Eugene Chen or Chen Youren, known in his youth as Eugene Bernard Achan, was an overseas Chinese lawyer who in the 1920s became Sun Yat-sen's foreign minister. He was known for his success in promoting Sun's anti-imperialist foreign policies. Chen's father, Chen Guangquan, was known as Joseph Achan, he was of Hakka ancestry from Meixian. After taking part in the Taiping Rebellion against the Manchu dynasty, he fled to the French West Indies where he met his wife, Mary Longchallon a Chinese immigrant. Chen, as well as the Longchallon family, had been required by the French authorities to accept the Catholic faith as a condition of immigration. Eugene was the oldest of Chen Mary Longchallon's three sons. Both parents of Eugene Chen were Chinese immigrants to Trinidad, his wife Aisy was of French blood. After attending a Catholic school, St Mary's College, Chen qualified as a barrister and became known as one of the most skilled solicitors in the islands; the family did not speak Chinese at home. It was said of him that his library was filled with Dickens, Shakespeare and legal books, that he "spoke English as a scholar".
Chen left the island to live in London, where he heard Sun Yat-sen speak at a rally against the Manchu government in China. Sun persuaded him to come to China and contribute his legal knowledge to the new Republic in 1912. Chen took the Trans-Siberian Railroad, shared the journey with Wu Lien-te, a physician born in Malaysia. Learning that Chen had no Chinese name, Wu suggested "Youren" as the equivalent of "Eugene". After Sun was forced to flee to Japan in 1913, Chen remained in Peking, where he began a second career in journalism. Chen edited the bilingual Peking Gazette 1913-1917 founded the Shanghai Gazette, the first of what Sun envisioned as a network of newspapers across China. Chen had given up his initial support for Yuan Shikai and became a strong critic of the government, accusing it of "selling China", for which offence he was imprisoned. In 1918, Chen joined Sun in Canton to support the southern government, which he helped to represent at the Paris Peace Conference, where he resisted Japanese and British plans for China.
In 1922, Chen became Sun's closest adviser on foreign affairs, developed a leftist stance of anti-imperialist nationalism and support of Sun's alliance with the Soviet Union. Chen's diplomacy led one historian to call him "arguably China's most important diplomat of the 1920s and instrumental in the rights recovery movement." Chen welcomed Sun's alliance with the Soviet Union, worked harmoniously with Michael Borodin, the chief Soviet and foreign policy adviser to Sun Yat-Sen on the reorganization of the Nationalist Party at Canton in 1923. After Sun's death, Chen was elected to the Central Executive Committee of Kuomintang, Nationalist Minister for Foreign affairs at Canton, Ruler of Hankow, all being achieved in 1926 he was forced to resign in April 1927. Over the next two years, Chen lodged vigorous and articulate protests over continued imperialist policies with the American and British governments, as well as negotiating with the British authorities over the massive labor strikes in Hong Kong.
When Chiang Kai-shek's Northern Expedition appeared on the verge of unifying the country, Chen joined the rival Nationalist government at Wuhan. In January 1927, the Nationalists forcibly took control over the British Concession in Wuhan, when violent crowds took the foreign concession at Kiukiang, foreign warships gathered at Shanghai. Chen's negotiations with the British led in February 1927 to the Chen-O'Malley Agreement which provided for a combined British-Chinese administration of the concession. In 1929 the British Concession formally came to an end. From on it was administered by the Chinese authorities as the Third Special Area. While the event as such was comparatively minor, as was the territory involved, this constituted both a humiliation and an ominous precedent for the British Empire. In March 1927, with the approaching National Revolutionary Army about to reach Nanjing there was an outbreak of violence against foreigners, now known as the Nanjing Incident, Chiang Kai-shek launched White Terror attacks on Communists in Shanghai.
