Pallacanestro Reggiana; the Camparini Gioielli Cup is a yearly challenger-level tennis tournament played on clay in Reggio Emilia.
A. C. Reggiana 1919 is the historical soccer team of Reggio Emilia, at the moments plays in the third national soccer league Prima Divisione. Stadio Giglio is the home play ground for A. C. Reggiana 1919. A. C. Reggiana 1919 Art collection of Fondazione Manodori Comuni of the Province of Reggio Emilia Palabigi Pallacanestro Reggiana Reggio Emilia approach Reggio Emilia chess tournament Stadio Giglio University of Modena and Reggio Emilia Official website
Excommunication is an institutional act of religious censure used to deprive, suspend, or limit membership in a religious community or to restrict certain rights within it, in particular receiving of the sacraments. The term is historically used to refer to excommunications from the Catholic Church, but it is used more to refer to similar types of institutional religious exclusionary practices and shunning among other religious groups. For instance, many Protestant denominations, such as the Lutheran Churches, have similar practices of excusing congregants from church communities, while Jehovah's Witnesses, as well as the Churches of Christ, use the term "disfellowship" to refer to their form of excommunication; the Amish have been known to excommunicate members that were either seen or known for breaking rules, or questioning the church. The word excommunication means putting a specific group out of communion. In some denominations, excommunication includes spiritual condemnation of the group.
Excommunication may involve banishment and shaming, depending on the group, the offense that caused excommunication, or the rules or norms of the religious community. The grave act is revoked in response to sincere penance, which may be manifested through public recantation, sometimes through the Sacrament of Confession, piety or through mortification of the flesh. Within the Catholic Church, there are differences between the discipline of the majority Latin Church regarding excommunication and that of the Eastern Catholic Churches. In Latin Catholic canon law, excommunication is a applied censure and thus a "medicinal penalty" intended to invite the person to change behaviour or attitude and return to full communion, it is not an "expiatory penalty" designed to make satisfaction for the wrong done, much less a "vindictive penalty" designed to punish: "excommunication, the gravest penalty of all and the most frequent, is always medicinal", is "not at all vindictive". Excommunication can be either latae ferendae sententiae.
According to Bishop Thomas J. Paprocki, "excommunication does not expel the person from the Catholic Church, but forbids the excommunicated person from engaging in certain activities..." These activities are listed in Canon 1331 §1, prohibit the individual from any ministerial participation in celebrating the sacrifice of the Eucharist or any other ceremonies of worship. Under current Catholic canon law, excommunicates remain bound by ecclesiastical obligations such as attending Mass though they are barred from receiving the Eucharist and from taking an active part in the liturgy. "Excommunicates lose rights, such as the right to the sacraments, but they are still bound to the obligations of the law. They are urged to retain a relationship with the Church, as the goal is to encourage them to repent and return to active participation in its life; these are the only effects for those. For instance, a priest may not refuse Communion publicly to those who are under an automatic excommunication, as long as it has not been declared to have been incurred by them if the priest knows that they have incurred it.
On the other hand, if the priest knows that excommunication has been imposed on someone or that an automatic excommunication has been declared, he is forbidden to administer Holy Communion to that person.. In the Catholic Church, excommunication is resolved by a declaration of repentance, profession of the Creed and an Act of Faith, or renewal of obedience by the excommunicated person and the lifting of the censure by a priest or bishop empowered to do this. "The absolution can be in the internal forum only, or in the external forum, depending on whether scandal would be given if a person were absolved and yet publicly considered unrepentant." Since excommunication excludes from reception of the sacraments, absolution from excommunication is required before absolution can be given from the sin that led to the censure. In many cases, the whole process takes place on a single occasion in the privacy of the confessional. For some more serious wrongdoings, absolution from excommunication is reserved to a bishop, another ordinary, or the Pope.
