Penrith, New South Wales
Penrith is a suburb and major centre in the metropolitan area of Sydney, New South Wales, Australia. It is located in Greater Western Sydney, 50 kilometres west of the Sydney central business district on the banks of the Nepean River, on the outskirts of the Cumberland Plain, its elevation is 25 metres. Penrith is the administrative centre of the local government area of the City of Penrith, it is acknowledged on the register of the Geographical Names Board of New South Wales as one of only four cities within the Sydney metropolitan area. Prior to the arrival of the Europeans, the Penrith area was home to the Mulgoa tribe of the Darug people, they lived in makeshift huts called gunyahs, hunted native animals such as kangaroos, fished in the Nepean River, gathered local fruits and vegetables such as yams. They lived under an elaborate system of Law. Most of the Mulgoa were killed by smallpox or galgala shortly after the arrival of the First Fleet in 1788. Early British explorers such as Watkin Tench described them as friendly, saying, "they bade us adieu, in unabated friendship and good humour".
The recorded history of Penrith began on 26 June 1789. Eighteen months after the landing of the First Fleet, an exploring party led by Captain Watkin Tench set out to further discoveries made by Governor Arthur Phillip earlier in the month. In the daylight hours of 27 June and his party discovered the broad expanse of the Nepean River. Tench's party became the first Europeans to see the site of. Tench wrote ‘we found ourselves on the banks of a river, nearly as broad as the at Putney and of great depth’. Phillip named the river after Evan Nepean, the under-secretary of state in the Home Office, responsible for the organisation of the First Fleet. From this point, European settlement began in earnest, firstly on the Hawkesbury River, southward up the Nepean. Governor Phillip Gidley King began granting land in the area to settlers in 1804 with Captain Daniel Woodriff's 1,000 acres on the banks of the river the first land grant in the area; the first government building in the district was the military depot built by William Cox, in mid-1815 near the new Road on unassigned Crown land, set well back from the river.
It represented the formalisation of order in the district. Its placement seems to have been a practical decision by Cox, placing it on flood-free Crown land on the new road to Parramatta, just east of Woodriff’s Rodley Farm. Governor Lachlan Macquarie paid Cox £200 for ‘erecting a Depot for Provisions, Guard House, erecting necessary Enclosures for cattle and Garden Ground, Frame for a Well … on the new near Emu Ford’. At this time, Emu Ford was one of the few locality names. In 1816 Cox mentioned the lockup among a list of expenses. There appears little doubt that he was referring to the depot, referred to as Penrith; the name for the new depot, may have been misinterpreted by others. Penrhyn was named after the First Fleet ship that carried women convicts, the Lady Penrhyn. There is no historical evidence to prove Macquarie's hand in naming the depot considering he endowed and recorded benefactors with that favour. Furthermore, Macquarie would have ensured. No documentary evidence has shed any light on Macquarie’s reasoning for the placement of this depot and its connection with his vision for a township at Castlereagh.
What is clear is that the origin of the name, Penrith is steeped in mystery. Penrith was named after Penrith in Cumbria by someone who knew the old town and who noted geographical similarities. By 1819, the name Penrith was in use with its first reference in the Sydney Gazette on 8 December 1821 appointing John Proctor as keeper of the new gaol and court house; the lockup at Penrith placed government order in the centre of the Evan district. This group of buildings became the point of contact for local administration for anything ranging from issuing publican’s licences, holding inquests and church services. Although a magistrate had been appointed to Castlereagh in 1811, the Penrith lockup increased in importance with its promotion to a court house in 1817. A bench of magistrates was appointed: Sir John Jamison, the Reverend Henry Fulton, John McHenry and a military officer from the regiment stationed there. In 1814, William Cox constructed a road across the Blue Mountains which passed through Woodriff's land at Penrith.
