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To the Last Man (Torchwood)

"To the Last Man" is the third episode of the second series of the British science fiction television series Torchwood, first broadcast on BBC Two on 30 January 2008. The episode was written by returning series guest writer, Helen Raynor, directed by Andy Goddard and produced by Richard Stokes; as with all episodes of Torchwood's first two series, "To the Last Man" featured series regulars John Barrowman, Eve Myles, Burn Gorman, Naoko Mori and Gareth David Lloyd, with Mori's character Toshiko Sato given the main focus. The narrative centres on the intersection of Toshiko's romance with Tommy Brockless, a cryogenically frozen soldier from World War I, a number of hazardous time slips from 1918; as the impending crisis becomes more severe, Toshiko must choose between the man she has fallen in love with and the world at stake. Tommy elects to return to 1918, where Toshiko knows he will be executed because of his shellshock. "To the Last Man" was filmed as part of the first production block of Torchwood's second series.

Helen Raynor was inspired to write the episode to explore the issue of soldiers executed for cowardice during the First World War. The episode was watched by an aggregated total of 4.97 million viewers across its first three showings. The episode received mixed reviews, with the characterisation, romance and anti-war sentiment proving the most popular elements. Both the storylining of the episode and the reliance on plot devices were criticised. Tommy Brockless is a young World War I soldier, shell-shocked from his experiences in the trenches. In 1918, Torchwood agents Gerald Carter and Harriet Derbyshire take Tommy from the St Teilo's military hospital in Cardiff to be kept in cryonic storage, they leave instructions for future Torchwood members that Tommy will one day be key to saving the world. In the present day it is revealed that Torchwood have kept Tommy in storage for a century, releasing him one day a year for a medical check-up. Whilst Tommy is under day-release, Toshiko elects to keep him company.

Whilst Toshiko spends time with Tommy and Gwen discover that the abandoned Cardiff hospital is showing signs of time distortion, with elements of the 1918 hospital appearing in the present. Meanwhile and Tommy grow closer. Toshiko's colleague Owen realises that Toshiko has developed feelings for Tommy and warns her to be careful as he does not want her to get hurt. Upon their return, Jack realizes that the present year is when Tommy will be needed: he will have to travel back to 1918 and activate a Rift Key to close the connection between 1918 and the present and prevent disaster; as Tommy is due to be executed for cowardice three weeks after his return to 1918, Tosh refuses to let him go back. Jack persuades her of the necessity of Tommy's return. After spending the night together and Tommy return to the hospital as the disruptions intensify, accompanied by Jack. During one disruption, the three witness the 1918 Torchwood team. Tommy and Tosh share a goodbye, Jack briefs Tommy on using the Rift Key before he steps back to 1918 during the next disruption.

However, when back in the past, Tommy becomes shell-shocked, is led back to his bed by nurses. At Torchwood's headquarters and Tosh use the Cardiff Rift to project an image of Tosh into Tommy's mind. Tommy senses some familiarity with Tosh but otherwise does not recognise her. Despite this, Tosh is able to instruct Tommy to activate the Rift Key, the distortions at the hospital soon dissipate. Recovering from events, Tosh brushes off Owen's sympathy and takes a moment to consider her short time with Tommy. Helen Raynor, the writer of the episode, expressed an interest in writing a Toshiko-centric episode at the first script meeting for the second series of Torchwood, she wanted to write a story centred on Toshiko because she "absolutely Tosh as a character" and wanted "to take her on another step". Inspiration for the story came from a short fictional document written by James Goss for the in-universe Torchwood Institute website created by BBC Online for the first series; the document detailed a man whom Torchwood would defrost "once a year, give him a day out, pop him back in the freezer".

Series creator Russell T Davies described the episode as a "love story" but felt it inevitable that the story would end in tears. In creating the character of Tommy Brockless, Raynor felt that he was "the perfect boyfriend" for Toshiko. However, she stated that their brief relationship was not a "mature relationship" but "a pretend relationship" as Toshiko only "gets him out of the box once a year", she added that what Tosh has to learn is that Tommy can't be "treated like a toy". In regards to the conclusion of the episode, she stated that "it's a hugely painful goodbye for both of them". Raynor was inspired by the issue of World War I soldiers who were executed for cowardice when they were suffering from shellshock. One of the episode's working titles was "Soldier's Heart", an American Civil War term for shellshock; the final title recalls an infamous order from Field Marshal Douglas Haig on 11 April 1918, in response to the German Spring Offensive, which included the phrase: "Every position must be held to the last man: there must be no retirement".

