Province of A Coruña
The province of A Coruña is the most North-western Atlantic-facing province of Spain, one of the four provinces which constitute the autonomous community of Galicia. This province is surrounded by the Atlantic Ocean to the West and North, Pontevedra Province to the South and the Lugo Province to the East; the history of this province starts at the end of the Middle Ages during the reign of the Catholic Monarchs of Spain. During those years this province was far smaller than today; this is because in the 1833 territorial division of Spain the entire Province of Betanzos together with half of the Mondoñedo were amalgamated into one single province with its capital city in A Coruña. Since 1833, the province has always been the one with largest coast; until the second half of the 20th century, this province was both the religious and cultural centre of the entire region. The University of Santiago de Compostela was the only university in North-western Spain until the arrival of democracy after the death of General Francisco Franco.
The cathedral of Santiago de Compostela is the destination of the Way of St. James, a major historical pilgrimage route since the Middle Ages which still gathers thousands of pilgrims each year from all over the world. Atlantic Islands of Galicia National Park is the only National Park in Galicia, it is shared between the Provinces of A Pontevedra. The "Fragas" of the River Eume Natural Park extends itself throughout the Eume and Ferrol regions of Ferrolterra; the Dunes of Corrubedo Natural Park is a beach park at the end of the Barbanza Peninsula. Aeroporto da Lavacolla in Santiago de Compostela Aeroporto de Alvedro in the City of A Coruña Heliporto da Graña in the Naval Base of A Graña Heliporto de Narón in Naron Spanish National Railway Network Linking every major city: Ferrol, Betanzos, A Coruña and Santiago de Compostela Spanish Narrow-Gauge Railways Linking the City of Ferrol with different towns of Ferrol and Ortegal; this line is known as Ferrol-Irun Spanish High Speed Railway Network Linking most major cities of the province with Lisbon and Madrid is under construction.
A Coruña – Major Commercial Port – Costa da Morte Malpica – Fishing Port – Costa da Morte Camariñas – Fishing Port – Costa da Morte Fisterra – Fishing Port – Costa da Morte Ferrol – Major Commercial Ports – Rias altas Cariño – Fishing Port – Rias altas Espasante – Fishing Port – Rias altas Cedeira – Fishing Port – Rias altas Deportivo de La Coruña Spanish first division team from the City of A Coruña. Racing Club de Ferrol Spanish Segunda Division team from the City of Ferrol. SD Compostela Spanish Tercera Division team from the City of Santiago de Compostela. Atlético Arteixo Spanish Segunda Division team from the Municipality of Arteixo. Bergantiños FC Spanish Tercera Division team from the Municipality of Carballo. SD Negreira Spanish Tercera Division team from the Municipality of Negreira. Autos Lobelle de Santiago FS Spanish División de Honor of Futsal team from the City of Santiago de Compostela. List of municipalities in A Coruña
Sella River (Bay of Biscay)
The Sella is a river located in northwest Spain. It flows through the region of Asturias from the Picos de Europa to the Bay of Biscay of the Atlantic Ocean at Ribadesella, it hosts an annual canoe competition called the International Descent of the Sella River on the first Saturday in August. List of rivers of Spain
The Saja is a river in the autonomous community of Cantabria, northern Spain. It flows into the Cantabric sea. Part of its course is inside the Saja-Besaya Natural Park The Saja's source is at 1,700 meters above sea level and it flows through a steep V-shaped basin during the first kilometers. Past the village of Fresneda the valley starts to open up and it develops a wide alluvial plain in the Cabuerniga valley. Regarding the ecologic conservation of the river, it is good from the source to the Santa Lucía bridge, from when it begins to show important alterations, being catalogued as moderately conserved. Down the confluence with the Besaya the alterations are serious or serious, being catalogued as badly conserved. List of rivers of Spain
The sea, the world ocean or the ocean is the connected body of salty water that covers over 70 percent of the Earth's surface. It moderates the Earth's climate and has important roles in the water cycle, carbon cycle, nitrogen cycle, it has been travelled and explored since ancient times, while the scientific study of the sea—oceanography—dates broadly from the voyages of Captain James Cook to explore the Pacific Ocean between 1768 and 1779. The word "sea" is used to denote smaller landlocked sections of the ocean and certain large landlocked, saltwater lakes such as the Caspian Sea and the Dead Sea; the most abundant solid dissolved in sea water is sodium chloride. The water contains salts of magnesium and potassium, amongst many other elements, some in minute concentrations. Salinity varies being lower near the surface and the mouths of large rivers and higher in the depths of the ocean. Winds blowing over the surface of the sea produce waves. Winds create surface currents through friction, setting up slow but stable circulations of water throughout the oceans.