Initial settlement in the area was unplanned but substantial enough for a courthouse to be established in 1817. The post office was established in 1828, the Anglican church, St Stephens, was opened and consecrated 16 July 1839 followed by the Catholic Church, St Nicholas of Myra, in 1850. Two other prominent Penrith pioneers were Irish-born Thomas Jamison, a member of the First Fleet and surgeon-general of New South Wales, his son, the landowner and constitutional reformer Sir John Jamison. In 1824, Sir John erected the colony's finest Georgian mansion, Regentville House, near Penrith, on a ridge overlooking the Nepean River. Sir John established an impressive agricultural estate at Regentville and became a Member of the New South Wales Legislative Council, his grave can be seen in St Stephen's graveyard. Regentville House burned down in 1868 but most of its stonework was salvaged and used for building projects in and around Penrith; the first bridge, financed by local business James Tobias Ryan was opened over the Nepean in 1856 and was washed away the following
New South Wales Rugby League
The New South Wales Rugby League is the governing body of rugby league in New South Wales and the Australian Capital Territory and is a member of the Australian Rugby League Commission. It was formed in Sydney on 8 August 1907 and was known as the New South Wales Rugby Football League until 1984. From 1908 to 1994, the NSWRL ran Sydney's New South Wales', Australia's top-level rugby league club competition from their headquarters on Phillip Street, Sydney; the organisation is responsible for administering the New South Wales rugby league team. The following clubs are the member clubs of the NSWRL; the New South Wales Rugby Football League was responsible for the introduction of rugby league into New South Wales in 1907. Since that time the NSWRFL has built a rich tradition at all levels of the game. Great names and great games illuminate the League's growth since 1907 up to the present day; the NSWRFL was formed in August 1907, when player discontent with the administration of the New South Wales Rugby Union, over rejection of compensation payments for injuries and lost wages, led to a breakaway movement.
Key figures in the new movement were James Joseph Giltinan, legendary cricketer Victor Trumper, Alex Burdon, Peter Moir, Labor politician Henry Hoyle, George Brackenreg and Jack Feneley. The first rugby league game in New South Wales was played on 17 August 1907, in which New Zealand defeated New South Wales Rugby League team 12–8; the Sydney premiership was started on 20 April 1908. Nine teams contested the initial season, they were: Balmain Tigers Cumberland Fruitpickers Eastern Suburbs Roosters Glebe Dirty Reds Newcastle Rebels Newtown Jets North Sydney Bears Western Suburbs Magpies South Sydney RabbitohsThe NSWRFL premiership was continued on the successful basis of the first competition in 1908. In 1929 Jersey Flegg was appointed to the position of president of the NSWRFL and in 1941 he became chairman of the Australian Rugby League Board of Control. At the time of his death in 1960, aged 82, he was still serving in these roles; when NSWRFL president Flegg died in 1960, Bill Buckley replaced him and became boss of the Australian Rugby League, a position he remained in from 1960 until his death in 1973.
In 1973 Kevin Humphreys was appointed President of New South Wales Rugby League and Chairman of Australian Rugby League. Under him State of Origin was introduced. In 1983 Humphreys was succeeded in these positions by Ken Arthurson. Under Arthurson the clubs in the NSWRL expanded outside the borders of the state and the country until in 1994, after administering its 87th consecutive premiership season, the NSWRL was replaced by the Australian Rugby League as club football's peak administrative body. Notwithstanding the hand over of control of the game at the elite level across Australia to the Commission, the NSWRL did retain responsibility for both the administration of the New South Wales rugby league team in State of Origin series, as well as day-to-day management of the state-based New South Wales Cup second-tier premiership, as well as junior representative competitions and divisional leagues throughout NSW and the ACT, it does so in conjunction with the NSW Country Rugby League. In a similar way, the rival Queensland Rugby League retained responsibility for that state's Origin team and lower tier competitions.
The Royal Agricultural Society Shield, or RAS Shield was the New South Wales Rugby League's first premiership trophy. It was presented to each year's premiership winning rugby league team; the Eastern Suburbs club achieved this feat winning premierships in 1911, 1912 and 1913. The hand crafted silver and oak designed shield was donated to the NSWRL by the Royal Agricultural Society of New South Wales in its first year of competition. Leading journalist Claude Corbett wrote in Sydney, newspaper on, 1 May 1914, "The Royal Agricultural Society Shield, presented at the inception of the League's first grade competition has been won outright by Eastern Suburbs, who upset all calculations by winning the premiership three years in succession; the club has presented the shield to their captain, Dally Messenger,'as a token of appreciation of his captaincy." In 1929 Jersey Flegg was appointed to the position of president of the NSWRFL. Midway through the 1909 season, Edward Larkin was appointed full-time secretary of the NSWRFL.