Chen sent Borodin, his sons Percy Chen and Jack Chen, the American leftist journalist Anna Louise Strong in an automotive convoy across Central Asia to Moscow. He, his daughters Si-lan and Yolanda, Mme. Sun Yat-sen, the American journalist Rayna Prohme traveled from Shanghai to Vladivostok, once again by Trans-Siberian Railway to Moscow. Life in Moscow from 1928 was far from easy. After an initial warm public reception, Stalin showed little tolerance for living symbols of the Soviet failure in China. Chen and Mme. Sun were frustrated in their attempts to establish a leftist Chinese front, soon left Moscow. After a period of exile he went to Hong Kong before being appointed foreign minister by General Chiang Kai-Shek in 1931. After brief service with governments in China which challenged the Nanking government, Chen was expelled from the Kuomintang for serving as foreign minister in the Fukien Rebellion of 1934, he again returned to Hong Kong after the outbreak of the war with Japan. He was taken to Shanghai in the spring of 1942 in hopes of persuading him to support the Japanese puppet government, but he remained loudly critical of that "pack of liars" until his death in May, 1944, at the age of 66.
In 1899, Chen married Agatha Alphosin Gante
A state funeral is a public funeral ceremony, observing the strict rules of protocol, held to honour people of national significance. State funerals include much pomp and ceremony as well as religious overtones and distinctive elements of military tradition. State funerals are held in order to involve the general public in a national day of mourning after the family of the deceased gives consent. A state funeral will generate mass publicity from both national and global media outlets. Ahmed Ben Bella Agostino Neto Sir Seretse Khama Sir Ketumile Masire Marc-Vivien Foe Laurent-Desire Kabila Gamal Abdel Nasser Mohammad Reza Pahlavi, Shah of Iran who dies in exile in Egypt Anwar Sadat Meles Zenawi Edith Lucie Bongo Omar Bongo Mzee Jomo Kenyatta Michael Kijana Wamalwa Lucy Kibaki Bingu wa Mutharika Samora Machel Afonso Dhlakama Andimba Toivo ya Toivo Chris Hani Nelson Mandela Govan Mbeki Raymond Mhlaba Walter Sisulu Albertina Sisulu Senzo Meyiwa Joost van der Westhuizen Winnie Mandela Julius Nyerere Godfrey Binaisa Mutesa II of Buganda Milton Obote Levy Mwanawasa Frederick Chiluba Betty Kaunda Michael Sata Oliver Mtukudzi In 1952 Eva Perón died at age 33.
She held the title of Spiritual Leader of the Nation of Argentina, granted by the Congress of Argentina. Nearly three million people covered the funeral of Evita in the streets of Buenos Aires. A radio broadcast interrupted the broadcasting schedule, with the announcer reading, "The Press Secretary's Office of the Presidency of the Nation fulfills its sad duty to inform the people of the Republic that at 20:25 hours Mrs. Eva Perón, Spiritual Leader of the Nation, died." Eva Perón was granted a full Roman Catholic requiem mass. On Saturday 9 August, the body was transferred to the Congress Building for an additional day to be publicly viewed; the next day, after a final Sunday mass, the coffin was laid atop on a gun carriage pulled by CGT officials. Following next was Juan Perón, his cabinet, Eva's family and friends, the delegates and representatives of the Partido Peronista Femenino workers and students of the Eva Perón Foundation, her coffin was showered with carnations, chrysanthemums and roses thrown from the nearby balconies as the procession passed through the streets.
Juan Perón died at age 78 on 1 July 1974, after his health progressively deteriorated. His wife and vicepresident, Isabel Martínez de Perón, gave the announcement: "with great sorrow I must convey to the people of Argentina the death of this true apostle of peace and nonviolence." After several days of national mourning, in which the body laid in state at the Argentine National Congress for hundreds of thousands of people, the remains were moved to a crypt in the Quinta de Olivos Presidential. On 17 November 1974 the remains of Evita. While the body was in Congress, over 135,000 people filed past the coffin, while a million Argentines had to bid their farewell to their leader from the outside. Two thousand foreign journalists reported the details of the funeral. Raul Alfonsín died at age 82 on 31 March 2009 after a long battle against lung cancer and. in his last days, broncoaspirativa pneumonia. Argentina's government declared three days of national mourning for the death and his remains were veiled from the early hours of April 1, 2009 in the Blue Room of the National Congress, attended by authorities and politicians of different parties an estimated 80,000 people had to wait in line for five to six hours.