These can delegate a priest to act on their behalf. Interdict is a censure similar to excommunication, it too excludes from ministerial functions in public worship and from reception of the sacraments, but not from the exercise of governance. In the Eastern Catholic Churches, excommunications is imposed only by decree, never incurred automatically by latae sententiae excommunication. A distinction is made between major excommunication; those on whom minor excommunication has been imposed are excluded from receiving the Eucharist and can be excluded from participating in the Divine Liturgy. They can be excluded from entering a church when divine worship is being celebrated there; the decree of excommunication must indicate the precise effect of the excommunication and, if required, its duration. Those under major excommunication
Italy the Italian Republic, is a country in Southern Europe. Located in the middle of the Mediterranean Sea, Italy shares open land borders with France, Austria and the enclaved microstates San Marino and Vatican City. Italy covers an area of 301,340 km2 and has a temperate seasonal and Mediterranean climate. With around 61 million inhabitants, it is the fourth-most populous EU member state and the most populous country in Southern Europe. Due to its central geographic location in Southern Europe and the Mediterranean, Italy has been home to a myriad of peoples and cultures. In addition to the various ancient peoples dispersed throughout modern-day Italy, the most famous of which being the Indo-European Italics who gave the peninsula its name, beginning from the classical era and Carthaginians founded colonies in insular Italy and Genoa, Greeks established settlements in the so-called Magna Graecia, while Etruscans and Celts inhabited central and northern Italy respectively; the Italic tribe known as the Latins formed the Roman Kingdom in the 8th century BC, which became a republic with a government of the Senate and the People.
The Roman Republic conquered and assimilated its neighbours on the peninsula, in some cases through the establishment of federations, the Republic expanded and conquered parts of Europe, North Africa and the Middle East. By the first century BC, the Roman Empire emerged as the dominant power in the Mediterranean Basin and became the leading cultural and religious centre of Western civilisation, inaugurating the Pax Romana, a period of more than 200 years during which Italy's technology, economy and literature flourished. Italy remained the metropole of the Roman Empire; the legacy of the Roman Empire endured its fall and can be observed in the global distribution of culture, governments and the Latin script. During the Early Middle Ages, Italy endured sociopolitical collapse and barbarian invasions, but by the 11th century, numerous rival city-states and maritime republics in the northern and central regions of Italy, rose to great prosperity through shipping and banking, laying the groundwork for modern capitalism.
These independent statelets served as Europe's main trading hubs with Asia and the Near East enjoying a greater degree of democracy than the larger feudal monarchies that were consolidating throughout Europe. The Renaissance began in Italy and spread to the rest of Europe, bringing a renewed interest in humanism, science and art. Italian culture flourished, producing famous scholars and polymaths such as Michelangelo, Leonardo da Vinci, Raphael and Machiavelli. During the Middle Ages, Italian explorers such as Marco Polo, Christopher Columbus, Amerigo Vespucci, John Cabot and Giovanni da Verrazzano discovered new routes to the Far East and the New World, helping to usher in the European Age of Discovery. Italy's commercial and political power waned with the opening of trade routes that bypassed the Mediterranean. Centuries of infighting between the Italian city-states, such as the Italian Wars of the 15th and 16th centuries, left the region fragmented, it was subsequently conquered and further divided by European powers such as France and Austria.
By the mid-19th century, rising Italian nationalism and calls for independence from foreign control led to a period of revolutionary political upheaval. After centuries of foreign domination and political division, Italy was entirely unified in 1871, establishing the Kingdom of Italy as a great power. From the late 19th century to the early 20th century, Italy industrialised, namely in the north, acquired a colonial empire, while the south remained impoverished and excluded from industrialisation, fuelling a large and influential diaspora. Despite being one of the main victors in World War I, Italy entered a period of economic crisis and social turmoil, leading to the rise of a fascist dictatorship in 1922. Participation in World War II on the Axis side ended in military defeat, economic destruction and the Italian Civil War. Following the liberation of Italy and the rise of the resistance, the country abolished the monarchy, reinstated democracy, enjoyed a prolonged economic boom and, despite periods of sociopolitical turmoil became a developed country.
Today, Italy is considered to be one of the world's most culturally and economically advanced countries, with the sixth-largest worldwide national wealth. Its advanced economy ranks eighth-largest in the world and third in the Eurozone by nominal GDP. Italy owns the third-largest central bank gold reserve, it has a high level of human development, it stands among the top countries for life expectancy. The country plays a prominent role in regional and global economic, military and diplomatic affairs. Italy is a founding and leading member of the European Union and a member of numerous international institutions, including the UN, NATO, the OECD, the OSCE, the WTO, the G7, the G20, the Union for the Mediterranean, the Council of Europe, Uniting for Consensus, the Schengen Area and many more; as a reflection
Adalbert Atto of Canossa
Adalbert Atto was the first Count of Canossa and founder of that noble house, to play a determinant role in the political settling of Italy and the Investiture Controversy in the eleventh and twelfth centuries. Adalbert first appears in sources as a son of Sigifred of Lucca, he was a vassal of King Lothair II and a miles of Adelard, Bishop of Reggio. He rose to prominence by sheltering Queen Adelaide in his castle at Canossa after she fled from the castle of Garda, where Berengar II had imprisoned her. In 958, Adelaide made him a count sine re, that is, without an exclusive jurisdiction of right of inheritance, he did not appear again as a count in documents during Berengar's ascendancy. On 20 April 962, he appeared as count of Modena; these appointments were a further product of his support for Adelaide and her new husband, Otto I of Germany. With the queen, he negotiated a division of power with the bishop of Reggio whereby the bishop was confirmed as comes civitatis, count of the city, Adalbert as comes comitatus, count of the county, where the county was said to begin three or four miles outside the city walls.