In 1951, the NSWRFL originated the J. J. Giltinan Shield, following his death in 1950; this trophy was awarded to the premiers of the NSWRFL competition, being named after one of the founding fathers of the NSWRFL and rugby league in Australia. The trophy remains today, being awarded to the minor premiers of the National Rugby League competition. Following Jersey Flegg's death in 1960, Bill Buckley was made the NSWRFL's new president. In 1967 the NSWRFL grand final became the first football grand final of any code to be televised live in Australia; the Nine Network had paid $5,000 for the broadcasting rights. In 1973 NSWRFL boss Kevin Humphreys negotiated rugby league's first television deal with the Australian Broadcasting Corporation; the NSWRFL had commenced a popular and successful mid-week competition in 1974 known as the Amco Cup, but as the Tooth Cup and the National Panasonic Cup. The success of this competition, which included teams from both Brisbane and New Zealand created pressure for further expansion in the NSWRFL competition.
In 1980, the NSWRFL President Kevin Humphries, chairman of the League since 1973, was instrumental in the establishment of the State of Origin series between teams representing the NSWRFL and Queensland Rugby League. The immediate success o
Penrose, New Zealand
Penrose is an industrial suburb in Auckland, New Zealand. It is located to the southeast of the city centre, at a distance of about nine kilometres, between the suburbs of Oranga and Mount Wellington, close to the Mangere Inlet, an arm of the Manukau Harbour. According to the 2006 census, Penrose has a population of only 675, due to the high intensity of industrial and commercial sites in the area. In 2008, there were 44,975 employees and 4,998 businesses in the Penrose area, 14 per cent of Auckland City's employment, making up seven per cent of its businesses. Of these, 16% were in manufacturing, 14% in wholesale trade, 10% in administrative and support services, 10% in professional and technical services, 8% in construction and 6% in transport and warehousing business types; the area was purchased from three local Maori Chiefs by The Wiiliams family in the late 1830s, the farm being called Penrose after their home area in Cornwall, England. The railway line between Auckland and Onehunga running through Penrose was one of the first Government funded railways in New Zealand, being opened in 1873.
It was built by the Auckland provincial government. Industry started to flourish in the area from the 1920s, due to its close connection to the main railway line and the main road with these important transport links strengthened by the motorway built following the same alignment in the 1950s. By this time, around 5,000 workers were employed in the suburb; the new motorway and the move of industrial and manufacturing occupations out of older centres like the Auckland CBD soon started a boom in the Penrose-Mount Wellington area. Industry successfully lobbied for state housing to be built close by, to provide the new area with a supply of labour. To this day, the area remains exclusively industrial, with a mix of run-down areas and newly established sites. Despite the low local population, Penrose is the site of the former Penrose High School, which in 2008 renamed itself One Tree Hill College, to shed the'industrial' associations of the name; the school attracts many students from out of the suburb, many of its students coming from as far as 20 km away.
Other State secondary schools serving the area include St Peter's College. The turnoff of the Onehunga Branch railway line from the North Auckland Line is located in Penrose; the Auckland Japanese Supplementary School, a Japanese supplementary school, holds its classes at One Tree Hill College. Penrose is home to the New Zealand Warriors. Photographs of Penrose held in Auckland Libraries' heritage collections
Penrith Stadium is a rugby league and association football stadium located in Penrith, New South Wales, Australia. The 22,500 capacity venue is the home ground for the Penrith Panthers who play in the National Rugby League; the all-time attendance record for the venue is 22,582 in a match between the Panthers and their Western Sydney rivals Parramatta on 17 July 2010. Panthers Stadium has been used by the Penrith Panthers since their entry into the National Rugby League competition in 1967; the Stadium only had one main grandstand, the Western grandstand while the ground itself was oval in shape. In the 1980s, the stadium was redeveloped into a rectangle arena more suitable for rugby league and other sports such as association football and rugby union; this redevelopment saw the construction of the Eastern Grandstand. In 2006, a joint Federal and State Government funding project saw $30 million worth of investments come to the Stadium. In the subsequent developments, the Western Grandstand was revamped.
