The Manciple's Tale
The Manciple's Tale is part of Geoffrey Chaucer's The Canterbury Tales. It appears in its own manuscript fragment, Group H, but the prologue to the Parson's Tale makes it clear it was intended as the penultimate story in the collection; the Manciple, a purchasing agent for a law court, tells a fable about Phoebus Apollo and his pet crow, both an etiological myth explaining the crow's black feathers, a moralistic injunction against Gossip. In the tale's prologue, the Host tries to rouse the drunken Cook to tell a tale, but he is too intoxicated; the Manciple insults the Cook, who falls semi-conscious from his horse, but they are reconciled by the Host and the Manciple offers the Cook another drink to make up. In the main plot of the tale, Phoebus has a crow, all white and can speak. Phoebus has a wife, whom he treasures but keeps shut up in his house; the Manciple digresses to say. Phoebus's wife takes a lover of low estate. In his grief afterwards, he regrets his act and blames the crow, cursing it with black feathers and an unmelodious voice.
The Manciple ends by saying it is best to hold one's tongue, not to say anything malicious if it is true. The ultimate source for the tale is Ovid's Metamorphoses. Chaucer’s special manuscript words Read "The Manciple's Prologue and Tale" with interlinear translation Modern Translation of the Manciple's Tale and Other Resources at eChaucer "The Manciple's Tale" – a plain-English retelling for non-scholars
Guys and Dolls
Guys and Dolls is a musical with music and lyrics by Frank Loesser and book by Jo Swerling and Abe Burrows. It is based on "The Idyll of Miss Sarah Brown" and "Blood Pressure", which are two short stories by Damon Runyon, borrows characters and plot elements from other Runyon stories – most notably "Pick the Winner"; the premiere on Broadway was in 1950. It won the Tony Award for Best Musical; the musical has had several Broadway and London revivals, as well as a 1955 film adaptation starring Marlon Brando, Jean Simmons, Frank Sinatra and Vivian Blaine. Guys and Dolls was selected as the winner of the 1951 Pulitzer Prize for Drama. However, because of writer Abe Burrows' troubles with the House Un-American Activities Committee, the Trustees of Columbia University vetoed the selection, no Pulitzer for Drama was awarded that year. Guys and Dolls was conceived by producers Cy Feuer and Ernest Martin as an adaptation of Damon Runyon's short stories; these stories, written in the 1920s and 1930s, concerned gangsters and other characters of the New York underworld.
Runyon was known for the unique dialect he employed in his stories, mixing formal language and slang. Frank Loesser, who had spent most of his career as a lyricist for movie musicals, was hired as composer and lyricist. George S. Kaufman was hired as director; when the first version of the show's book, or dialogue, written by Jo Swerling was deemed unusable and Martin asked radio comedy writer Abe Burrows to rewrite it. Loesser had written much of the score to correspond with the first version of the book. Burrows recalled: Frank Loesser's fourteen songs were all great, the had to be written so that the story would lead into each of them. On, the critics spoke of the show as'integrated'; the word integration means that the composer has written songs that follow the story line gracefully. Well, we accomplished; the character of Miss Adelaide was created to fit Vivian Blaine into the musical, after Loesser decided she was ill-suited to play the conservative Sarah. When Loesser suggested reprising some songs in the second act, Kaufman warned: "If you reprise the songs, we'll reprise the jokes."
A pantomime of never-ceasing activities depicts the bustle of New York City. Three small-time gamblers, Nicely-Nicely Johnson, Benny Southstreet, Rusty Charlie, argue over which horse will win a big race; the band members of the Save-a-Soul Mission, led by the pious and beautiful Sergeant Sarah Brown, call for sinners to "Follow the Fold" and repent. Nicely and Benny's employer, Nathan Detroit, runs an illegal floating crap game. Due to local policeman Lt. Brannigan's strong-armed presence, he has found only one spot to hold the game: the "Biltmore garage." Its owner, Joey Biltmore, requires a $1,000 security deposit, Nathan is broke. Nathan hopes to win a $1,000 bet against Sky Masterson, a gambler willing to bet on anything. Nathan proposes a bet he believes he cannot lose: Sky must take a woman of Nathan's choice to dinner in Havana, Cuba. Sky agrees, Nathan chooses Sarah Brown. At the mission, Sky claims he wants impressing Sarah with his knowledge of the Bible, he offers Sarah a deal: He will bring the mission "one dozen genuine sinners" if she will accompany him to Havana the next night.
