A film called a movie, motion picture, moving picture, or photoplay, is a series of still images that, when shown on a screen, create the illusion of moving images. This optical illusion causes the audience to perceive continuous motion between separate objects viewed in rapid succession; the process of filmmaking is both an industry. A film is created by photographing actual scenes with a motion-picture camera, by photographing drawings or miniature models using traditional animation techniques, by means of CGI and computer animation, or by a combination of some or all of these techniques, other visual effects; the word "cinema", short for cinematography, is used to refer to filmmaking and the film industry, to the art of filmmaking itself. The contemporary definition of cinema is the art of simulating experiences to communicate ideas, perceptions, beauty or atmosphere by the means of recorded or programmed moving images along with other sensory stimulations. Films were recorded onto plastic film through a photochemical process and shown through a movie projector onto a large screen.
Contemporary films are now fully digital through the entire process of production and exhibition, while films recorded in a photochemical form traditionally included an analogous optical soundtrack. Films are cultural artifacts created by specific cultures, they reflect those cultures. Film is considered to be an important art form, a source of popular entertainment, a powerful medium for educating—or indoctrinating—citizens; the visual basis of film gives it a universal power of communication. Some films have become popular worldwide attractions through the use of dubbing or subtitles to translate the dialog into other languages; the individual images that make up a film are called frames. In the projection of traditional celluloid films, a rotating shutter causes intervals of darkness as each frame, in turn, is moved into position to be projected, but the viewer does not notice the interruptions because of an effect known as persistence of vision, whereby the eye retains a visual image for a fraction of a second after its source disappears.
The perception of motion is due to a psychological effect called the phi phenomenon. The name "film" originates from the fact that photographic film has been the medium for recording and displaying motion pictures. Many other terms exist for an individual motion-picture, including picture, picture show, moving picture and flick; the most common term in the United States is movie. Common terms for the field in general include the big screen, the silver screen, the movies, cinema. In early years, the word sheet was sometimes used instead of screen. Preceding film in origin by thousands of years, early plays and dances had elements common to film: scripts, costumes, direction, audiences and scores. Much terminology used in film theory and criticism apply, such as mise en scène. Owing to the lack of any technology for doing so, the moving images and sounds could not be recorded for replaying as with film; the magic lantern created by Christiaan Huygens in the 1650s, could be used to project animation, achieved by various types of mechanical slides.
Two glass slides, one with the stationary part of the picture and the other with the part, to move, would be placed one on top of the other and projected together the moving slide would be hand-operated, either directly or by means of a lever or other mechanism. Chromotrope slides, which produced eye-dazzling displays of continuously cycling abstract geometrical patterns and colors, were operated by means of a small crank and pulley wheel that rotated a glass disc. In the mid-19th century, inventions such as Joseph Plateau's phenakistoscope and the zoetrope demonstrated that a designed sequence of drawings, showing phases of the changing appearance of objects in motion, would appear to show the objects moving if they were displayed one after the other at a sufficiently rapid rate; these devices relied on the phenomenon of persistence of vision to make the display appear continuous though the observer's view was blocked as each drawing rotated into the location where its predecessor had just been glimpsed.
Each sequence was limited to a small number of drawings twelve, so it could only show endlessly repeating cyclical motions. By the late 1880s, the last major device of this type, the praxinoscope, had been elaborated into a form that employed a long coiled band containing hundreds of images painted on glass and used the elements of a magic lantern to project them onto a screen; the use of sequences of photographs in such devices was limited to a few experiments with subjects photographed in a series of poses because the available emulsions were not sensitive enough to allow the short exposures needed to photograph subjects that were moving. The sensitivity was improved and in the late 1870s, Eadweard Muybridge created the first animated image sequences photographed in real-time. A row of cameras was used, each, in turn, capturing one image on a photographic glass plate, so the total number of images in each sequence was limited by the number of cameras, about two dozen at most. Muybridge used his system to analyze the movements of a wi
Los Angeles the City of Los Angeles and known by its initials L. A. is the most populous city in California, the second most populous city in the United States, after New York City, the third most populous city in North America. With an estimated population of four million, Los Angeles is the cultural and commercial center of Southern California; the city is known for its Mediterranean climate, ethnic diversity and the entertainment industry, its sprawling metropolis. Los Angeles is the largest city on the West Coast of North America. Los Angeles is in a large basin bounded by the Pacific Ocean on one side and by mountains as high as 10,000 feet on the other; the city proper, which covers about 469 square miles, is the seat of Los Angeles County, the most populated county in the country. Los Angeles is the principal city of the Los Angeles metropolitan area, the second largest in the United States after that of New York City, with a population of 13.1 million. It is part of the Los Angeles-Long Beach combined statistical area the nation's second most populous area with a 2015 estimated population of 18.7 million.