Among the political authorities who attended the event were former presidents Carlos Menem, Eduardo Duhalde, Fernando De la Rua and Nestor Kirchner, President Cristina Fernandez was unable to attend because they were in the G-20 London but sent its condolences. The next day they were taken to a military gun carriage escorted by the Mounted Grenadiers Regiment at Recoleta Cemetery in Buenos Aires; the remains of former President rested temporarily in the vault of the fallen in the Revolution of the Park until 16 May were transferred to a single monument in the cemetery in a place built of gray and beige marble, where there is a cross on top and a bright stained glass by entering a glimmer. Argentina's former President and Secretary General of UNASUR, Néstor Kirchner, died of heart failure on the morning of 27 October 2010 at the Jose Formenti hospital in El Calafate, Santa Cruz Province at the age of 60. Although there was some effort made to revive him, it did not do so His wife, President Cristina Fernández de Kirchner, was present with him when he died.
He was expected to run for president in 2011. A state funeral was held on November 3, 2010 in Bridgetown for former Barbados Prime Minister David Thompson. State funerals were held for the President-elect of Brazil, Tancredo Neves, who died before taking office; the former Vice President of Brazil, José Alencar, was buried with a head of state's honor, after his passing due to cancer. Other than heads of state, personalities such as the Formula 1 racing champion Ayrton Senna, dead in 1994 after a crash during a race, the architect Oscar Niemeyer, who died in 2012 at the age of 104, among others. In Canada, state funerals are public events held to commemorate the memory of present and former governors general and former prime ministers, sitting members of the Ministry and other prominent Canadians at the discretion of the Prime Minister. With ceremonial and religious elements incorporated, state funerals are offered and executed by the Government of Canada which provides a dignified manner for the Canadian people to mourn a national public figure.
In 2006, the House of Commons voted unanimously, on a motion introduced by the NDP, to hold a state funeral when the last Canadian veteran of the First World War died
Republic of China Military Academy
The Republic of China Military Academy is the military academy for the army of the Republic of China, located in Fengshan District, Kaohsiung. Known as the Whampoa Military Academy, the military academy produced many prestigious commanders who fought in many of China's conflicts in the 20th century, notably the Northern Expedition, the Second Sino-Japanese War and the Chinese Civil War; the military academy was opened on May 1, 1924 under the Kuomintang, but the first lessons began on June 16, 1924. The inauguration was on Changzhou Island offshore from the Whampoa dock in Guangzhou, thus earning its name. During the inaugural ceremonies, Sun Yat-sen delivered a speech, to become the lyrics of the national anthem of the Republic of China, it has been considered one of the most important institutions of the Republic of China with National Chengchi University, a prestigious incubator for senior civil service. After the Republic of China government retreated from mainland China to Taiwan, the academy was re-established as the Republic of China Military Academy in Fengshan District, Kaohsiung.
After the death of Yuan Shikai, China fragmented into numerous fiefdoms ruled by warlords. Sun Yat-sen attempted in 1917 and 1920 to set up a base in his native Guangdong to launch a northern campaign to unite China under his Three Principles of the People. However, his government remained militarily weaker than local warlords armies. Calls by Sun for arms and money were ignored by the western powers. In 1921 the representative of Comintern, Henk Sneevliet, met with Sun in Guangxi, he proposed setting up a military academy to train the revolutionary army, which confirmed Sun's ideas and he accepted. The Chinese Communist Party sent Li Dazhao and Lin Boqu to discuss with Sun and his party on how to set up the academy. In 1924, in the 1st National Congress of Kuomintang, the policy of alliance with the Soviet Union and CCP was passed as guidance for KMT; as a result, the final decision of establishment of a military academy was made and preparatory committee was set up accordingly. The money necessary for the construction and support of the Academy in 1924-1925 was provided by the Soviets.