This policy led shell-shocked soldiers, like the fictional Tommy, to be sent back to war after a short recuperation period. Director Andy Goddard felt that a scene in which Tommy watches footag

Mansour bin Abdulaziz Al Saud

Mansour bin Abdulaziz Al Saud was the first defense minister of Saudi Arabia and a member of Saudi royal family, House of Saud. Prince Mansour was born in 1921, he is believed to be the ninth son of Ibn Saud, but William A. Eddy argues that Prince Mansour is the sixth son of Ibn Saud, his mother was an Armenian woman, Princess Shahida, the favorite wife of Ibn Saud. Prince Mansour had two full brothers, Prince Mishaal and Prince Mutaib and a full sister, Princess Qumash, who died on 26 September 2011. Prince Mansour was the emir of Murabba Palace in 1943, he visited Cairo. Ibn Saud sent him there to support the Indian Muslim officers and men just before the Battle of El Alamein, he was appointed minister of defense by Ibn Saud on 10 November 1943 when office was established. Therefore, he is the first defense minister of Saudi Arabia. Prince Muhammad and Prince Mansour accompanied Ibn Saud in the latter's meeting with the US President Franklin D. Roosevelt on 14 February 1945, he participated in Ibn Saud's meeting with British Prime Minister Winston Churchill in Egypt in February 1945.

Prince Mansour's term as defense minister lasted until his death in 1951, he was replaced by his full brother Prince Mishaal, his deputy at the ministry. Prince Mansour was married and had two children and Muhdi. Prince Talal was raised by his uncle Prince Mutaib following the death of his father. Prince Mutaib's daughter, Princess Nouf, married Prince Talal. Prince Mansour's second wife was Princess Zahwa bint Abdulaziz bin Suleiman with whom he had a daughter, who died in infancy. Prince Mansour died of alcohol poisoning after a party hosted by his older half-brother governor of Riyadh Nasser bin Abdulaziz on 2 May 1951, he was buried in Mecca. Upon hearing of this event, Ibn Saud threw Prince Nasser in jail. Nasser bin Abdulaziz subsequently lost his post and never returned to public life

Monument to World War II Orthodox victims in BiaƂystok

Monument to World War II Orthodox victims in Białystok is a funded memorial commemorating the memory of 5,000 Orthodox Christians from the Białystok region who perished in World War II as well as, during the postwar repressions in Stalinist Poland. The monument was unveiled in 2012 adjacent to the Orthodox Church of the Holy Spirit in Białystok, the largest Orthodox church in Poland; the monument is placed in the wall surrounding the church, features a memorial plaque written in two languages, reading: "To Orthodox victims of World War II, martyrs for faith and nationality in the years 1939–1956. The saints of Podlachia.". There is a boulder build into the monument, listing names of villages pacified in 1946 during the anticommunist insurrection – no other locations of wartime atrocities or categories of victims are mentioned; the memorial was built with private donations from the parishioners, at the cost of 70,000 Polish złoty. The centrepiece boulder lists villages pacified by cursed soldiers from PAS NZW.

1946 pacification of villages by PAS NZW

Visayan broadbill

The Visayan broadbill is a species of bird in the family Eurylaimidae. It is endemic to the islands of Samar and Bohol in the central Philippines, its natural habitat is tropical moist lowland forests. It is threatened by habitat loss; the bird is ca. 15 cm in size. It is brightly coloured passerine with a black face, it has a purple crown, bordered by greyish nuchal collar, purple mantle, becoming bright chestnut on rump and tail. Wings are black with prominent white and lilac bar across tertials and secondaries, lilac underparts becoming yellowish-white on lower belly. Female has similar colours as male, but with belly. Juveniles are duller. BirdLife Species Factsheet

Santa Barbara National Forest

Santa Barbara National Forest was established as the Santa Barbara Forest Reserve by the General Land Office in California on December 22, 1903 with 1,838,323 acres by consolidation of Pine Mountain and Zaka Lake and Santa Ynez Forest Reserves. It included areas of the San Rafael Mountains and Santa Ynez Mountains. After the transfer of federal forests to the U. S. Forest Service in 1905, it became a U. S. National Forest on March 4, 1907. On July 1, 1910, San Luis National Forest was added. On August 18, 1919 Monterey National Forest was added. On December 3, 1936 the name was changed to Los Padres National Forest. Forest History Society Listing of the National Forests of the United States and Their Dates Text from Davis, Richard C. ed. Encyclopedia of American Forest and Conservation History. New York: Macmillan Publishing Company for the Forest History Society, 1983. Vol. II, pp. 743-788