Los Angeles is one of the most substantial economic engines within the United States, with a diverse economy in a broad range of professional and cultural fields. Los Angeles is famous as the home of Hollywood, a major center of the world entertainment industry. A global city, it has been ranked 6th in the Global Cities Index and 9th in the Global Economic Power Index; the Los Angeles metropolitan area has a gross metropolitan product of $1.044 trillion, making it the third-largest in the world, after the Tokyo and New York metropolitan areas. Los Angeles hosted the 1932 and 1984 Summer Olympics and will host the event for a third time in 2028; the city hosted the Miss Universe pageant twice, in 1990 and 2006, was one of 9 American cities to host the 1994 FIFA men's soccer World Cup and one of 8 to host the 1999 FIFA women's soccer World Cup, hosting the final match for both tournaments. Home to the Chumash and Tongva, Los Angeles was claimed by Juan Rodríguez Cabrillo for Spain in 1542 along with the rest of what would become Alta California.
The city was founded on September 4, 1781, by Spanish governor Felipe de Neve. It became a part of Mexico in 1821 following the Mexican War of Independence. In 1848, at the end of the Mexican–American War, Los Angeles and the rest of California were purchased as part of the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo, becoming part of the United States. Los Angeles was incorporated as a municipality on April 4, 1850, five months before California achieved statehood; the discovery of oil in the 1890s brought rapid growth to the city. The completion of the Los Angeles Aqueduct in 1913, delivering water from Eastern California assured the city's continued rapid growth; the Los Angeles coastal area was settled by the Chumash tribes. A Gabrieleño settlement in the area was called iyáangẚ, meaning "poison oak place". Maritime explorer Juan Rodríguez Cabrillo claimed the area of southern California for the Spanish Empire in 1542 while on an official military exploring expedition moving north along the Pacific coast from earlier colonizing bases of New Spain in Central and South America.
Gaspar de Portolà and Franciscan missionary Juan Crespí, reached the present site of Los Angeles on August 2, 1769. In 1771, Franciscan friar Junípero Serra directed the building of the Mission San Gabriel Arcángel, the first mission in the area. On September 4, 1781, a group of forty-four settlers known as "Los Pobladores" founded the pueblo they called El Pueblo de Nuestra Señora la Reina de los Ángeles,'The Town of Our Lady the Queen of the Angels'; the present-day city has the largest Roman Catholic Archdiocese in the United States. Two-thirds of the Mexican or settlers were mestizo or mulatto, a mixture of African and European ancestry; the settlement remained a small ranch town for decades, but by 1820, the population had increased to about 650 residents. Today, the pueblo is commemorated in the historic district of Los Angeles Pueblo Plaza and Olvera Street, the oldest part of Los Angeles. New Spain achieved its independence from the Spanish Empire in 1821, the pueblo continued as a part of Mexico.
During Mexican rule, Governor Pío Pico made Los Angeles Alta California's regional capital. Mexican rule ended during the Mexican–American War: Americans took control from the Californios after a series of battles, culminating with the signing of the Treaty of Cahuenga on January 13, 1847. Railroads arrived with the completion of the transcontinental Southern Pacific line to Los Angeles in 1876 and the Santa Fe Railroad in 1885. Petroleum was discovered in the city and surrounding area in 1892, by 1923, the discoveries had helped California become the country's largest oil producer, accounting for about one-quarter of the world's petroleum output. By 1900, the population had grown to more than 102,000; the completion of the Los Angeles Aqueduct in 1913, under the supervision of William Mulholland, assured the continued growth of the city. Due to clauses in the city's charter that prevented the City of Los Angeles from selling or providing water from the aqueduct to any area outside its borders, many adjacent city and communities became compelled to annex themselves into Los Angeles.