In the beginning, the Academy had only one department. While the main Academy goal was preparation of infantry units, it provided special classes for artillery, communication and machine gun units. A special department for preparation of political agitators was established later; the academy concentrated the revolutionary military talents at the time. Sun took the job of Premier of this academy in person. Sun's favorite and rising star Chiang Kai-shek was appointed the first commandant of the academy. Liao Zhongkai, the famous leftist in the Kuomintang and Sun's treasury secretary, was appointed as representative of KMT to the academy. Zhou Enlai, Hu Hanmin and Wang Jingwei were instructors in the political department, he Ye Jianying were once military instructors. The serious lack of expert teachers was the biggest problem for the Academy; that is why lectures delivered by Soviet officers were popular with students. A. S. Bubnov, G. I. Gilev, M. I. Dratvin, S. N. Naumov prepared lectures which explained the development of military thought throughout human history and the division between western and Soviet schools of military thought.
Soviet officers taught different military subjects in the Academy using their broad experience gained during the Russian Civil War. Among them were I. Vasilevich, N. Korneev, M. Nefedov, F. Kotov, P. Lunev, V. Akimov. Galina Kolchugina read a course of lectures on political agitation; the first two groups of students prepared by the Academy became the core for the formation of the first two National Revolutionary Army regiments. The first two prepared groups of students included 500 officers, the third one had 800 officers and the fourth group had 2000. Legendary graduates include Nationalist commanders Chen Cheng, Du Yuming, Xue Yue, Hu Zongnan, Hu Lien and Guan Linzheng and Communist commanders Lin Biao, Xu Xiangqian, Zuo Quan, Liu Zhidan and Chen Geng; the young cadets first showed their training and courage in the war against local warlord and dissident of Sun, Chen Jiongming and the unification of Guangdong province. They made greater contributions in the Northern Expedition; the Muslim Ma clique General Ma Zhongying, who commanded the 36th Division, attended the Whampoa military academy in Nanjing in 1929.
The Whampoa Military Academy plays an important role in Chinese history. It not only supplied many military commanders for both the KMT and CCP, but its graduates have much more influence on both parties' policies and governance. For Chiang and KMT, the Whampoa Clique was pivotal for his governance, it competed with other cliques of KMT such as the New Guangxi Clique led by Li Zongren and Bai Chongxi, CC Clique led by Chen Lifu and Chen Guofu, Politics Research Group led by Yang Yongtai and Zhang Qun. At the same time, when the CCP built its first Red Army after the Nanchang Uprising in 1927 most of its commanders were from Whampoa, in the following two decades, the CCP trained its army in the Whampoa way; the motto of the academy "Camaraderie" was proclaimed by Sun Yat-sen at the opening ceremonies. The irony is that during the Chinese Civil War both the commanders from KMT and CCP were trained and educated in Whampoa. They
Republic of China (1912–1949)
The Republic of China controlled the Chinese mainland between 1912 and 1949. It was established in January 1912 after the Xinhai Revolution, which overthrew the Qing dynasty, the last imperial dynasty of China, its government moved to Taipei in December 1949 due to the Kuomintang's defeat in the Chinese Civil War. The Republic's first president, Sun Yat-sen, served only before handing over the position to Yuan Shikai, leader of the Beiyang Army, his party led by Song Jiaoren, won the parliamentary election held in December 1912. Song Jiaoren was assassinated shortly after and the Beiyang Army led by Yuan Shikai maintained full control of the Beiyang government. Between late 1915 and early 1916, Yuan Shikai tried to reinstate the monarchy before abdicating due to popular unrest. After Yuan Shikai's death in 1916, members of cliques in the Beiyang Army claimed their autonomy and clashed with each other. During this period, the authority of the Beiyang government was weakened by a restoration of the Qing dynasty.
In 1921, Sun Yat-sen's Kuomintang established a rival government in Canton City, Canton Province, together with the fledgling Communist Party of China. The economy of North China, overtaxed to support warlord adventurism, collapsed between 1927 and 1928. General Chiang Kai-shek, who became KMT leader after Sun Yat-sen's death, started the Northern Expedition military campaign in 1926 to overthrow the Beiyang government, completed in 1928. In April 1927, Chiang established a nationalist government in Nanking, massacred communists in Shanghai, which forced the CPC into armed rebellion, marking the beginning of the Chinese Civil War. There were industrialization and modernization, but conflict between the Nationalist government in Nanking, the CPC, remnant warlords, the Empire of Japan. Nation-building took a backseat to the Second Sino-Japanese War when the Imperial Japanese Army launched an offensive against China in 1937 that turned into a full-scale invasion. After the surrender of Japan at the end of World War II in 1945, the Chinese Civil War resumed in 1946 between the KMT and CPC, with both sides receiving foreign assistance due to the Cold War from the USA and USSR, respectively.
