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Canton of Aargau

The canton of Aargau is one of the more northerly cantons of Switzerland. It is situated by the lower course of the Aare, why the canton is called Aar-gau, it is one of the most densely populated regions of Switzerland. The area of Aargau and the surrounding areas were controlled by the Helvetians, a member of the Celts, as far back as 200 BC being occupied by the Romans and by the 6th century, the Franks; the Romans built. The reconstructed Old High German name of Aargau is Argowe, first unambiguously attested in 795; the term described a territory only loosely equivalent to that of the modern canton, including the region between Aare and Reuss, including Pilatus and Napf, i.e. including parts of the modern cantons of Bern, Basel-Landschaft, Lucerne and Nidwalden, but not the parts of the modern canton east of the Reuss, which were part of Zürichgau. Within the Frankish Empire, the area was a disputed border region between the duchies of Alamannia and Burgundy. A line of the von Wetterau intermittently held the countship of Aargau from 750 until about 1030, when they lost it.

This division became the ill-defined outer border of the early Holy Roman Empire at its formation in the second half of the 10th century. Most of the region came under the control of the ducal house of Zähringen and the comital houses of Habsburg and Kyburg by about 1200. In the second half of the 13th century, the territory became divided between the territories claimed by the imperial cities of Bern and Solothurn and the Swiss canton of Unterwalden; the remaining portion corresponding to the modern canton of Aargau, remained under the control of the Habsburgs until the "conquest of Aargau" by the Old Swiss Confederacy in 1415. Habsburg Castle itself, the original seat of the House of Habsburg, was taken by Bern in April 1415; the Habsburgs had founded a number of monasteries, the closing of which by the government in 1841 was a contributing factor to the outbreak of the Swiss civil war – the "Sonderbund War" – in 1847. When Frederick IV of Habsburg sided with Antipope John XXIII at the Council of Constance, Emperor Sigismund placed him under the Imperial ban.

In July 1414, the Pope visited Bern and received assurances from them, that they would move against the Habsburgs. A few months the Swiss Confederation denounced the Treaty of 1412. Shortly thereafter in 1415, Bern and the rest of the Swiss Confederation used the ban as a pretext to invade the Aargau; the Confederation was able to conquer the towns of Aarau, Lenzburg and Zofingen along with most of the Habsburg castles. Bern kept the southwest portion, northward to the confluence of the Reuss; the important city of Baden was taken by a united Swiss army and governed by all 8 members of the Confederation. Some districts, named the Freie ÄmterMellingen, Muri and Bremgarten, with the countship of Baden – were governed as "subject lands" by all or some of the Confederates. Shortly after the conquest of the Aargau by the Swiss, Frederick humbled himself to the Pope; the Pope ordered all of the taken lands to be returned. The Swiss refused and years after no serious attempts at re-acquisition, the Duke relinquished rights to the Swiss.

Bern's portion of the Aargau came to be known as the Unteraargau, though can be called the Berner or Bernese Aargau. In 1514 Bern expanded north into the Jura and so came into possession of several strategically important mountain passes into the Austrian Fricktal; this land was directly ruled from Bern. It was divided into seven rural bailiwicks and four administrative cities, Zofingen and Brugg. While the Habsburgs were driven out, many of their minor nobles were allowed to keep their lands and offices, though over time they lost power to the Bernese government; the bailiwick administration was based on a small staff of officials made up of Bernese citizens, but with a few locals. When Bern converted during the Protestant Reformation in 1528, the Unteraargau converted. At the beginning of the 16th century a number of anabaptists migrated into the upper Wynen and Rueder valleys from Zürich. Despite pressure from the Bernese authorities in the 16th and 17th centuries anabaptism never disappeared from the Unteraargau.

Bern used the Aargau bailiwicks as a source of grain for the rest of the city-state. The administrative cities remained economically only of regional importance. However, in the 17th and 18th centuries Bern encouraged industrial development in Unteraargau and by the late 18th century it was the most industrialized region in the city-state; the high industrialization led to high population growth in the 18th century, for example between 1764 and 1798, the population grew by 35%, far more than in other parts of the canton. In 1870 the proportion of farmers in Aarau, Lenzburg and Zofingen districts was 34–40%, while in the other districts it was 46–57%; the rest of the Freie Ämter were collectively administered as subject territories by the rest of the Confederation. Muri Amt was assigned to Zürich, Schwyz, Unterwalden and Glarus, while the Ämter of Meienberg and Villmergen were first given to Lucerne alone; the final boundary

Wilderness Tours

Wilderness Tours is a commercial whitewater rafting/kayaking and outdoor training center. It was founded in 1975 when Joe E. Kowalski and five others took rafts down and navigated the section of river known as Rocher-Fendu. Wilderness Tours is based in eastern Ontario near Ottawa, the capital city of Canada, on the Ottawa River. WT operates a variety of whitewater kayaking trips. Wilderness Tours owns a rafting company located beside Britannia Beach on the Ottawa River just up river from Parliament Hill; the kayak school that Wilderness Tours runs is called the Ottawa Kayak School teaching beginners to intermediate/advanced paddlers. It was started in 1982. OKS runs premier programs which brings in kayakers from around the world both to teach and learn. In December 2015, Wilderness Tours acquired the River Run Whitewater Rafting company. River Run was founded in 1980 by Margaret Maloney and is in the Ottawa Valley located on the Ottawa River, their mission is to provide the best rafting experience on the Ottawa River, to protect its natural splendor.