Sarah rebuffs him, telling him that she plans to fall in love with an moral man. Sky replies. Sky kisses Sarah, she slaps him. Nathan goes to watch his fiancée of 14 years, perform her nightclub act. After her show, she asks him, as she has many times before, to go down to city hall and get a marriage license, she tells Nathan that she has been sending her mother letters for twelve years claiming that they have been married with six kids. She is distraught to find out, she consults a medical book, which tells her that her chronic cold is a psychosomatic reaction to her frustration with Nathan's failure to marry her. The next day and Benny watch as Sky pursues Sarah, Nathan tries to win back Adelaide's favor, they declare. General Cartwright, the leader of Save-a-Soul, visits the mission and explains that she will be forced to close the branch unless they succeed in bringing some sinners to the upcoming revival meeting. Sarah, desperate to save the mission, promises the General "one dozen genuine sinners", implicitly accepting Sky's deal.
The gamblers, including a notorious gangster from Chicago named Big Jule, are waiting for Nathan to secure the spot for the game, Lt. Brannigan becomes suspicious. To convince him of their innocence, they tell Brannigan their gathering is Nathan's "surprise bachelor party"; this satisfies Brannigan, Nathan resigns himself to eloping with Adelaide. Adelaide goes home to pack; the Save-A-Soul Mission band passes by, Nathan sees that Sarah is not in it. In a Havana nightclub, Sky buys a "Cuban milkshake" for Sarah, she doesn't realize that the drink contains Bacardi rum, innocently drinks multiple glasses, becoming progressively tipsier. Outside the club, Sarah kisses Sky and proclaims that she is enjoying herself for the first time in her life, she wants to stay in Havana with Sky. Sky is surprised to find, that he cares about Sarah's welfare, he insists that they go back to the airport and return to New
The Lord Chamberlain or Lord Chamberlain of the Household is the most senior officer of the Royal Household of the United Kingdom, supervising the departments which support and provide advice to the Sovereign of the United Kingdom while acting as the main channel of communication between the Sovereign and the House of Lords. The office organises all ceremonial activity such as garden parties, state visits, royal weddings, the State Opening of Parliament, they handle the Royal Mews and Royal Travel, as well as the ceremony around the awarding of honours. For over 230 years, the Lord Chamberlain position had the power to decide which plays would be granted a licence for performance, from 1737 to 1968, which meant that the Lord Chamberlain had the capacity to censor theatre at his pleasure; the Lord Chamberlain is always sworn of the Privy Council, is a peer and before 1782 the post was of Cabinet rank. The position was a political one until 1924; the office dates from the Middle Ages when the King's Chamberlain acted as the King's spokesman in Council and Parliament.
The current Lord Chamberlain is The Earl Peel, in office since 16 October 2006. During the early modern period, the Lord Chamberlain was one of the three principal officers of the Royal Household, the others being the Lord Steward and the Master of the Horse; the Lord Chamberlain was responsible for the "chamber" or the household "above stairs": that is, the series of rooms used by the Sovereign to receive select visitors, terminating in the royal bedchamber. His department not only furnished the servants and other personnel in intimate attendance on the Sovereign but arranged and staffed ceremonies and entertainments for the court, he had authority over the Chapel Royal, through the reabsorption of the Wardrobe into the Chamber, was responsible for the Office of Works, the Jewel House, other functions more removed from the Sovereign's person, many of which were reorganized and removed from the Chamberlain's purview in 1782. As other responsibilities of government were devolved to ministers, the ordering of the Royal Household was left to the personal taste of the Sovereign.