During this period, the 1946 Constitution of the Republic of China replaced the 1928 Organic Law as the Republic's fundamental law. Near the end of the Chinese Civil War in 1949, the Chinese Communist Party established the People's Republic of China, overthrowing the nationalist government on the Chinese mainland; the Government of the Republic of China moved from Nanking to Taipei in 1949, controlling only the Taiwan area after 1949. The official name of the state in the mainland was the "Republic of China". Shortly after the ROC's establishment in 1912, while it was still located on the Chinese mainland, the government used the short form "China" to refer to itself, which derives from zhōng and guó, a term which developed under the Zhou dynasty in reference to its royal demesne, the name was applied to the area around Luoyi during the Eastern Zhou and to China's Central Plain before being used as an occasional synonym for the state during the Qing era; the ROC used alternate names throughout its existence were Republican China or Republican Era, as well as the Beiyang government, the Nationalist government.
A republic was formally established on 1 January 1912 following the Xinhai Revolution, which itself began with the Wuchang Uprising on 10 October 1911 overthrowing the Qing dynasty and ending over two thousand years of imperial rule in China. From its founding until 1949 it was based on mainland China. Central authority waxed and waned in response to warlordism, Japanese invasion, a full-scale civil war, with central authority strongest during the Nanjing Decade, when most of China came under the control of the Kuomintang under an authoritarian one-party military dictatorship. At the end of World War II in 1945, the Empire of Japan surrendered control of Taiwan and its island groups to the Allies, Taiwan was placed under the Republic of China's administrative control; the communist takeover of mainland China in the Chinese Civil War in 1949 left the ruling Kuomintang with control over only Taiwan, Kinmen and other minor islands. With the 1949 loss of mainland China in the civil war, the ROC government retreated to Taiwan and the KMT declared Taipei the provisional capital.
The Communist Party of China took over all of mainland China and founded the People's Republic of China in Beijing. In 1912, after over two thousand years of imperial rule, a republic was established to replace the monarchy; the Qing dynasty that preceded the republic experienced a century of instability throughout the 19th century, suffered from both internal rebellion and foreign imperialism. The ongoing instability led to the outburst of Boxer Rebellion in 1900, whose attacks on foreigners led to the invasion by the Eight Nation Alliance. China signed the Boxer Protocol and paid a large indemnity to the foreign powers: 450 million taels of fine silver. A program of institutional reform proved too late. Only the lack of an alternative regime prolonged its existence until 1912; the establishment of the Chinese Republic developed out of the Wuchang Uprising against the Qing government on 10 October 1911. That date is now celebrated annually as the ROC's national day known as the "Double Ten Day".
On 29 December 1911, Sun Yat-sen was elected president b
The Northern Expedition was a military campaign launched by the National Revolutionary Army of the Kuomintang known as the "Chinese Nationalist Party", against the Beiyang government and other regional warlords in 1926. The purpose of the campaign was to reunify China, which had become fragmented in the aftermath of the Revolution of 1911; the expedition was led by Generalissimo Chiang Kai-shek, was divided into two phases. The first phase ended in a 1927 political split between two factions of the KMT: the right-leaning Nanjing faction, led by Chiang, the left-leaning faction in Wuhan, led by Wang Jingwei; the split was motivated by Chiang's purging of communists within the KMT, which marked the end of the First United Front. In an effort to mend this schism, Chiang Kai-shek stepped down as the commander of the NRA in August 1927, went into exile in Japan; the second phase of the Expedition began in January 1928. By April 1928, the nationalist forces had advanced to the Yellow River. With the assistance of allied warlords including Yan Xishan and Feng Yuxiang, nationalist forces secured a series of decisive victories against the Beiyang Army.