The directions of the circulation are governed by factors including the shapes of the continents and the rotation of the earth. Deep-sea currents, known as the global conveyor belt, carry cold water from near the poles to every ocean. Tides, the twice-daily rise and fall of sea levels, are caused by the rotation of the Earth and the gravitational effects of the orbiting Moon, to a lesser extent of the Sun. Tides may have a high range in bays or estuaries. Submarine earthquakes arising from tectonic plate movements under the oceans can lead to destructive tsunamis, as can volcanoes, huge landslides or the impact of large meteorites. A wide variety of organisms, including bacteria, algae, plants and animals, live in the sea, which offers a wide range of marine habitats and ecosystems, ranging vertically from the sunlit surface waters and the shoreline to the enormous depths and pressures of the cold, dark abyssal zone, in latitude from the cold waters under the Arctic ice to the colourful diversity of coral reefs in tropical regions.
Many of the major groups of organisms evolved in the sea and life may have started there. The sea provides substantial supplies of food for humans fish, but shellfish and seaweed, whether caught by fishermen or farmed underwater. Other human uses of the sea include trade, mineral extraction, power generation and leisure activities such as swimming and scuba diving. Many of these activities create marine pollution; the sea is important in human culture, with major appearances in literature at least since Homer's Odyssey, in marine art, in cinema, in theatre and in classical music. Symbolically, the sea appears as monsters such as Scylla in mythology and represents the unconscious mind in dream interpretation; the sea is the interconnected system of all the Earth's oceanic waters, including the Atlantic, Indian and Arctic Oceans. However, the word "sea" can be used for many specific, much smaller bodies of seawater, such as the North Sea or the Red Sea. There is no sharp distinction between seas and oceans, though seas are smaller, are partly or wholly bordered by land.
However, the Sargasso Sea has no coastline and lies within a circular current, the North Atlantic Gyre. Seas are larger than lakes and contain salt water, but the Sea of Galilee is a freshwater lake; the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea states that all of the ocean is "sea". Earth is the only known planet with seas of liquid water on its surface, although Mars possesses ice caps and similar planets in other solar systems may have oceans, it is still unclear where Earth's water came from, seen from space, our planet appears as a "blue marble" of its various forms: oceans, ice caps, clouds. Earth's 1,335,000,000 cubic kilometers of sea contain about 97.2 percent of its known water and cover more than 70 percent of its surface. Another 2.15% of Earth's water is frozen, found in the sea ice covering the Arctic Ocean, the ice cap covering Antarctica and its adjacent seas, various glaciers and surface deposits around the world. The remainder form underground reservoirs or various stages of the water cycle, containing the freshwater encountered and used by most terrestrial life: vapor in the air, the clouds it forms, the rain falling from them, the lakes and rivers spontaneously formed as its waters flow again and again to the sea.
The sea's dominance of the planet is such that the British author Arthur C. Clarke once noted that "Earth" would have been better named "Ocean"; the scientific study of water and Earth's water cycle is hydrology. The more recent study of the sea in particular is oceanography; this began as the study of the shape of the ocean's currents but has since expanded into a large and multidisciplinary field: it examines the properties of seawater. The subfield dealing with the sea's motion, its forces, the forces acting upon it is known as physical oceanography. Marine biology studies the plants and other organisms inhabiting marine ecosystems. Both are informed by chemical oceanography, which studies the behavior of elements and molecules within the oceans: at the moment, the ocean's role in the carbon cycle and carbon dioxide's role in the increasing acid
Bayonne is a city and commune and one of the two sub-prefectures of the department of Pyrénées-Atlantiques, in the Nouvelle-Aquitaine region of south-western France. It is located at the confluence of the Nive and Adour rivers in the northern part of the cultural region of the Basque Country, as well as the southern part of Gascony where the Aquitaine basin joins the beginning of the Pre-Pyrenees. Together with nearby Anglet, Saint-Jean-de-Luz, several smaller communes, Bayonne forms an urban area with 288,359 inhabitants at the 2012 census, 45,855 of whom lived in the city of Bayonne proper; the site on the left bank of the Nive and the Adour was occupied before ancient times as a fortified enclosure was attested in the 1st century at the time when the Tarbelli occupied the territory. Archaeological studies have confirmed the presence of a Roman castrum, a stronghold in Novempopulania at the end of the 4th century before the city was populated by the Vascones. In 1023 Bayonne was the capital of Labourd and, in the 12th century, extended to and beyond the Nive.