Los Angeles created the first municipal zoning ordinance in the United States. On September 14, 1908, the Los Angeles City Council promulgated residential and industrial land use zones; the new ordinance established three residential zones of a single type, where industrial uses were
Saul Hudson, better known by his stage name Slash, is a British–American musician and songwriter. He is the lead guitarist of the American hard rock band Guns N' Roses, with whom he achieved worldwide success in the late 1980s and early 1990s. Slash has received critical acclaim and is considered one of the greatest guitarists in rock history. In 1993, Slash formed. Slash has released four solo albums: Slash, featuring an array of guest musicians, Apocalyptic Love, World on Fire and Living the Dream recorded with his band, Myles Kennedy and the Conspirators, he returned to Guns N' Roses in 2016. Time magazine named him runner-up on their list of "The 10 Best Electric Guitar Players" in 2009, while Rolling Stone placed him at number 65 on their list of "The 100 Greatest Guitarists of All Time" in 2011. Guitar World ranked his guitar solo in "November Rain" number 6 on their list of "The 100 Greatest Guitar Solos" in 2008, Total Guitar placed his riff in "Sweet Child o' Mine" at number 1 on their list of "The 100 Greatest Riffs" in 2004.
In 2010, Gibson Guitar Corporation ranked Slash as number 34 on their "Top 50 Guitarists of All Time", while their readers landed him number 9 on Gibson's "Top 25 Guitarists of All Time". In 2012, he was inducted into the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame as a member of Guns N' Roses' classic lineup. Hudson was born in London, he was named after an artist. His mother, Ola J. Hudson, was an African-American costume designer, whose clients included David Bowie. Of his mixed background, Slash remarked, "As a musician, I've always been amused that I'm both British and black. During his early years, Slash was raised by his father and paternal grandparents in Stoke-on-Trent, while his mother moved to Los Angeles for work; when Slash was around five years old, he and his father joined his mother in Los Angeles, California. His brother, Albion "Ash" Hudson, was born in 1972. Following his parents' separation in 1974, Slash became a self-described "problem child." He chose to live with his mother and was sent to live with his beloved maternal grandmother whenever his mother had to travel for her job.
Slash sometimes accompanied his mother to work, where he met several music stars. He was given the nickname "Slash" by actor Seymour Cassel, because he was "always in a hurry, zipping around from one thing to another."In 1979, Slash decided to form a band with his friend Steven Adler. The band never materialized. Since Adler had designated himself the role of guitarist, Slash decided to learn. Equipped with a one-string flamenco guitar given to him by his grandmother, he began taking classes with Robert Wolin, a teacher at Fairfax Music School. During his first lesson, Slash decided to switch from bass to guitar after hearing Wolin play "Brown Sugar" by The Rolling Stones, his decision to play guitar was further influenced by one of his school teachers, who would play songs by Cream and Led Zeppelin for his students. As a result, Slash stated, "When I heard him do that, I said,'That's what I want to do." A champion BMX rider, Slash put the bike aside to devote himself to playing guitar, practicing up to 12 hours a day.
Slash was a classmate of Lenny Kravitz and Zoro. Slash joined his first band, Tidus Sloan, in 1981. In 1983, he formed the band Road Crew—named after the Motörhead song " The Road Crew"—with his childhood friend Steven Adler, who by had learned to play drums, he placed an advertisement in a newspaper looking for a bassist, received a response from Duff McKagan. They auditioned a number of singers, including one-time Black Flag vocalist Ron Reyes, worked on material that included the main riff of what would become the Guns N' Roses song "Rocket Queen." Slash disbanded the group the following year due to them not being able to find a singer, as well as Adler's lack of work ethic compared to himself and McKagan. He, along with Adler joined a local band known as Hollywood Rose, which featured singer Axl Rose and guitarist Izzy Stradlin. Following his time with Hollywood Rose, Slash played in a band called Black Sheep and unsuccessfully auditioned for Poison, a glam metal band that he would openly deride.
