A prince-bishop is a bishop who is the civil ruler of some secular principality and sovereignty. If the episcopal see is an archbishopric, the term is prince-archbishop. A prince-bishop is usually considered an elected monarch, relations between a prince-bishop and the burghers were invariably not cordial. As cities demanded charters from emperors, kings, or their prince-bishops and declared independent of the secular territorial magnates. The stem duchies of the German kingdom inside the Empire had strong and powerful dukes, unlike dukes they could not pass hereditary titles and lands to any descendants. This met with increasing opposition by the Popes, culminating in the fierce Investiture Controversy of 1076, the Emperors continued to grant major territories to the most important bishops. The immediate territory attached to the episcopal see became a prince-diocese or bishopric, the German term Hochstift was often used to denote the form of secular authority held by bishops ruling a prince-bishopric with Erzstift being used for prince-archbishoprics.
Emperor Charles IV by the Golden Bull of 1356 confirmed the status of the Prince-Archbishoprics of Mainz, Cologne. At the eve of the Protestant Reformation, the Imperial states comprised 53 ecclesiastical principalities, with the dissolution of the Holy Roman Empire in 1806, the title finally became defunct. The bishops of Vienna and Wiener Neustadt didnt control any territory, upon the incorporation of the Livonian Brothers of the Sword in 1237, the territory of the Orders State largely corresponded with the Diocese of Riga. Bishop Albert of Riga in 1207 had received the lands of Livonia as an Imperial fief from the hands of German king Philip of Swabia, he however had to come to terms with the Brothers of the Sword. At the behest of Pope Innocent III the Terra Mariana confederation was established, by the 1234 Bull of Rieti, Pope Gregory IX stated that all lands acquired by the Teutonic Knights were no subject of any conveyancing by the Emperor. Within this larger conflict, the dualism of the autonomous Riga prince-bishop.
The bishops pursued the conferment of the title by the Holy Roman Emperor to stress their sovereignty. In the original Prussian lands of the Teutonic Order, Willam of Modena established the suffragan bishoprics of Culm, Pomesania and Warmia. The bishops of Cetinje, who took the place of the earlier secular Voivodes in 1516 had a position of Slavonic. The title survived the union of England and Scotland into the Kingdom of Great Britain in 1707 until 1836, apart from territories formerly within the Holy Roman Empire, no French diocese had a principality of political significance linked to its see. However, a number of French bishops did hold a title, with a tiny territory usually about their seat, it was often a princely title
Old Swiss Confederacy
The Old Swiss Confederacy was a precursor of the modern state of Switzerland. It was a confederation of independent small states which formed during the 14th century. From a nucleus in what is now Central Switzerland, the confederacy expanded to include the cities of Zurich and this formed a rare union of rural and urban communes, all of which enjoyed imperial immediacy in the Holy Roman Empire. Its success resulted in the addition of more confederates, increasing the number of cantons to thirteen by 1513, the confederacy pledged neutrality in 1515 and 1647, although many Swiss served privately as mercenaries in the Italian Wars and during the Early Modern period. After the Swabian War of 1499 the confederacy was a de facto independent state throughout the modern period. The Swiss Confederacy fell to invasion by the French Revolutionary Army in 1798, the adjective “old” was introduced after the Napoleonic era with Ancien Régime, retronyms distinguishing the pre-Napoleonic from the restored confederation.
During its existence the confederacy was known as Eidgenossenschaft or Eydtgnoschafft, in reference to treaties among cantons, territories of the confederacy came to be known collectively as Schweiz or Schweizerland, with the English Switzerland beginning during the mid-16th century. From that time the Confederacy was seen as a single state, the foundation of the Confederacy is marked by the Rütlischwur or the 1315 Pact of Brunnen. Since 1889, the Federal Charter of 1291 among the communes of Uri, Schwyz. The initial pact was augmented by pacts with the cities of Lucerne, Zürich, in several battles with Habsburg armies, the Swiss were victorious, they conquered the rural areas of Glarus and Zug, which became members of the confederacy. From 1353 to 1481, the federation of eight cantons—known in German as the Acht Orte —consolidated its position, the members enlarged their territory at the expense of local counts—primarily by buying judicial rights, but sometimes by force. The Eidgenossenschaft, as a whole, expanded through military conquest, the Aargau was conquered in 1415, in both cases, the Swiss profited from weakness in the Habsburg dukes.