Following the completion of the project, the Stadium now holds 8,000 seats in the Grandstand. Two of Samoa's 2008 Rugby League World Cup matches were played at CUA Stadium: their Group C game against Tonga and their 9th place play-off match against former twice World Cup Finalists France. At the end of 2010, the Federal and State Governments provided funding to redevelop the scoreboard end of the stadium. Initial plans were to build a double-sided grandstand between Howell Oval. However, it was found that a main sewer line ran between Howell Oval. Relocation of the line would have cost. Subsequently, a stand is being constructed at Howell Oval, the facilities at the Scoreboard end of the stadium were redeveloped. Penrith Stadium was sponsored by Credit Union Australia, who held the naming rights, from early 2006 until 31 October 2010; the stadium's name was sometimes shortened to CUA Stadium. On 22 January 2011, it was announced that sport betting agency Centrebet had acquired the rights to the sponsorship name of the stadium until 2016.
Under their sponsorship rights the stadium was known as the "Centrebet Stadium Penrith". On 21 June 2011, it was announced that, for the Women in League round of the NRL, Centrebet had agreed to forego the naming rights for one week, during which time the stadium would be known as "McGrath Foundation Stadium". On 28 January 2014, it was announced that sport betting agency Sportingbet acquired the rights to the sponsorship name of the stadium, changing the stadium's name to Sportingbet Stadium Penrith. On 12 February 2015, Pepper Group had replaced Sportingbet as the naming rights sponsor, renaming the stadium to Pepper Stadium. In the National Rugby League competition, the Penrith Panthers club have played at this stadium, as their home ground since making their first grade appearance in 1967. In the National Soccer League, the Penrith City SC club played here in 1984-1985; the stadium hosted a Western Sydney Wanderers pre-season friendly against Adelaide United on 22 September 2013, was host to a competitive A-League Premiership match against the Wellington Phoenix on 8 February 2015.
The Wanderers played an FFA Cup match against Brisbane Roar at the venue on 11 August 2015. On 16 September 2017 the venue hosted an international women's friendly football game when the Matildas defeated Brazil 2-1 in front of a crowd of 15,089. List of rugby league test and World Cup matches played at Penrith Stadium. List of International Football matches played at Penrith Stadium. Penrith Stadium at Austadiums
North Sydney Oval
North Sydney Oval is a multi-use sporting facility in North Sydney, New South Wales, Australia and operated by North Sydney Council. First used as a cricket ground in 1867, it is used for rugby league and rugby union, for soccer; the first cricket pitch was laid on 6 December 1867, making it one of the oldest cricket grounds in Australia. The first structure built, in 1879, was a simple pavilion overlooking the cricket ground; this was replaced by another pavilion which in turn was replaced by what is now the Duncan Thompson Stand in 1929. The venue was renovated in 1931 due to complaints that the surface was'like concrete' and that the ground was liable to cause serious injury to players. Nonetheless, as late as the 1980s, the ground was sometimes referred to as "Concrete Park". In 1935 the timber fence was replaced by a high brick wall and concrete terrace seating 1,200 people was built. Between 1983 and 1988 major renovations were undertaken; the old grandstand was named after North Sydney Bears player Duncan Thompson.
New stands were named after cricketers Bill O'Reilly, Charlie Macartney and Mollie Dive. In 1983, the venerable Bob Stand was moved to North Sydney Oval from the Sydney Cricket Ground; the hill became known as the Doug Walters Stand. Drainage and irrigation systems were installed and the pitch was re-laid in 1989. In 1992 the oval won a Sydney Cricket Association award for "Ground of the Year". In 2016 the historic sports field had extensive renovations to ensure that North Sydney Oval is identified as a first-class venue for major sporting events; these included installation of improved field lighting. Designed to allow North Sydney oval to become a dual-purpose venue, the drop-in cricket wicket is prepared off the playing surface and transported back into position for use – allowing for a better playing field. North Sydney Oval first trialed the technology in 1998, when cricket wicket technology was in its early stages. Since the technology has improved and is used by many premier sporting stadiums including Sydney Showground Stadium, Adelaide Oval and the MCG.