In June 1985, Slash was asked by Axl Rose and Izzy Stradlin to join the newly founded Guns N' Roses, along with Duff McKagan and Steven Adler. They played Los Angeles-area nightclubs—such as the Whisky a Go Go, The Roxy, The Troubadour—and opened for larger acts throughout 1985 and 1986. Before one of the shows in 1985, Slash shoplifted a black felt top hat and a Native American-style silver concho belt from two stores on Melrose Avenue in L. A, he combined the hat with parts of the belt to create a piece of custom headwear for the show. He said he "felt cool" in the hat, it became his trademark, it was during 1985–1986 that the band wrote most of its classic material, including "Welcome to the Jungle," "Sweet Child o' Mine", "Paradise City," As a result of their rowdy and rebellious behavior, Guns N' Roses received the moniker "Most Dangerous Band in the World," causing Sl
Pastrami is a meat product made from beef, sometimes from pork, mutton, or turkey. The raw meat is brined dried, seasoned with herbs and spices smoked and steamed. Beef plate is the traditional cut of meat for making pastrami, although it is now common in the United States to see it made from beef brisket, beef round, turkey. Like corned beef, pastrami was created as a way to preserve meat before refrigeration; the name pastrami comes from Romanian pastramă, a declination of the Romanian verb păstra meaning "to conserve food, to keep something for a long duration" whose etymology is linked to the Bulgarian pastrija or to the Greek παστραμάς/παστουρμάς, itself borrowed from Turkish pastırma, short for Turkish: bastırma et "pressed meat." Wind-dried beef had been made in Anatolia for centuries, Byzantine dried meat is thought by some to be "one of the forerunners of the pastirma of modern Turkey". Early references in English used the spelling "pastrama", closer to the Romanian pastramă. Pastrami was introduced to the United States in a wave of Jewish immigration from Bessarabia and Romania in the second half of the 19th century.
The modified "pastrami" spelling was introduced in imitation of the American English salami. Romanian Jews emigrated to New York as early as 1872. Among Jewish Romanians, goose breasts were made into pastrami because they were inexpensive. Beef navel was cheaper than goose meat in America, so the Romanian Jews in America adapted their recipe and began to make the cheaper-alternative beef pastrami. New York's Sussman Volk is credited with producing the first pastrami sandwich in the United States in 1887. Volk, a kosher butcher and New York immigrant from Lithuania, claimed he got the recipe from a Romanian friend in exchange for storing the friend's luggage while the friend returned to Romania. According to his descendant, Patricia Volk, he prepared pastrami according to the recipe and served it on sandwiches out of his butcher shop; the sandwich was so popular that Volk converted the butcher shop into a restaurant to sell pastrami sandwiches. New York pastrami is made from the navel end of the brisket.
It is cured in brine, coated with a mix of spices such as garlic, black pepper, cloves and mustard seed, smoked. The meat is steamed until the connective tissues within the meat break down into gelatin. Greek immigrants to Salt Lake City in the early 1960s introduced a cheeseburger topped with pastrami and a special sauce; the pastrami cheeseburger has since remained a staple of local burger chains in Utah. Bündnerfleisch Pastırma – Cured dried beef seasoned with a special spice paste called çemen Pastramă List of dried foods List of smoked foods Montreal-style smoked meat Corned beef – Salt-cured beef product Food portal Specific GeneralUrsula Heinzelmann, "Rauchware aus der Querrippe" in Frankfurter Allgemeine Sonntagszeitung p. 50
Yom Kippur known as the Day of Atonement, is the holiest day of the year in Judaism. Its central themes are repentance. Jewish people traditionally observe this holy day with an approximate 25-hour period of fasting and intensive prayer spending most of the day in synagogue services. Yom means "day" in Hebrew and Kippur comes from a root that means "to atone". Yom Kippur is expressed in English as "Day of Atonement". Yom Kippur is "the tenth day of seventh month" and is regarded as the "Sabbath of Sabbaths". Rosh Hashanah is the first day of that month according to the Hebrew calendar. On this day forgiveness of sins is asked of God. Yom Kippur completes the annual period known in Judaism as the High Holy Days or Yamim Nora'im that commences with Rosh Hashanah. According to Jewish tradition, God inscribes each person's fate for the coming year into a book, the Book of Life, on Rosh Hashanah, waits until Yom Kippur to "seal" the verdict. During the Days of Awe, a Jew tries to amend his or her behavior and seek forgiveness for wrongs done against God and against other human beings.