As they approached Beijing, Zhang Zuolin, leader of the Manchuria-based Fengtian clique, was forced to flee, was assassinated shortly thereafter by the Japanese. His son, Zhang Xueliang, took over as the leader of the Fengtian clique, in December 1928, announced that Manchuria would accept the authority of the nationalist government in Nanjing. With the final piece of China under KMT control, the Northern Expedition concluded and China was reunified, heralding the start of the Nanjing decade. In the 1920s, the Beiyang government based in Beijing was internationally recognised as the legitimate Chinese government. Much of the country, was not under its control, being ruled by a patchwork of warlords; the Kuomintang, based in Guangzhou, aspired to be the party of national liberation. Since the conclusion of the Constitutional Protection Movement in 1922, the KMT had been bolstering its ranks to prepare for an expedition against the northern warlords in Beijing, with the goal of reunifying China.
This preparation involved improving both the political and military strength of the KMT. Before his death in March 1925, Sun Yat-sen, the founder of the Republic of China and co-founder of the KMT, was supportive of Sino-Soviet co-operation, which had involved forming the First United Front with the Communist Party of China; the military arm of the KMT was the National Revolutionary Army. Chiang Kai-shek, who had emerged as Sun's protégé as early as 1922, was appointed commandant of the Whampoa Military Academy in 1924, emerged as a contender for the position of Sun's successor in the aftermath of his death. On 30 May 1925, Chinese students in Shanghai gathered at the International Settlement, held demonstrations in opposition to foreign interference in China. With the support of the KMT, they called for the boycott of foreign goods and an end to the Settlement, governed by the British and Americans; the Shanghai Municipal Police operated by the British, opened fire on the crowd of demonstrators.
This incident sparked outrage throughout China, culminating in the Canton–Hong Kong strike, which began on 18 June, proved a fertile recruiting ground for the CPC. Concerns about the rising power of the leftist faction, the effect of the strike on the Guangzhou government's ability to raise funds, dependent on foreign trade, led to increasing tensions within the United Front. Amidst this backdrop, vying for the position of KMT leader, began to consolidate power in preparation for an expedition against the northern warlords. On 20 March 1926, he launched a bloodless purge of hardline communists who were opposed to the proposed expedition from the Guangzhou administration and its military, known as the Canton Coup. At the same time, Chiang made conciliatory moves toward the Soviet Union, attempted to balance the need for Soviet and CPC assistance in the fight against the warlords with his concerns about growing communist influence within the KMT. In the aftermath of the coup, Chiang negotiated a compromise whereby hardline members of the rightist faction, such as Wu Tieh-cheng, were removed from their posts in compensation for the purged leftists.
By doing so, Chiang was able to prove his usefulness to the CPC and their Soviet sponsor, Joseph Stalin. Soviet aid to the KMT government would continue, as would co-operation with the CPC. A fragile coalition between KMT rightists, centrists led by Chiang, KMT leftists, the CPC managed to hold together, laying the groundwork for the Northern Expedition. In 1926, there were three major coalition of warlords across China that were hostile to the KMT government in Guangzhou; the forces of Wu Peifu occupied northern Hunan and Henan provinces. The coalition of Sun Chuanfang was in control of Fujian, Jiangsu and Jiangxi provinces; the most powerful coalition, led by Zhang Zuolin, head of the Beiyang government and the Fengtian clique, was in control of Manchuria and Zhili. To face the Northern Expedition, Zhang Zuolin assembled the "National Pacification Army", an alliance of the warlords of northern China. Amidst heavy fighting along the border between KMT-held territory and that of the allied forces of the Fengtian and Zhili cliques, the nationalist government appointed Chiang Kai-shek commander-in-chief of the NRA on 5 June 1926.