In the south, Uri led a military territorial expansion that would by 1515 lead to the conquest of the Ticino, none of these territories became members of the confederacy, they had the status of condominiums. At this time, the eight cantons gradually increased their influence on neighbouring cities, individual cantons concluded pacts with Fribourg, Schaffhausen, the abbot and the city of St. Gallen, Rottweil and others. These allies became closely associated with the confederacy, but were not accepted as full members, the Burgundy Wars prompted a further enlargement of the confederacy and Solothurn were accepted in 1481. In the Swabian War against Holy Roman Emperor Maximilian I, the Swiss were victorious, the associated cities of Basel and Schaffhausen joined the confederacy as a result of that conflict, and Appenzell followed suit in 1513 as the thirteenth member. The federation of thirteen cantons constituted the Old Swiss Confederacy until its demise in 1798, the expansion of the confederacy was stopped by the Swiss defeat in the 1515 Battle of Marignano.
Only Berne and Fribourg were still able to conquer the Vaud in 1536, the Reformation in Switzerland led to doctrinal division amongst the cantons
An incunable, or sometimes incunabulum, is a book, pamphlet, or broadside that was printed—not handwritten—before the year 1501 in Europe. Incunable is the singular form of incunabula, Latin for swaddling clothes or cradle. A former term for incunable is fifteener, referring to the 15th century, but since 2009 we know that this lexical invention should no more be assigned to Mallinckrodt, dated 1569, it has to be credited to the Dutch Physician Hadrianus Junius. The term came to denote the printed books themselves in the late 17th century, post-incunable typically refers to books printed after 1500 up to another arbitrary end date such as 1520 or 1540. As of 2014, there are about 30,000 distinct incunable editions known to be extant, many authors reserve the term incunabula for the typographic ones only. The spread of printing to cities both in the north and in Italy ensured that there was great variety in the chosen for printing. Printers congregated in urban centres where there were scholars, lawyers, standard works in Latin inherited from the medieval tradition formed the bulk of the earliest printing, but as books became cheaper, works in the various local vernaculars began to appear.
Other printers of incunabula were Günther Zainer of Augsburg, Johannes Mentelin and Heinrich Eggestein of Strasbourg, Heinrich Gran of Haguenau and William Caxton of Bruges, the first incunable to have woodcut illustrations was Ulrich Boners Der Edelstein, printed by Albrecht Pfister in Bamberg in 1461. The data in this section were derived from the Incunabula Short-Title Catalogue, printing towns, The number of printing towns and cities stands at 282. These are situated in some 18 countries in terms of present-day boundaries, Only about one edition in ten has any illustrations, woodcuts or metalcuts. Survival, The commonest incunable is Schedels Nuremberg Chronicle of 1493, very many incunabula are unique, but on average about 18 copies survive of each. This makes the Gutenberg Bible, at 48 or 49 known copies, a complete incunable may consist of a slip, or up to ten volumes. Formats, In terms of format, the 29, 000-odd editions comprise,2,000 broadsides,9,000 folios,15,000 quartos,3,000 octavos,18 12mos,230 16mos,20 32mos, and 3 64mos.
Caxton, ISTC at present cites 528 extant copies of books printed by Caxton, Apart from migration to mainly North American and Japanese universities, there has been remarkably little movement of incunabula in the last five centuries. None were printed in the Southern Hemisphere, and the latter appears to less than 2,000 copies – i. e. about 97. 75% remain north of the equator. However many incunabula are sold at auction or through the book trade every year. The British Librarys Incunabula Short Title Catalogue now records over 29,000 titles, studies of incunabula began in the 17th century. Hain was expanded in subsequent editions, by Walter A, North American holdings were listed by Frederick R. Goff and a worldwide union catalogue is provided by the Incunabula Short Title Catalogue
Solothurn is a town, a municipality, and the capital of the canton of Solothurn in Switzerland. It is located in the north-west of Switzerland on the banks of the Aare, the town is the only municipality of the district of the same name. The town got its name from Salodurum, a Roman-era settlement, from 1530 to 1792 it was the seat of the French ambassador to Switzerland. The pedestrian-free old town was built between 1530 and 1792 and shows an impressive array of Baroque architecture, combining Italian Grandezza, French style, the town has 18 structures listed as heritage sites. Agricultural, once the dominant sector of employment, has become almost non-existent, most people today are employed in manufacturing and education. The official language of Solothurn is German, but the spoken language is the local variant of the Alemannic Swiss German dialect. The oldest finds from Solothurn probably date from the Paleolithic era, the remains of a Mesolithic camp were discovered in 1986 during renovations of the former Kino Elite building.