To ensure that the chamber reflected the royal tastes, the Lord Chamberlain received commands directly from the sovereign to be transmitted to the heads of subordinate departments. In 1594, the Lord Chamberlain, Henry Carey, 1st Baron Hunsdon, founded the Lord Chamberlain's Men, for which William Shakespeare was a part and for whom he wrote most of his plays during his career. Carey served under Elizabeth I of England at the time and was in charge of all court entertainment, a duty traditionally given to the Master of the Revels, a deputy of the Lord Chamberlain. In 1603, James I of England, elevated the Chamberlain's Men to royal patronage and changed the name to the King's Men. In 1737, Sir Robert Walpole introduced statutory censorship with the Licensing Act of 1737 by appointing the Lord Chamberlain to act as the theatrical censor; the Licensing Act 1737 gave the Lord Chamberlain the statutory authority to veto the performance of any new plays: he could prevent any new play, or any modification to an existing play, from being performed for any reason, theatre owners could be prosecuted for staging a play that had not received prior approval.
Though, the Lord Chamberlain had been exercising a commanding authority on London's theatre companies under the Royal Prerogative for many decades already. But by the 1730s the theatre was not controlled by royal patronage anymore. Instead it had become more of a commercial business. Therefore, the fact the Lord Chamberlain still retained censorship authority for the next 200 years gave him uniquely repressive authority during a period where Britain was experiencing "growing political enfranchisement and liberalization". Further confusion rested in the fact that Members of Parliament could not present changes to the censorship laws because although the Lord Chamberlain exercised his authority under statute law, he was still an official whose authority was derived from the Royal Prerogative. By the 1830s, it started to become clear that the theatre licensing system in England needed an upgrade. Playwrights, instead of representatives of minor theatres initiated the final push for reform as they felt that their livelihoods were being negatively affected by the monopoly the larger theatres had on the industry, backed by the laws in the 1737 Act.
A Select Committee was formed in 1832 with the purpose of examining the laws that affected dramatic literature. Their main complaints were the lack of copyright protection for their work and more that only two patent theatres in London could legitimately perform new plays. After more pressure from playwrights and theatre managers, the findings of the committee were presented to Parliament, it was the proposals of this committee that Parliament implemented in the Theatres Act of 1843. The Act still confirmed the absolute powers of censorship enjoyed by the Lord Chamberlain but still restricted his powers so that he could only prohibit the performance of plays where he was of the opinion that "it is fitting for the preservation of good manners, decorum or of the public peace so to do". However, the Act did abolish the monopoly that the patent houses had in London providing a minor win for playwrights and theatre managers wishing to produce new work. In 1909, a Joint Select Committee on Stage Plays was established and recommended that the Lord Chamberlain should conti
The Parson's Tale
The Parson's Tale seems, from the evidence of its prologue, to have been intended as the final tale of Geoffrey Chaucer's poetic cycle The Canterbury Tales. The "tale", the longest of all the surviving contributions by Chaucer's pilgrims, is in fact neither a story nor a poem, but a long and unrelieved prose treatise on penance. Critics and readers are unclear what rhetorical effect Chaucer may have intended by ending his cycle in this unlikely, extra-generic fashion. In the prologue to the tale, the host asks the Parson for a fable but the Parson refuses with a round condemnation of fable stories, saying instead that he will tell an improving tale in prose since he can neither rhyme nor alliterate, it is of interest that the host seems to be in some doubt as to the identity of the Parson, since he asks him to introduce himself: "Sire preest," quod he, "artow a vicary? Or arte a person? Sey, sooth, by thy fey! Be what thou be, ne breke; some idea of Chaucer's intended structure for the Canterbury Tales may be gleaned from this "final" prologue.
The host speaks of al myn ordinaunce almoost fulfild and says that the company lakketh...no tales mo than oon. Since known tales do not exist for all of the pilgrims, since none reach the projected total of four tales each outlined in the General Prologue, the host's remarks give a further indication of the way in which Chaucer's ultimate scheme for the cycle either was not realised or has not survived; the subject of the parson's "tale" is penitence. It may thus be taken as containing inferential criticism of the behaviour and character of humanity detectable in all the other pilgrims, knight included. Chaucer himself claims to be swayed by the plea for penitence, since he follows the Parson's Tale with a Retraction in which he asks forgiveness for any offences he may have caused and for having deigned to write works of worldly vanitee at all; the parson divides penitence into three parts. The second part about confession is illustrated by referring to the Seven Deadly Sins and offering remedies against them.