Chiang would accept this post in a ceremony on 9 July, which marked the formal start of the Northern Expedition, although military clashes had been ongoing
Dongguan is a prefecture-level city in central Guangdong Province. An important industrial city in the Pearl River Delta, Dongguan borders the provincial capital of Guangzhou to the north, Huizhou to the northeast, Shenzhen to the south, the Pearl River to the west, it is part of the Pearl River Delta megacity with more than 44.78 million inhabitants at the 2010 census spread over nine municipalities across an area of 17,573 square kilometres. Dongguan's city administration is considered progressive in seeking foreign direct investment. Dongguan ranks behind only Shenzhen and Suzhou in exports among Chinese cities, with $65.54 billion in shipments. It is home to one of the world's largest, though empty, shopping malls, the New South China Mall. Although the city is geographically and thus culturally Cantonese in the Weitou form and as well as culturally Hakka in the prefectures of Fenggang and Qingxi, the majority of the modern-day population speaks Mandarin due to the large influx of economic migrants from other parts of China.
Although the earliest traces of human habitation in the area stretch back 5,000 years, Dongguan's emergence as a true city is a recent phenomenon. In 1839, at the outset of the First Opium War, large quantities of seized opium were destroyed in Humen, a town that now belongs to Dongguan. Several of the major battles of the war were fought in this area. During the Second World War, the city served as the base for guerrilla resistance against the Japanese occupation. Being a district of the Huiyang prefecture before, as its economy overshadowed the prefectural capital of Huizhou itself, Dongguan earned city status in 1985, was upgraded to prefecture city status three years later. During this period the city changed its focus from an agricultural town into a manufacturing hub, with an average annual growth of up to 18%; the city ranked 13th in Forbes China's listing of the most innovative mainland cities, as well as 18th in Foreign Policy's listing of the most dynamic cities in the world. Geographically, the city is hilly to the east and flat in the west, with 115.98 kilometres of shoreline.
The urban centre of Dongguan is 50 kilometres from that of Guangzhou to its north, 90 kilometres from Shenzhen to its south, 47 nautical miles from Hong Kong and 48 nautical miles from Macau by waterway. It is positioned in the middle of the Guangzhou-Shenzhen economic corridor, a hub for both land and sea transport. Of Dongguan's total area, 27% is water, 25% forest land, 13% arable land, while 35% of its land area has been developed. Dongguan has a humid subtropical climate, with abundant sunshine and rainfall over the year, it lies just south of the Tropic of Cancer. The average temperature is 22.7 °C throughout the year with average rainfall of 1,787 millimetres. Dongguan had an estimated 6,949,800 inhabitants at the end of 2008, among whom 1,748,700 were local residents and 5,201,100 permanent migrants from other parts of the country. At the 2010 Census the population had expanded to 8,220,237; the number reached 8.26 million by 2016, with a density of 5,100 per km². Dongguan is the hometown for many overseas Chinese, the family origin of over 700,000 people in Hong Kong and Macau and over 200,000 Chinese nationals living abroad.
Dongguan is a prefecture-level city of the Guangdong province. An uncommon administrative feature is that it has no county-level division, but the municipal government does group the 32 township-level divisions into 6 district areas; the city government directly administers 4 Subdistricts and 28 towns: Dongguan is served by Guangzhou Baiyun International Airport, Shenzhen Bao’an International Airport, but by Hong Kong International Airport. There are coach bus services connecting Dongguan with HKIA. Many foreign travellers to Dongguan fly into Hong Kong, which gives visa on arrival to citizens of over 170 countries. After landing, visitors must apply for a visa to enter mainland China. One can travel from Hong Kong to Dongguan by ferry, or train. Passengers travelling overland must disembark from their transport at the Hong Kong/China border to go through customs and immigration, except for those traveling on the Mass Transit Railway intercity services from Hung Hom Station to Dongguan and beyond.
The Humen Pearl River Bridge is a suspension bridge over the Pearl River. Completed in 1997, it has a main span of 888 metres. Construction work on the Second Humen Pearl River Bridge will start in early 2014. Dongguan serves as one of the regional railway hubs in Guangdong, where the Guangzhou-Kowloon Railway, Guangzhou-Meizhou-Shantou Railway and the Beijing-Kowloon Railway converge. Rail services in and out of the city call at Dongguan railway station where there are direct train services to Guangzhou East railway station in Guangzhou. High-speed rail services are available at Humen railway station. Among the four metro lines planned for the Dongguan Rail Transit, R2 Line is presently under construction and was scheduled to open for operations in early 2015; this was delayed and opened in May 2016. The R2 Line will link towns in Western Dongguan, thereby promoting the connection of the entire downtown area with Houjie and Chang’an, it will support Dongguan's regional transportation with other cities such as Guangzhou, Hong Kong by joining with the rail transit junctions of the Pearl River Delta.