This recent upgrade has enabled the wicket to be produced in a controlled environment away from any traffic on the field and has allowed the Oval to comply with various football codes requirements whereby the cricket pitch can be removed from the centre field resulting in a full football surface for scheduled matches. North Sydney Oval has been the home ground of the North Sydney Bears since their inception in 1908; the club plays in the NSWRL VB NSW Cup and still attracts spectators to home games at the oval. Only two grounds have hosted more first grade. In 2004, South Sydney Rabbitohs experimented with playing two home games at the ground; the first match between Souths and Manly-Warringah Sea Eagles attracted 14,855 spectators. The ground record crowd of 23,089 was set on 13 May 1994 for a Round 10 match with North Sydney taking on local rivals Manly; the Sea Eagles won the match 11–8. Legendary North Sydney Bears, New South Wales and Australian winger Ken Irvine, who played 176 games and scored 633 points for the Bears between 1958 and 1970 before transferring to Manly from 1971–73 before retiring, has the scoreboard at the oval named in his honour.
The last first grade game North Sydney played here was on August 22, 1999 against Melbourne. North Sydney won the match 24-20; the last first grade game played at the oval was on May 21, 2005 when South Sydney played a home match here against The Auckland Warriors. Auckland Warriors went on to win the game 34-16; as part of the Central Coast Bears' bid to enter the NRL, the Bears plan to play one home game a year against Manly if their bid is successful. In 2015 it was announced; the upgrades will continue until the year 2019/2020. Upgrades will include: A new bar and merchandising facility improvements Upgrading of player and officials change rooms and establishment of medical rooms and press facilities Improvements to corporate facilities and Duncan Thompson Stand restoration/refurbishment Steel drainpipe and structural remediation work for McCartney, O'Reilly, Mollie Dive and Bob stands CCTV system installed Refurbishment of media broadcasting facilities Provision of an outdoor video screen Improvements to the public announcement system Review of seating requirements – new grandstand seating Outdoor video screen installationIn 2018, North Sydney Oval hosted the inaugural State of Origin women's match where New South Wales defeated Queensland 16-10.
In 2018, North Sydney Oval was featured in a Channel 9 game for the first time since 1999 when Norths played against the Western Suburbs Magpies. The New South Wales Blues cricket team play regular Sheffield Shield, Ryobi Cup and Twenty20 Cricket matches at the Oval; the oval hosted the final of the inaugural Twenty20 domestic knock-out cup competition between NSW Blues and Victorian Bushrangers. It plays home to the North Sydney Grade club; the ground was the final of the 2009 Women's Cricket World Cup. It has hosted 5 women's test matches, with Australia playing England there in 1957/58, 1968/69 and 1991/92, 2017 and India in 1990/91 and 12 one day internationals. New South Wales have played 3 first class matches 21 List A one-day games. In September and October 2013 Sydney will host the 2013–14 Ryobi One-Day Cup. North Sydney Oval was chosen as one of the host venues along with Bankstown, Drummoyne ovals and the Blacktown AFL/Cricket Stadium, with North Sydney and Bankstown being the two venues used for nationally broadcast games on Channel 9 and
South Sydney Rabbitohs
The South Sydney Rabbitohs are a professional Australian rugby league team based in Redfern, a suburb of inner-southern Sydney, New South Wales. They participate in the National Rugby League premiership and are one of nine existing teams from the state capital, they are called Souths and The Bunnies. The club was formed in 1908 as one of the founding members of the New South Wales Rugby Football League, making them one of Australia's oldest rugby league teams; the Rabbitohs were formed, under their original 1908 articles of association with the NSWRL competition, to represent the Sydney municipalities of Redfern, Zetland, Waterloo and Botany. They are one of only two foundation clubs still present in the NRL, the other being the Sydney Roosters; the South Sydney District Rugby League Football Club is a subsidiary company 75% owned by Blackcourt League Investments which is, in turn, 50% owned by the actor Russell Crowe and 50% owned by James Packer's Consolidated Press Holdings. The Rabbitohs' traditional heartland covers the once working-class suburbs of inner-south Sydney now occupied by factories.