The Seven Deadly Sins are pride, wrath, greed and lust. Chaucer's text seems for the most part to be a combination, in English translation, of the texts of two Latin works on penitence popular at the time; this is mingled with fragments from other texts. It is not known whether Chaucer was the first to combine these particular sources, or whether he translated an existing combined edition from French. If the latter is the case, any direct source has been lost; the Parson is considered by some to be the only good member of the clergy in The Canterbury Tales, while others have detected ambiguities and possible hints of Lollardy in the portrait. Chaucer, in the General Prologue calls him a povre Persoun of a Toun, his depiction of a man who practices what he preaches seems to be positive: He was a shepherde and noght a mercenarie. And thogh he hooly were and vertuous, He was to synful men nat despitous, Ne of his speche daungerous ne digne, But in his techyng discreet and benynge. If rather forbidding.
None of the explicit criticism of clergy that marks many of the other tales and character sketches is obvious here. The Parson is throughout depicted as a intelligent person. Chaucer elsewhere is not uncritical of the clergy. Chaucer's special manuscript words Parson's Tale retold in Modern English prose
The General Prologue is the first part of Chaucer's The Canterbury Tales. The frame story of the poem, as set out in the 858 lines of Middle English which make up the General Prologue, is of a religious pilgrimage; the narrator, Geoffrey Chaucer, is in The Tabard Inn in Southwark, where he meets a group of "sundry folk" who are all on the way to Canterbury, the site of the shrine of Saint Thomas Becket, a martyr reputed to have the power of healing the sinful. The setting is April, the prologue starts by singing the praises of that month whose rains and warm western wind restore life and fertility to the earth and its inhabitants; the setting arguably takes place in April being that travel conditions are not up for travel in real life during this time. This abundance of life, prompts people to go on pilgrimages; the narrator falls in with a group of pilgrims, the largest part of the prologue is taken up by a description of them. According to The Norton Anthology of English Literature: Volume 1, "The narrator, in fact, seems to be expressing chiefly admiration and praise at the superlative skills and accomplishments of this particular group such dubious ones as the Friar's begging techniques or the Manciple's success in cheating the learned lawyers who employ him".
Chaucer arguably points out the virtues and vices of each of the pilgrims as described within the work. It is up to the reader to determine the gravity and underlying meaning of Chaucer's methods in doing so To telle yow al the condicioun, Of ech of hem, so as it semed me, And whiche they weren, of what degree, And eek in what array that they were inne, And at a knyght than wol I first bigynne; the pilgrims include a knight, his son a squire, the knight's yeoman, a prioress accompanied by a second nun and the nun's priest, a monk, a friar, a merchant, a clerk, a sergeant of law, a franklin, a haberdasher, a carpenter, a weaver, a dyer, a tapestry weaver, a cook, a shipman, a doctor of physic, a wife of Bath, a parson, his brother a plowman, a miller, a manciple, a reeve, a summoner, a pardoner, the Host, a portrait of Chaucer himself. At the end of the section, the Host proposes that the group ride together and entertain one another with stories, he lays out his plan: each pilgrim will tell two stories on the way to Canterbury and two on the way back.
Whoever has told the most meaningful and comforting stories, with "the best sentence and moost solaas" will receive a free meal paid for by the rest of the pilgrims upon their return. The company agrees and makes the Host its governor and record keeper, they draw lots to determine who will tell the first tale. The Knight prepares to tell his tale. General Prologue The Knight's Tale The Miller's Tale The Reeve's Tale The Cook's Tale The Man of Law's Tale The Tale of Gamelyn intended by Chaucer for The Cook's Tale? The Wife of Bath's Tale The Friar's Tale The Summoner's Tale The Clerk's Tale The Merchant's Tale The Squire's Tale The Franklin's Tale The Physician's Tale The Pardoner's Tale The Shipman's Tale The Prioress Tale Sir Thopas Tale told by Chaucer The Tale of Melibee told by Chaucer The Monk's Tale The Nun's Priest's Tale The Second Nun's Tale The Canon's Yeoman's Tale The Manciple's Tale The Parson's Tale Chaucer's Retraction The Plowman's Tale, a 15th-century addition to the Canterbury Tales Siege of Thebes, a 15th-century addition to the Canterbury Tales Prologue and Tale of Beryn, a 15th-century addition to the Canterbury Tales which tells of the epilogue after the Pilgrims arrive in Canterbury The General Prologue establishes the frame for the Tales as a whole and introduces the characters/story tellers.