He appears with a similar title, comes comitatus Mantuanensis, in Mantua in a letter of the abbess of Santa Giulia dated 10 June 977. In 984, Adalbert appears as a margrave; when Henry II, Duke of Bavaria, was acclaimed as king that year, he united Parma, Bergamo and Brescia to Adalbert's territories. However, Henry's usurpation of the throne was brief. Adalbert Atto built a monastery at Canossa in 961, dedicated to S. Apollonio in 971, he built a monastery at Brescello. He and his family were all buried in S. Apollonio. Adalbert had three sons: Geoffrey, he had a daughter Prangarda. Wickham, Chris. Early Medieval Italy: Central Power and Local Society 400-1000. MacMillan Press: 1981. Duff, Nora. Matilda of Tuscany: La Gran Donna d'Italia. London: Methuen & Co. Caravale, Mario. Dizionario Biografico degli Italiani. Rome
Regions of Italy
The regions of Italy are the first-level administrative divisions of Italy, constituting its second NUTS administrative level. There are 20 regions, of which five are constitutionally given a broader amount of autonomy granted by special statutes; each region, with the exception of the Aosta Valley, is in turn divided into a number of provinces. Regions are autonomous entities with powers defined in the Italian Constitution; as the administrative districts of the central state during the Kingdom of Italy, regions were granted a measure of political autonomy by the 1948 Italian Constitution. The original draft list comprised the Salento region. Friuli and Venezia Giulia were separate regions, Basilicata was named Lucania. Abruzzo and Molise were identified as separate regions in the first draft, they were merged into Abruzzo e Molise in the final constitution of 1948. They were separated in 1963. Implementation of regional autonomy was postponed until the first Regional elections of 1970; the ruling Christian Democracy party did not want the opposition Italian Communist Party to gain power in the regions, where it was rooted.
Regions acquired a significant level of autonomy following a constitutional reform in 2001, which granted them residual policy competence. A further federalist reform was proposed by the regionalist party Lega Nord and in 2005, the centre-right government led by Silvio Berlusconi proposed a new reform that would have increased the power of regions; the proposals, associated with Lega Nord, seen by some as leading the way to a federal state, were rejected in the 2006 Italian constitutional referendum by 61.7% to 38.3%. The results varied among the regions, ranging from 55.3% in favor in Veneto to 82% against in Calabria. Number of regions controlled by each coalition since 1995: Macroregions are the first-level NUTS of the European Union; every region has a statute that serves as a regional constitution, determining the form of government and the fundamental principles of the organization and the functioning of the region, as prescribed by the Constitution of Italy. Although all the regions except Tuscany define themselves in various ways as an "autonomous Region" in the first article of their Statutes, fifteen regions have ordinary statutes and five have special statutes, granting them extended autonomy.
These regions, whose statutes are approved by their regional councils, were created in 1970 though the Italian Constitution dates back to 1948. Since the constitutional reform of 2001 they have had residual legislative powers; the regions have exclusive legislative power with respect to any matters not expressly reserved to state law. Yet their financial autonomy is quite modest: they just keep 20% of all levied taxes used to finance the region-based healthcare system. Article 116 of the Italian Constitution grants to five regions home rule, allowing them some legislative and financial power to a varying extent, depending on their specific statute; these regions became autonomous in order to take into account cultural differences and protect linguistic minorities. Moreover, the government wanted to prevent their secession from Italy after the Second World War; each region has an elected parliament, called Consiglio Regionale, or Assemblea Regionale in Sicily, a government called Giunta Regionale, headed by a governor called Presidente della Giunta Regionale or Presidente della Regione.