From the Neolithic and Iron Age, only a few scattered items have been discovered, the Roman settlement at Solothurn was probably built around AD 15-25 as a road station and bridge head on the road from Aventicum to Augusta Raurica or Vindonissa. A small vicus or settlement quickly developed around the castrum, Solothurn is first mentioned in 219 as vico salod on the so-called Eponastein. The name may indicate either that a Celtic settlement existed on the site before or just be a testimony to the mixed Gallo-Roman culture in the north-west provinces of the Roman Empire and it came to be known as Salodurum. Its strategical importance lay in the position at the approach to the Rhine from southeast, in the 2nd-3rd Century AD, the vicus expanded rapidly to fill almost all of what is now the old town of Solothurn, including a portion of todays suburb south of the Aare. The Roman bridge was probably somewhat above the current Wengibrücke, the Roman era river bed was 40–80 meters north of the present Aare.
The main street of the Vicus was well below the present main street, in addition to the normal government of the settlement, there were two mayors, and a six-member college, which was entrusted with supporting the imperial cult. Salodurum was home to a detachment of the XXII Legion. According to inscriptions, there was a temple of Jupiter, a temple of Apollo Augustus and an altar to the goddess of horses Epona, the locations of those three temples is not known. There was bath house on the street and a pottery district in the northwest of the town which have been documented archaeologically. A cemetery with urns and cremation burials on the end of the Vicus was discovered in 1762-63 during the demolition of the old church of St. Ursus. In addition, two Roman tombs were discovered in the same area, around 325-350, the unfortified settlement along the road was transformed into a fortified camp or castrum, which covered only half of the former settlement area
Roman Catholic Diocese of Basel
The Diocese of Basel is a Roman Catholic diocese in Switzerland. Historically, the bishops of Basel were rulers of the Prince-Bishopric of Basel. The bishop of Basel has not resided in the city of Basel since 1528, Solothurn is the seat of the Bishop of Basel. Today the diocese of Basel includes the Swiss cantons of Aargau, Basel-Country, Basel-City, Jura, Schaffhausen, Solothurn and Zug. Pp. S
Jacob Bernoulli was one of the many prominent mathematicians in the Bernoulli family. He was a proponent of Leibnizian calculus and had sided with Leibniz during the Leibniz–Newton calculus controversy. He is known for his numerous contributions to calculus, and along with his brother Johann, was one of the founders of the calculus of variations and he discovered the fundamental mathematical constant e. However, his most important contribution was in the field of probability, Jacob Bernoulli was born in Basel, Switzerland. Following his fathers wish, he studied theology and entered the ministry, but contrary to the desires of his parents, he studied mathematics and astronomy. He traveled throughout Europe from 1676 to 1682, learning about the latest discoveries in mathematics and this included the work of Johannes Hudde, Robert Boyle, and Robert Hooke. During this time he produced an incorrect theory of comets. Bernoulli returned to Switzerland and began teaching mechanics at the University in Basel from 1683, in 1684 he married Judith Stupanus, and they had two children.
During this decade, he began a fertile research career. His travels allowed him to establish correspondence with many leading mathematicians and scientists of his era, during this time, he studied the new discoveries in mathematics, including Christiaan Huygenss De ratiociniis in aleae ludo, Descartes Geometrie and Frans van Schootens supplements of it. He studied Isaac Barrow and John Wallis, leading to his interest in infinitesimal geometry, apart from these, it was between 1684 and 1689 that many of the results that were to make up Ars Conjectandi were discovered. He was appointed professor of mathematics at the University of Basel in 1687, by that time, he had begun tutoring his brother Johann Bernoulli on mathematical topics. The two brothers began to study the calculus as presented by Leibniz in his 1684 paper on the calculus in Nova Methodus pro Maximis et Minimis published in Acta Eruditorum. They studied the publications of von Tschirnhaus and it must be understood that Leibnizs publications on the calculus were very obscure to mathematicians of that time and the Bernoullis were the first to try to understand and apply Leibnizs theories.