These are introduced in the order of their rank in accordance with the three medieval social estates. These characters are representative of their estates and models with which the others in the same estate can be compared and contrasted; the structure of the General Prologue is intimately linked with the narrative style of the tales. As the narrative voice has been under critical scrutiny for some time, so too has the identity of the narrator himself. Though fierce debate has taken place on both sides, most contemporary scholars believe that the narrator is meant to be some degree of Chaucer himself; some scholars, like William W. Lawrence, claim. While others, like Marchette Chute for instance, contest that the narrator is instead a literary creation like the other pilgrims in the tales. Manly attempted to identify pilgrims with real 14th century people. In some instances such as Summoner and Friar, he attempts localization to a small geographic area; the Man of Law is identified as Thomas Pynchbek, chief baron of the exchequer.
Sir John Bussy was an associate of Pynchbek. He is identified as the Franklin; the Pembroke estates near Baldeswelle supplied the portrait for the unnamed Reeve. Sebastian Sobecki argues that the General Prologue, in which the innkeeper and host Harry Bailey introduces each pilgrim, is a pastiche of the historical Harry Bailey's surviving 1381 poll-tax account of Southwark's inhabitants; the following is the first 18 lines of the General Prologue. The text was written in a dialect associated with London and spellings associated with the then-emergent Chancery Standard. In modern prose: When April with its sweet showers has pierced March's drought to the root, bathing every vein in such liquid by whose
The Knight's Tale
"The Knight's Tale" is the first tale from Geoffrey Chaucer's The Canterbury Tales. The Knight is described by Chaucer in the "General Prologue" as the person of highest social standing amongst the pilgrims, though his manners and clothes are unpretentious. We are told that he has taken part in some fifteen crusades in many countries and fought for one pagan leader against another; however though the list of campaigns, mentioned by Chaucer, is real, "and though it was just possible for one man to have been in them all, is idealized." Chaucer's portrait of the Knight in the "Prologue" "is thought to show a man of unsullied ideals, though some see him as a mercenary." He is accompanied on his pilgrimage by his 20-year-old son. The story introduces themes and tropes encountered in the literature of knighthood, including courtly love and ethical dilemmas; the epic poem Teseida by Giovanni Boccaccio is the source of the tale, although Chaucer makes many significant diversions from that poem. The Teseida has 9,896 lines in twelve books, while "The Knight's Tale" has only 2,250 lines—though it is still one of the longer poems in the Tales.
Most of the epic characteristics of the Teseida are removed, instead the poem conforms to the genre of romance. The tale is considered a chivalric romance, yet it is markedly different from either the English or French traditions of such tales. For instance, there is the inclusion of philosophical themes—mainly of the kind contained in the Consolation of Philosophy of Boethius—astrological references and an epic context; the tale that follows it in Chaucer's work is told by the Miller and involves a conflict between two men over a woman. It is a direct antithesis to the Knight's, with none of the nobility or heritage of classical mythology, but is instead rollicking, bawdy and designed to annoy the Knight. Two cousins and knights and Arcite, are captured and imprisoned by Theseus, duke of Athens, after being found unconscious following his battle against Creon, their cell is with a window which overlooks his palace garden. The imprisoned Palamon wakes early one morning in May and catches sight of Princess Emily, Theseus's sister-in-law, down in the courtyard picking flowers for a garland.
He falls in love with her. He falls in love with her as well; this angers Palamon. Arcite argues; the friendship between Palamon and Arcite deteriorates over their competition for Emily's love. After some years, Arcite is released from prison through the good offices of Perotheus, a mutual friend of Theseus's and Arcite's, amending Arcite's sentence down from imprisonment to exile. Palamon escapes by drugging the jailer, while hiding in a grove, overhears Arcite singing about love and fortune, they begin to duel with each other over who should get Emily, but are thwarted by the arrival of Theseus. Theseus plans to sentence the two to death, but upon the protests of his wife and Emily, he decides to have them compete in a tournament instead. Palamon and Arcite are to gather 100 men apiece and to fight a mass judicial tournament, the winner of, to marry Emily; the forces are assembled. On the night before the tournament, Palamon prays to Venus to make Emily his wife. Theseus lays down rules for the tournament so that if any man becomes injured, he must be dragged out of the battle and is no longer in combat.