The latter is directly elected by the citizens of each region, with the exceptions of Aosta Valley and Trentino-Alto Adige/Südtirol, where he is chosen by the regional council. Under the 1995 electoral law, the winning coalition receives an absolute majority of seats on the council; the president chairs the giunta, nominates or dismisses its members, called assessori. If the directly elected president resigns, new elections are called immediately. In Trentino-Alto Adige/Südtirol, the regional council is made up of the joint session of the two provincial councils of Trentino and of South Tyrol, the regional governor is one of the two provincial commissioners. Article 57 of the Constitution of Italy establishes that the Senate of the Italian Republic is elected on a regional basis by Italian citizens aged 25 or older; the 309 senators are assigned to each region proportionally according to their population. However, Article 57 of the Constitution provides that no region can have fewer than seven senators representing it, except for the Aosta Valley and Molise.
The extra-regio territory is made up of parts of the economic territory of a country which cannot be assigned to a single region. It consists of the national air-space, territorial waters and the continental shelf lying in international waters over which the country enjoys exclusive rights, territorial exclaves, deposits of oil, natural gas etc. worked by resident units. Until 2011, the gross value added produced in the extra-regio was allocated pro-rata to the inhabited regions of the country concerned; the order of magnitude of the extra-regio GVA depends in particular on the resource endowment in terms of natural gas and oil. In 2011, Member States and the European Commission agreed to give countries the possibility to calculate
The comune is a basic administrative division in Italy equivalent to a township or municipality. The comune provides many of the basic civil functions: registry of births and deaths, registry of deeds, contracting for local roads and public works, it is headed by a mayor assisted by a legislative body, the consiglio comunale, an executive body, the giunta comunale. The mayor and members of the consiglio comunale are elected together by resident citizens: the coalition of the elected mayor gains three fifths of the consiglio's seats; the giunta comunale is chaired by the mayor, who appoints others members, called assessori, one of whom serves as deputy mayor. The offices of the comune are housed in a building called the municipio, or palazzo comunale; as of February 2019 there were 7,918 comuni in Italy. For example, the comune of Rome, in Lazio, has an area of 1,307.71 km² and a population of 2,761,477 inhabitants, is both the largest and the most populated. The density of the comuni varies by province and region: the province of Barletta-Andria-Trani, for example, has 391,224 inhabitants in 10 municipalities, or over 39,000 inhabitants per municipality.
There are inefficiencies at both ends of the scale, there is concern about optimizing the size of the comuni so they may best function in the modern world, but planners are hampered by the historical resonances of the comuni, which reach back many hundreds of years, or a full millennium. While provinces and regions are creations of the central government, subject to frequent border changes, the natural cultural unit is indeed the comune, for many Italians, their hometown. Many comuni have a municipal police, responsible for public order duties. Traffic control is their main function in addition to controlling commercial establishments to ensure they open and close according to their license. Administrative areas inside comuni varies according to their population. Comuni with at least 250000 residents are divided into circoscrizioni to which the comune delegates administrative functions like schools, social services and waste collection; these bodies are headed by a local council. Smaller comuni comprises: A main city, town or village, that always gives its name to the comune.
Outlying areas called frazioni, each centred on a small town or village. These frazioni have never had any independent historical existence, but are former smaller comuni consolidated into a larger one, they may represent settlements which predated the capoluogo: the ancient town of Pollentia, for instance, is a frazione of Bra. In recent years the frazioni have become more important thanks to the institution of the consiglio di frazione, a local form of government which can interact with the comune to address local needs and claims. Smaller places are called località. Smaller administrative divisions called municipalità, quartieri, sestieri or contrade, which are similar to districts and neighbourhoods. Sometimes a frazione might be more populated than the capoluogo. In some cases, a comune might not have a capoluogo but only some frazioni. In these cases, it is a comune sparso and the frazione which houses the town hall is a sede municipale. There are not many perfect. There are only six cases in 12 comuni: Calliano: Calliano and Calliano, Trentino Castro: Castro and Castro, Lombardy Livo: Livo and Livo, Trentino Peglio: Peglio and Peglio, Marche Samone: Samone and Samone, Trentino San Teodoro: San Teodoro and San Teodoro, SicilyThis is due to the fact the name of the province or region was appended to the name of the municipality in order to avoid the confusion.
Remarkably two provincial capitals share the name Reggio: Reggio nell'Emilia, the capital of the province of Reggio Emilia, in the Emilia-Romagna, Reggio di Calabria, the capital of the homonymous metropolitan city. Many other towns or villages are partial homonyms. International Communes of France Municipio, Spanish & Portuguese Medieval commune Municipalities of Switzerland - those in Italian speaking areas of the country are called comuni Associazione Nazionale Comuni Italiani. Media related to Municipalities in Italy at Wikimedia Commons The dictionary definition of comune at W