The evening and day of Yom Kippur are set aside for public and private petitions and confessions of guilt. At the end of Yom Kippur, one hopes; the Yom Kippur prayer service includes several unique aspects. One is the actual number of prayer services. Unlike a regular day, which has three prayer services, or a Shabbat or Yom Tov, which have four prayer services, Yom Kippur has five prayer services; the prayer services include private and public confessions of sins and a unique prayer dedicated to the special Yom Kippur avodah of the Kohen Gadol in the Holy Temple in Jerusalem. As one of the most culturally significant Jewish holidays, Yom Kippur is observed by many secular Jews who may not observe other holidays. Many secular Jews attend synagogue on Yom Kippur—for many secular Jews the High Holy Days are the only times of the year during which they attend synagogue—causing synagogue attendance to soar. Erev Yom Kippur is the day preceding Yom Kippur, corresponding to the ninth day of the Hebrew month of Tishrei.
This day is commemorated with additional morning prayers, asking others for forgiveness, giving charity, performing the kapparot ritual, an extended afternoon prayer service, two festive meals. Leviticus 16:29 mandates establishment of this holy day on the 10th day of the 7th month as the day of atonement for sins, it calls it the Sabbath of a day upon which one must afflict one's soul. Leviticus 23:27 decrees. Five additional prohibitions are as detailed in the Jewish oral tradition; the number five is a set number, relating to: In the Yom Kippur section of the Torah, the word soul appears five times. The soul is known by five separate names: soul, spirit, living one and unique one. Unlike regular days, which have three prayer services, Yom Kippur has five- Maariv, Mussaf and Neilah The Kohen Gadol rinsed himself in the mikveh five times on Yom Kippur; the traditions are as follows: No eating and drinking No wearing of leather shoes No bathing or washing No anointing oneself with perfumes or lotions No marital relationsA parallel has been drawn between these activities and the human condition according to the Biblical account of the expulsion from the garden of Eden.
Refraining from these symbolically represents a return to a pristine state, the theme of the day. By refraining from these activities, the body can still survive; the soul is considered to be the life force in a body. Therefore, by making one’s body uncomfortable, one’s soul is uncomfortable. By feeling pain one can feel; this is the purpose of the prohibitions. Total abstention from food and drink as well as keeping the other traditions begins at sundown, ends after nightfall the following day. One should add a few minutes to the beginning and end of the day, called tosefet Yom Kippur, lit. "addition to Yom Kippur". Although the fast is required of all healthy men over 13 or women over 12, it is waived in the case of certain medical conditions. All Jewish holidays involve meals, but since Yom Kippur involves fasting, Jewish law requires one to eat a large and festive meal on the afternoon before Yom Kippur, after the Mincha prayer; this meal is meant to make up for the inability to eat a large meal on the day of Yom Kippur instead, due to the prohibition from eating or drinking.
Wearing white clothing, is traditional to symbolize one's purity on this day. Many Orthodox men immerse themselves in a mikveh on the day before Yom Kippur. In order to gain atonement from God, one must: Pray Repent of one's sins Give to charity Before sunset on Yom Kippur eve, worshipers gather in the synagogue; the Ark is opened and two people take from it two Sifrei Torah. They take their places, one on each side of the Hazzan, the three recite: In the tribunal of Heaven and the tribunal of earth, we hold it lawful to pray with transgressors; the cantor chants the Kol Nidre prayer. It is recited in Aramaic, its name "Kol Nidre" is taken fro
Curb Your Enthusiasm
Curb Your Enthusiasm is an American comedy television series produced and broadcast by HBO that premiered on October 15, 2000. The series was created by Larry David starring as a fictionalized version of himself; the series follows Larry in his life as a semi-retired television writer and producer in Los Angeles and, for one season, New York City. Starring are Cheryl Hines as his wife Cheryl, Jeff Garlin as his manager and best friend Jeff, Susie Essman as Jeff's wife Susie. Curb Your Enthusiasm features guest stars, many of these appearances are by celebrities playing versions of themselves fictionalized to varying degrees; the plots and subplots of the episodes are established in an outline written by David, the dialogue is improvised by the actors. As with Seinfeld, which David co-created, the subject matter in Curb Your Enthusiasm involves the minutiae of American daily social life, plots revolve around Larry David's many faux pas and his problems with certain social conventions and expectations, as well as his annoyance with other people's behavior.