Because of this, the story seems to claim at the end that there were no deaths on either side. Although both Palamon and Arcite fight valiantly, Palamon is wounded by a chance sword thrust from one of Arcite's men, is unhorsed. Theseus declares the fight to be over. Arcite wins the battle, but following a divine intervention by Saturn, he is mortally wounded by his horse throwing him off and falling on him before he can claim Emily as his prize; as he dies, he tells Emily that she should marry Palamon, because he would make a good husband for her. Palamon marries Emily, thus two prayers are fulfilled; the First Mover or the Firste Moevere is a speech delivered by Theseus, spanning lines 2129–2216, bringing the poem's narrative to its close. The First Mover appears near the end of the poem, after the protagonists Arcite and Palamon have finished their duel for Emily's hand. Theseus begins with a reference to the First Mover, the primum movens, or unmoved mover of Aristotelian philosophy creating the “Great Chain of Love”, the kyndely enclyning, or natural inclination, that holds the universe together in Medieval cosmology.
He describes the inevitability of death for all things at their proper time, using the destruction of an oak tree, a stone, a river as examples, listing all the classes of medieval society as universally subject to death. He shifts to a discussion of the proper way to respond to this inevitability of death. Theseus maintains that, since every man must die when his time comes, that it i
Oxford Playhouse is an independent theatre designed by Sir Edward Maufe. It is situated in Beaumont Street, opposite the Ashmolean Museum; the Playhouse was founded as The Red Barn at 12 Woodstock Road, North Oxford, in 1923 by J. B. Fagan; the early history of the theatre is documented by the theatre director, Norman Marshall in his 1947 book, The Other Theatre. Don Chapman has provided a comprehensive study of the theatre in his 2008 book, Oxford Playhouse: High and Low Drama in a University City; the current theatre building on the south side of Beaumont Street was designed by Sir Edward Maufe and was completed in 1938. It is faced in keeping with other early 19th century Regency buildings in the street. Well-known actors who have appeared on the stage at the Playhouse include Rowan Atkinson, Ronnie Barker, Dirk Bogarde, Judi Dench, John Gielgud, Ian McKellen, Dudley Moore, Bill Hicks and Maggie Smith. Susannah York gave her final performance at The Playhouse in August 2010 in Ronald Harwood's Quartet.
The Oxford Playhouse was the crucible from which Prospect Theatre Company was created by Manager Elizabeth Sweeting and Resident Stage Manager Iain Mackintosh in 1961. Prospect Theatre Company became the third major UK theatre company after the National Theatre and Royal Shakespeare Company, between 1963 and 1976 Prospect toured 75 productions to 125 theatres in 21 countries; the Greek theatre director Minos Volanakis was an associate director at the theatre. A charitable trust runs the Playhouse, through a professional management and direction team, as a theatre for the local community. Like much of North Oxford, Oxford Playhouse is owned by St John's College, it was closed for a number of years due to lack of funding, but is now refurbished and thriving, with a 663-seat capacity in the main auditorium. Oxford Playhouse has close relations with Oxford University and is the home stage of the Oxford University Dramatic Society; the Playhouse manages on behalf of the university the nearby Burton Taylor Studio, named in honour of Richard Burton and Elizabeth Taylor.
"The BT" is a 50-seat studio theatre on Gloucester Street, close to the Oxford Playhouse. It originated in 1966, when Richard Burton donated money towards the creation of a rehearsal space occasionally used for performance, named the Burton Rooms. A couple of decades students from the Oxford University Dramatic Society established the current tradition of the venue as a home for regular student productions; the Burton Taylor Studio programs a mix of student and professional productions throughout the year. New Theatre Oxford Old Fire Station Theatre Anonymous. 1999. Obituary in The New York Times, November 20, 1999. Chapman, Don. 2008. Oxford Playhouse: High and Low Drama in a University City. Hatfield: University of Hertfordshire Press. ISBN 1-902806-87-5. Marshall, Norman. 1947. The Other Theatre. London: John Lehmann. Parkinson, David. 2003. Oxford at the Movies. P. Ink Books. Oxford Playhouse website