The club is based in Redfern, where the club's administration and training facilities are located, however they have long held a wide supporter base spread all over New South Wales. The team's home ground is Stadium Australia in Sydney Olympic Park. In the New South Wales Rugby League, Australian Rugby League, National Rugby League competitions South Sydney are the most successful professional team in the history of Australian rugby league in terms of total championships won, having claimed 21 first grade premierships. In addition to winning the most premierships, the Rabbitohs hold the distinction of being the only club to win a premiership in their inaugural season; the South Sydney District Rugby League Football Club was formed at a meeting on 17 January 1908 at Redfern Town Hall when administrator J J Giltinan, cricketer Victor Trumper and politician Henry Hoyle gathered together in front of a large crowd of supporters. The club played in the first round of the newly formed New South Wales Rugby League, defeating North Sydney 11–7 at Birchgrove Oval on 20 April 1908.
The team went on to win the inaugural premiership successfully defended their title in the 1909 season, winning the Grand Final by default. During these early years Arthur Hennessy was considered the "founding father" of the South Sydney rugby league club. A hooker and prop forward, Hennessy was coach, he was New South Wales' first captain and Australia's first test captain in 1908. S. G. "George" Ball became Club Secretary in 1911 after Arthur Hennessy stood down from the position, he remained in that capacity for over fifty years, only retiring a few years before his death in 1969. After further premiership success in 1914 and 1918, South Sydney won seven of the eight premierships from 1925–1932, only missing out in 1930; the 1925 side went through the season undefeated and is only one of six Australian premiership sides in history to have achieved this feat. Such was Souths dominance in the early years of the rugby league competition that the Rabbitohs were labelled "The Pride of the League".
South Sydney struggled through most of the 1940s. South Sydney's longest losing streak of 22 games was during the period 1945–1947. In the 1945 season they only managed to win one game while in 1946 they were unable to win a single game. In the 1950s South Sydney again had great success, winning five of the six premierships from 1950–1955, losing the 1952 Grand Final against Western Suburbs in controversial circumstances; the 1951 side's point scoring feat in their 42–14 victory over Manly-Warringah remains the highest score by a team in a Grand Final and "the miracle of'55" involved South Sydney winning 11 straight sudden death matches to win the premiership. Players that were involved in these years included Denis Donoghue, Jack Rayner, Les "Chicka" Cowie, Johnny Graves, Ian Moir, Greg Hawick, Ernie Hammerton, Bernie Purcell and Clive Churchill. Churchill, nicknamed "the Little Master" for his brilliant attacking fullback play, is universally regarded as one of the greatest Australian rugby league players.
In the late 1950s Souths began a poor run of form failing to make the finals from 1958–1964. However, in 1965 a talented young side made the Grand Final against St. George who were aiming to secure their 10th straight premiership; the young Rabbitohs weren't overawed by the Dragons formidable experience and in front of a record crowd of 78,056 at the Sydney Cricket Ground, they went down narrowly 12–8. The nucleus of this side went on to feature in Australian representative teams for the next six years and ensured another golden period for South Sydney making five successive grand finals from 1967–1971, winning four. Bob McCarthy, John O'Neill, Eric Simms, Ron Coote, Mike Cleary and John Sattler from 1965 were joined by Elwyn Walters, Ray Branighan, Paul Sait, Gary Stevens and coach Clive Churchill to form a fearsome combination before internal strife and poaching by other clubs from 1972 onwards unravelled the star studded pack. From this period comes part of South's and Australian Rugby League folklore when in the 1970 premiership decider against Manly, captain John Sattler inspired the side to victory playing out 70 minutes of the match with his jaw broken in three places after being king hit by Manly prop John Bucknall.
Financial problems started to hit Souths in the early 1970s, forcing some players to go to other clubs. The licensed Leagues Club, traditionally such an important revenue provider to all first grade league s
Newtown, New South Wales
Newtown, a suburb of Sydney's inner west, is located four kilometres south-west of the Sydney central business district, straddling the local government areas of the City of Sydney and Inner West Council in the state of New South Wales, Australia. King Street is centre of commercial and entertainment activity; the street follows the spine of a long ridge that rises up near Sydney University and extends to the south, becoming the Princes Highway at its southern end. Enmore Road branches off King Street towards the suburb of Enmore at Newtown Bridge, where the road passes over the railway line at Newtown Station. Enmore Road and King Street together comprise 9.1 kilometres of over 600 shopfronts. The main shopping strip of Newtown is the longest and most complete commercial precinct of the late Victorian and Federation period in Australia. King Street is referred to as "Eat Street" in the media due to the large number of cafés, pubs and restaurants of various cultures. Cafés, restaurants and galleries can be found in the streets surrounding King Street.