At that time the first bridge was built over the Adour. The city came under the domination of the English in 1152 through the marriage of Eleanor of Aquitaine: it became militarily and, above all, commercially important thanks to maritime trade, it was separated from the Viscount of Labourd in 1177 by Richard the Lion Heart. In 1451 the city was taken by the Crown of France after the Hundred Years' War; the loss of trade with the English and the silting up of the river as well as the movement of the city towards the north weakened it. The district of Saint-Esprit developed anyway thanks to the arrival of a Jewish population fleeing the Spanish Inquisition. From this community Bayonne gained its reputation for chocolate; the course of the Adour was changed in 1578 under the direction of Louis de Foix and the river returned to its former mouth, returning business lost to Bayonne for over a hundred years. In the 17th century the city was fortified by Vauban. In 1814 Bayonne and its surroundings were the scene of fighting between the Napoleonic troops and the Spanish-Anglo-Portuguese coalition led by the Duke of Wellington: the city underwent its final siege.
In 1951 the Lacq gas field was discovered whose extracted sulphur and associated oil are shipped from the port of Bayonne. During the second half of the 20th century many housing estates were built forming new districts on the periphery and the city was extended to form a conurbation with Anglet and Biarritz: this agglomeration became the heart of a vast Basque-Landes urban area. Bayonne was, in 2014, a commune with over 45,000 inhabitants, the heart of the urban area of Bayonne and of the Agglomeration Côte Basque-Adour which includes Anglet and Biarritz, it is an important part of the Basque Bayonne-San Sebastián Eurocity and it plays the role of economic capital of the Adour basin. Modern industry—metallurgy and chemicals—are established to take advantage of procurement opportunities and sea shipments through the harbour, it is now business services which today represent the largest source of employment. Bayonne is a cultural capital, a city with strong Basque and Gascon influences and a rich historical past.
Its heritage lies in its architecture, the diversity of collections in museums, its gastronomic specialties, traditional events such as the famous Fêtes de Bayonne. The inhabitants of the commune are known as Bayonnaises. Bayonne is located in the south-west of France on the western border between Basque Country and Gascony, it developed at the confluence of the Adour and tributary on the left bank, the Nive, 6 km from the Atlantic coast. The commune was part of the Basque province of Labourd. Bayonne occupies a territory characterized by a flat relief to the west and to the north towards the Landes forest, tending to raise towards the south and east; the city has developed at the confluence of the Nive 6 kilometres from the ocean. The meeting point of the two rivers coincides with a narrowing of the Adour valley. Above this the alluvial plain extends for nearly thirty kilometres towards both Tercis-les-Bains and Peyrehorade, is characterized by swampy meadows called barthes which are influenced by floods and high tides.
Downstream from this point the river has shaped a large bed in the sand dunes creating a significant bottleneck at the confluence. The occupation of the hill that dominates this narrowing of the valley developed through a gradual spread across the lowlands by building embankments and the aggradation from flood soil; the Nive has played a leading role in the development of the Bayonne river system in recent geological time by the formation of alluvial terraces that form the sub-soil of Bayonne beneath the surface accumulations of silt and aeolian sands. The drainage network of the western Pre-Pyrenees evolved from the Quaternary from south-east to northwest oriented east-west; the Adour was captured by the gaves and this system, together with the Nive, led to the emergence of a new alignment of the lower Adour and the Adour-Nive confluence. This capture has been dated to the early Quaternary. Before this capture the Nive had deposited pebbles from the Mindel glaciation of medium to large sizes that slowed erosion of the hills causing the bottleneck at Bayonne.
After the deposit of the lowest alluvial terrace, the course of the Adour became fixed in its lower reaches. Subsequent to these deposits there was a rise in sea level in the Holocene period which explains the invasion of the lower valleys with fine sand and mud with a thickness of m
The Eo is a river, 91 kilometres long, in northwestern Spain. Its estuary forms the boundary between the regions of Asturias; the river is known for its salmon fishing. List of rivers of Spain Rivers of Galicia Río Eo
The Pisueña River is located at northern Spain, in the area known as Green Spain. It flows through the autonomous community of Cantabria, it is tributary to the Pas. List of rivers of Spain