The character has a hard time letting such annoyances go unexpressed, which leads him into awkward situations. He is routinely the victim of elaborate misunderstandings wherein other characters believe that he has done something morally terrible or disgusting; the series was developed from a 1999 one-hour special, Larry David: Curb Your Enthusiasm, which David and HBO envisioned as a one-time project. The special was shot as a mockumentary, where the characters were aware of the presence of cameras and a crew; the series itself is not a mock documentary but is shot in a somewhat similar, cinéma vérité-like style. Curb Your Enthusiasm has grown in popularity since its debut, it has been nominated for 38 Primetime Emmy Awards, Robert B. Weide received an Emmy for Outstanding Directing for a Comedy Series for the episode "Krazee Eyez Killa"; the show won the 2002 Golden Globe Award for Best Television Series -- Comedy. After the eighth season concluded in September 2011, Curb Your Enthusiasm went on an indefinite hiatus.
The series returned for a ninth season in October 2017, while a tenth season is in production as of October 2018. David has explained the show's title in TV interviews as reflecting his perception that many people seem to live their lives projecting false enthusiasm, which he believes is used to imply that "they are better than you"; this conflicts with his dry style. The title urges the audience not to expect too much from the show; the series stars Larry David as an extreme fictionalized version of himself. Like the real-life David, the character is well known as the co-creator and main co-writer of the successful sitcom Seinfeld. Although David maintains an office, he leads a semiretired life and is shown working. Most of the series revolves around David's interactions with his friends and acquaintances, with David at odds with the other characters to his detriment. Despite this, the characters do not seem to harbor ill feelings toward each other for any extended period, the cast has stayed stable throughout the show.
For most of the series, the Larry David character is living a married-without-children life in Los Angeles with his wife Cheryl. David's main confidant on the show is his manager Jeff Greene, who has a temperamental and persistently vulgar wife named Susie. A large portion of the show's many guest stars are celebrities and public figures, such as actors, comedians and politicians, who play fictionalized versions of themselves; these include David's longtime friend Richard Lewis as well as Ted Danson and his wife Mary Steenburgen. The show is set and filmed in various affluent Westside communities of Los Angeles, as well as in the adjacent cities of Beverly Hills, Culver City and Santa Monica. David's hometown of New York City is featured in some episodes. Curb Your Enthusiasm premiered with an hour-long special on October 17, 1999, upon which the series was based; the first eight seasons of the series aired from 2000 to 2011, leading to a prolonged six-year hiatus. The series returned for a ninth season in 2017, while a tenth season has been in production as of October 2018.
The episodes are named after an event, object, or person that figures prominently in the plot to how Seinfeld episodes were named. Many episodes concern breaches of intricate aspects of social conventions, such as the various details of tipping at restaurants, the obligation to "stop and chat" upon meeting an acquaintance. Unrelated events woven throughout a given episode are tied into an unforced climax that resolves the story lines either to Larry's advantage or detriment. While each episode has a distinct individual plot, most seasons feature a story arc that extends across several episodes and culminates in a finale that features the return of many of the characters that appeared throughout the season. Larry David – Candid, but disposed to pursue what he perceives to be the right course, Larry finds himself in awkward situations that arise as a result of his obstinate belief in his own ethical principles and codes of conduct, which he is prepared to bend when it suits him, he has good intentions but finds himself a victim of circumstance and social convention, as many of the people around him are self-centered and stubborn.
He focuses on petty details and stubbornly holds to his
Guns N' Roses
Guns N' Roses abbreviated as GNR, is an American hard rock band from Los Angeles, formed in 1985. When they signed to Geffen Records in 1986, the band comprised vocalist Axl Rose, lead guitarist Slash, rhythm guitarist Izzy Stradlin, bassist Duff McKagan, drummer Steven Adler; the current lineup consists of Rose, Slash, McKagan, keyboardist Dizzy Reed, guitarist Richard Fortus, drummer Frank Ferrer and keyboardist Melissa Reese. Guns N' Roses' debut album, Appetite for Destruction, reached number one on the Billboard 200 a year after its release, on the strength of the Top 10 singles "Welcome to the Jungle", "Paradise City", "Sweet Child o' Mine", the band's only single to reach number one on the Billboard Hot 100; the album has sold 30 million copies worldwide, including 18 million units in the United States, making it the country's bestselling debut album and eleventh-bestselling album. Their next studio album, G N' R Lies, reached number two on the Billboard 200, sold ten million copies worldwide, included the Top 5 hit "Patience".