Newtown's rugby league club competed in the NSWRFL Premiership from its foundation in 1908 until 1983. The area known as Newtown was part of a broader area where Cadigal tribe of the Eora people, who ranged across the entire area from the southern shores of Sydney Harbour to Botany Bay in the south-east and Petersham in the inner-west; the first indigenous Australian to receive a Christian burial was Tommy, an 11-year-old boy who died of bronchitis in the Sydney Infirmary. He was buried in a section now located outside the wall; the cemetery contains a sandstone obelisk erected in 1944 by the Rangers League of NSW, in memory of Tommy and three other indigenous Australians buried there: Mogo, William Perry and Wandelina Cabrorigirel, although their graves are no longer identifiable. When the names were transcribed from the records onto the monument, there was an error in deciphering the flowing hand in which many of the original burial dockets were written, it is now known that the fourth name was not Mandelina.
King street, Newtown's main street, reputedly follows an Aboriginal track that branched out from the main western track, now beneath Broadway and Parramatta Road, which continued all the way to the coastal plains around Botany Bay. This conflicts with other claims. Newtown was established as a residential and farming area in the early 19th century; the area took its name from a grocery store opened there by John and Margaret Webster in 1832, at a site close to where the Newtown railway station stands today. They placed a sign atop their store that read "New Town Stores". Captain Sylvester John Browne, father of Thomas Alexander Browne, built "Newtown House" in the area around the same time, cited as the source of the name; the name New Town was adopted, at first unofficially, with the space disappearing to form the name Newtown. The part of Newtown lying south of King Street was a portion of the two estates granted by Governor Arthur Phillip to the Superintendent of Convicts, Nicholas Devine, in 1794 and 1799.
Erskineville and much of Macdonaldtown were once part of Devine's grant. In 1827, when Devine was aged about 90, this land was acquired from him by a convict, Bernard Rochford, who sold it to many of Sydney's wealthiest and most influential inhabitants, including the mayor. Devine's heir, John Devine, a coachbuilder of Birmingham, challenged the will, blatantly fraudulent; the "Newtown Ejectment Case" was settled out of court by the payment to Devine of an unknown sum of money said to have been "considerable". The land was further divided into the housing, now evidenced by the rows of terrace houses and commercial and industrial premises. Part of the area now falling within the present boundaries of Newtown, north of King Street, was part of Camperdown; this area was named by Governor William Bligh, who received it as a land grant in 1806 and passed it to his daughter and son-in-law on his return to England in 1810. In 1848 part of this land was acquired by the Sydney Church of England Cemetery Company to create a general cemetery beyond the boundary of the City of Sydney.
Camperdown Cemetery, just one block away from King Street, was to become significant in the life of the suburb. Between its consecration in 1849 and its closure to further sales in 1868 it saw 15,000 burials of people from all over Sydney. Of that number half were paupers buried in unmarked and communal graves, sometimes as many as 12 in a day during a measles epidemic. Camperdown Cemetery remains, though much reduced in size, as a rare example of mid-19th-century cemetery landscaping, it retains the Cemetery Lodge and huge fig tree dating from 1848, as well as a number of oak trees of the same date. It survived to become the main green space of Newtown. Among the notables buried in the cemetery are explorer-surveyor Sir Thomas Livingstone Mitchell, Major Edmund Lockyer and Mary, Lady Jamison, Eliza Emily Donnithorne and rumoured inspiration for Miss Havisham; the cemetery holds the remains of many of the victims of the wreck of the Dunbar in 1857. From 1845, when the first Anglican church was built on the site of the present Community Centre on Stephen Street, by Edmund Blacket, a number of churches were established, including St Joseph's Roman Catholic church in the 1850s, the Methodist church on King Street, now Newtown Mission, the Baptist church in Church Street.
The present St Stephen's Anglican church, a fine example o