The company provides a paddler takeout that whitewater kayakers can use to set shuttles. Wilderness Tours has been host to many concerts such as Bud Camp, LogJam Country Music Festival and Kitchissippi Fest This country festival started two years after Wilderness Tours' Rock Festival, Kitchissippi Fest as a two-day event with Tebey headlining on Friday July 18 and Jason Blaine headlining on Saturday July 19; this rock festival was first started in 2012 on Saturday August 18 bringing headliners Swollen Members and Die Mannequin with supporting acts Ilvekyo and Daughter, After party DJ HugsNotDrugs and festival DJ DJ-Atown. In 2013, the festival remained a one-day event on Saturday August with Hollerado headlining with supporting acts Mustapio Magical Murder and Daughter, after party DJ HugsNotDrugs and Festival DJ Tom Thanks. In 2014, the festival grew to a 2-day event on Friday August 22 and Saturday August 23; the Sheepdogs headlined on Friday and the Arkells and Classified headlined on Saturday.

Wilderness Tours has been the host to 3 world championships, the most recent in 2015 from Sept 1 to Sept 15 involving more than 40 countries Official website

Combat Aviation Brigade, 1st Infantry Division (United States)

The 1st Combat Aviation Brigade is the Army Aviation formation of the United States Army's 1st Infantry Division. The current commander of this brigade is Colonel Bryan Chivers; the current configuration is as follows: Headquarters and Headquarters Company Archangels 1st Battalion, 1st Aviation Regiment Gunfighters 2nd Battalion, 1st Aviation Regiment Fighting EaglesCompany A Company B Company C Company D Company E Company F 3rd Battalion, 1st Aviation Regiment Company A, Company B, Company C, Company D, Company E, 1st Heavy Attack Reconnaissance Squadron, 6th Cavalry Regiment The Fighting Sixth 601st Aviation Support Battalion Guardians The Combat Aviation Brigade, 1st Infantry Division, was formed from the assets of the Aviation Brigade, 1st Armored Division, created from the assets of 1st Armored Division's 501st Aviation Battalion on 17 April 1986. Colonel James W. Lloyd, the first Aviation Brigade Commander, accepted the unit colors from Major General Dave R. Palmer, Commanding General, 1st Armored Division.

When formed, the Brigade consisted of the 10th and 501st Aviation Battalions, the 220th Aviation Company, the 244th Aviation Company and the 61st Aviation Company. Brigade aircraft included 22 Bell AH-1 Cobras, 38 Bell OH-58 Kiowas and 30 Bell UH-1 Iroquois helicopters. On 16 November 1987 the 501st and 10th Aviation Battalions were reflagged as the 2d and 3d Battalions, 1st Aviation, a regimental designation. Company A, 501st Aviation Battalion became Companies G and H under the 1st Armored Division and were redesignated again under the 3d Infantry Division as 7th Battalion, 1st Aviation; the 61st Aviation Company was reflagged as 1st Aviation. In May 1988, the 1st Squadron, 1st Cavalry completed the conversion from a purely ground squadron to an air/ground squadron and moved from Schwabach to Katterbach. In late 1998, the 1st Squadron, 1st Cavalry turned in its M60A3s and received 40 M3 Cavalry Fighting Vehicles. In July 1989, 2nd Battalion, 1st Aviation inactivated in Germany and the colors reactivated as an AH-64 Apache battalion at Fort Hood, Texas.

The "Strike Eagles" returned to Ansbach Army Heliport on 24 May 1990 becoming the first divisional AH-64 attack helicopter battalion stationed in Germany. In November 1990, Company I, 1st Aviation was reflagged as the 9th Battalion, 1st Aviation. "Eagle Support" was designed to provide dedicated support to the aviation brigade. The unit became 603rd Support Battalion under 3d Infantry Division. In December 1990, COL Daniel J. Petrosky led the brigade to Southwest Asia with the 1st Armored Division and conducted combat operations. For its accomplishments in Operation Desert Storm, the brigade was selected as AAAA unit of the year in 1991. Shortly after the unit returned and in conjunction with the reorganization of USAREUR, the "Iron Eagle" Brigade joined the 3d Infantry Division; the 1st Squadron, 1st Cavalry was turned in its equipment. Its colors were transferred to the divisional cavalry squadron of the 1st Armored Division; the Aviation Brigade was inactivated in January 1996 at Fort Riley and was reactivated as Aviation Brigade, 1st Infantry Division, in Katterbach, Germany on 15 February 1996, becoming an integral part of the Big Red One.

The Aviation Brigade supported numerous contingency operations throughout Southwest Asia. In 1997, the Aviation Brigade deployed to Bosnia and Herzegovina to provide aviation support for Operation Joint Guard. In 1999 the Aviation Brigade deployed to Kosovo as a part of the Multi-National Brigade East to provide aviation support to Operation Joint Endeavor; the Aviation Brigade continued operations in Kosovo through July 2003. In early 2003, the Aviation Brigade prepared for combat operations in support of Operation Iraqi Freedom. Elements of the Aviation Brigade deployed to Turkey to provide general aviation support to AFOR Turkey and the 1st Infantry Division; this support effort was made without aircraft as the battalion was stuck in Kosovo on "unofficial" deployment orders and after three months of trying to get to Iraq through Turkey the Division was turned around and the aviation elements relocated back to Katterbach. Upon redeployment, the Aviation Brigade welcomed the 6th Squadron, 6th Cavalry Regiment "Six Shooters" to the brigade as part of its aviation transformation and, on 13 June 2005, inactivated the 1st Squadron, 1st Aviation Regiment "Gunfighters," the colors of which departed for the Longbow Unit Fires Training Program.

The 1st Infantry Division's Combat Aviation Brigade completed a fifteen-month deployment to Iraq supporting Operation Iraqi Freedom 07-09. The CAB Hq conducted operations from Forward Operating Base Speicher; the Combat Aviation Brigade executed operations from eight dispersed locations and provided attack, assault, general support aviation, MEDEVAC, Air Traffic Control, Manned and Un