Dongguan is a major manufacturing hub, although it suffered significant loss of economic activity from the impact of the 2008 financial crisis. The largest
Shaoguan is a prefecture-level city in northern Guangdong Province, bordering Hunan to the northwest and Jiangxi to the northeast. It is home to the mummified remains of the sixth Zen Buddhist patriarch Huineng, its built-up or metro area made up of Zhenjiang and Wujiang urban districts was home to 688,229 inhabitants at the 2010 census. Shaozhou was a prefecture under the Song. In 1589, Matteo Ricci relocated his mission house – the first Jesuit mission in mainland China – to Shaoguan after a fallout with the authorities in Zhaoqing, he remained in Shaoguan for a few years benefiting from Shaoguan's location on the important north-south travel route to establish connections with traveling dignitaries that allowed him to move north, to Nanchang and Beijing. During World War II the city called Kukong, was the capital of Guangdong Province. In June 2009, Uyghurs and Han workers clashed at a toy factory in Shaoguan, followed by the Ürümqi riots in July. Shaoguan is the northernmost prefecture-level city of Guangdong, bordering Chenzhou to the northwest and north, Ganzhou to the northeast, Heyuan to the east and Huizhou to the south, Qingyuan to the west.
It spans latitude 23° 05'−25° 31' N and longitude 112° 50'−114° 45' E. It is situated at the southern end of the Nan Mountains, which run east-west here, is marked by numerous erosion-created valleys; the city is located on the Jingguang Railway about 221 kilometres north of the provincial capital of Guangzhou. Shaoguan is readily accessible by road as it is adjacent to the G4 Beijing–Hong Kong–Macau Expressway as well as numerous other National Highways. At Shaoguan, the Wu River from the northwest and the Zhen River from the northeast join up to create the North River which flows south to Guangzhou; the downtown part of Shaoguan is located on a peninsula between the Zhen Rivers. The rivers are maintained at a constant level by a dam about 12 kilometres downstream from the city; the city has about 20 kilometres of tree-lined riverside esplanades along the banks of the rivers. There are seven bridges crossing the three rivers. Shaoguan has a monsoon-influenced humid subtropical climate, with short, damp winters, rainy springs, long and humid summers, sunny autumns.
Due to the city's location far inland, winters are cooler than in the rest of the province, with freezing rain possible in the nearby mountain passes in some years. Winter begins dry and sunny but becomes progressively cloudier and damper. Spring is the wettest season, with the sun shining less than 30 % of the time; the annual rainfall is around much of it delivered from April thru June. The monthly 24-hour average temperature ranges from 10.3 °C in January to 29.0 °C in July. With monthly percent possible sunshine ranging from 16% in March to 54% in July, the city receives 1,617 hours of bright sunshine annually. Shaoguan has direct jurisdiction over 3 districts, 2 county-level cities and 5 counties: The Fengcai Tower in the centre of Shaoguan was built in the Ming Dynasty. To the south of the tower, at the other end of a pedestrian shopping street, the Dajian Monastery was founded in 660. Near Shaoguan is home of relics and museum of the Maba Man, Chinese Neanderthals. Near Maba is Nanhua Temple, founded by Huineng, the Sixth Patriarch of Zen Buddhism.
Shaoguan Iron and Steel is located near Maba. Danxia Mountain is located in Shaoguan. Northwest of Shaoguan, at the town of Pingshi, a stretch of river known as the Nine Torrents and Eighteen Shoals is a popular place for white-water rafting. Shaoguan University is in the city. Shaozhou Tuhua Roman Catholic Diocese of Shaozhou Matteo Ricci http://www.shaoguan.gov.cn/ https://web.archive.org/web/20040924085950/http://shaoguan.com.cn/ Shaoguan, China