Use Your Illusion I and Use Your Illusion II, recorded and released in 1991, debuted at number two and number one on the Billboard 200 and have sold a combined 35 million copies worldwide, including 14 million units in the United States. The Illusion albums included the lead single "You Could Be Mine", covers of "Live and Let Die" and "Knockin’ on Heaven’s Door", a trilogy of ballads, which featured notably high-budget music videos; the Illusion records were supported by the extensive Use Your Illusion Tour, a world tour that lasted from 1991-1993. "The Spaghetti Incident?", an album of covers, was the band's last studio album to feature Slash and McKagan. Work on a follow up album stalled due to creative differences between band members. After a more than a decade of work and several lineup changes, Guns N' Roses's long-awaited sixth studio album Chinese Democracy, was released. At an estimated $14 million in production costs, it is the most expensive rock album in history, it debuted at number three on the Billboard 200, but undersold industry expectations despite positive critical reception.
Slash and McKagan rejoined the band in 2016 for the Not in This Lifetime... Tour, which became the second-highest-grossing concert tour on record, grossing over $562 million by December 2018. In their early years, the band's hedonism and rebelliousness drew comparisons to the early Rolling Stones and earned them the nickname "the most dangerous band in the world." The band's classic lineup, along with members Reed and drummer Matt Sorum, was inducted into the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame in 2012, its first year of eligibility. Guns N' Roses have sold more than 100 million records worldwide, including 45 million in the United States, making them the 41st-bestselling artist in history. In 1984, Hollywood Rose member Izzy Stradlin was living with L. A. Guns member Tracii Guns; when L. A. Guns needed a new vocalist, Stradlin suggested Hollywood Rose singer Axl Rose. Months Guns N' Roses was formed in March 1985 by Rose, rhythm guitarist Stradlin, along with L. A. Guns founders lead drummer Rob Gardner and bassist Ole Beich.
The band coined its name by combining the names of both previous groups. Rejected names for the band included "Heads of Amazon" and "AIDS", their first show, promoted as "L. A. Guns and Hollywood Rose presents Guns N Roses", was on March 26, 1985. After this show, Beich was replaced by Duff McKagan. Around this time, the band planned to release an EP with "Don't Cry", a cover of "Heartbreak Hotel", "Think About You" and "Anything Goes". However, plans for the release fell through, as Guns left the band after an argument with Rose leading to his replacement by Rose and Stradlin's one-time Hollywood Rose bandmate, Slash. Gardner was replaced by another former Hollywood Rose member, Steven Adler. Slash had previously played with McKagan and Adler in Road Crew; the band's "classic" lineup was finalized on June 4, 1985 when Adler and Slash joined. After two days of rehearsals, the band played their first show with the lineup on June 6, 1985. Two days the band embarked on a short, disorganized tour of the West Coast, from Sacramento, California, to McKagan's hometown of Seattle, Washington.
The band drove in a separate van and had to abandon their gear when both vans broke down on the way to Seattle, forcing them to hitch-hike up the coast and back home to LA with only their guitars. The so-called "Hell Tour" settled the band's first stable lineup, with McKagan commenting, "This trip had set a new benchmark for what we were capable of, what we could and would put ourselves through to achieve our goals as a band."Through the band's increasing presence on the Hollywood club scene – playing famed bars such as The Troubadour and The Roxy – Guns N' Roses drew the attention of major record labels. The group signed with Geffen Records in March 1986, they had turned down an offer from Chrysalis Records, nearly double Geffen's, due to Chrysalis wanting to change the band's image and sound and Geffen offering full artistic freedom. In December of that year, the group released the four-song EP Live?!*@ Like a Suicide, designed to keep interest in the band alive while the group withdrew from the club scene to work in the studio.
The EP release was designed to sooth over the label, who felt the band didn't have enough songs to record an album. The EP contained covers of Ro