Jacob collaborated with his brother on various applications of calculus, by 1697, the relationship had completely broken down. His grave is in Basel Munster or Cathedral where the gravestone shown below is located, the lunar crater Bernoulli is named after him jointly with his brother Johann. Jacob Bernoullis first important contributions were a pamphlet on the parallels of logic and algebra published in 1685, work on probability in 1685 and his geometry result gave a construction to divide any triangle into four equal parts with two perpendicular lines. By 1689 he had published important work on series and published his law of large numbers in probability theory
Daig /ˈdaɪɡ/ is an expression common in Basel and the Deutschschweiz and refers to a milieu consisting of wealthy families from the Swiss city of Basel. For centuries the Daig was the social and economic elite of Basel and it still is today, if less exclusively. While Daig literally means dough in Swiss German it is most likely that the name is derived from the Middle High German word deig, a term denoting a moat in front of a rampart. This is further supported by the similarity to the Greek τεĩχος - wall or the word Deich, while the Münsterhügel was home to clerics and the seat of the prince-bishop, the Spalenberg was inhabited by knights and other nobility, tasked with defending the city. With the cities knights and their liegemen living right next to the cities defenses, thus the term Daig when used to refer to the cities noblemen literally meant those that live at and man the city walls. With the prince-bishop bereft of most of his privileges and powers. The canton encompassed at that not merely the city but significant territory in its vicinity which had been acquired while Basel was still a feudal bishopric.
The former residences of knights and other noblemen that had left with the Prince-Bishop were largely acquired by wealthy families that time became a veritable city aristocracy themselves. Along with the estates of the noblemen these families inherited the name Daig that eventually came to be associated with new inhabitants. At the turn of the 19th century this growing discontent among the Baselbieter. After initial victories for the city it was defeated in 1833. Over time, this sentiment contributed in shaping the distinct mentality characteristic of the Daig milieu, furthered by the introduction of stock corporations this diminished significantly the influence excerted by the Daig. One of the characteristics of the Daig milieu is its perceived need to separate itself from those not part of that milieu. This separation is intended to distance Basels aristocracy both vertically from the classes as well as horizontally from the so-called newly rich. Both names already indicate certain underlying differences in pronunciation, one well known trait of the Daig is to have their mailboxes labelled merely with initials, the implicit message being, If youre ignorant as to who resides here, you wouldnt be welcome anyway.
Politically, the Daig families found their home in the Konservative Partei, renamed Liberale Partei in 1902. It strongly dominated the canton until the reform of 1875 lead to the emergence of the Freisinn as the dominant political power. Despite this relative loss of influence, the LDP to this day remains actively involved in shaping local politics and this choice is often seen in the depiction of villains of high social standing or intelligence
Many areas of the arts and sciences were influenced, notably by the spread of Renaissance humanism to the various German states and principalities. There were many advances made in the fields of architecture, the arts, Germany produced two developments that were to dominate the 16th century all over Europe and the Protestant Reformation. One of the most important German humanists was Konrad Celtis, Celtis studied at Cologne and Heidelberg, and travelled throughout Italy collecting Latin and Greek manuscripts. Heavily influenced by Tacitus, he used the Germania to introduce German history, eventually he devoted his time to poetry, in which he praised Germany in Latin. Another important figure was Johann Reuchlin who studied in various places in Italy and he studied the Hebrew language, aiming to purify Christianity, but encountering resistance from the church. The most significant German Renaissance artist is Albrecht Dürer especially known for his printmaking in woodcut and engraving, which spread all over Europe, important architecture of this period includes the Landshut Residence, Heidelberg Castle and the Town Hall in Augsburg.
The Renaissance was largely driven by the renewed interest in classical learning, at the beginning of the 16th century, Germany was one of the most prosperous countries in Europe despite a relatively low level of urbanization compared to Italy or the Netherlands. It benefited from the wealth of certain sectors such as metallurgy, banking, more importantly, book-printing developed in Germany, and German printers dominated the new book-trade in most other countries until well into the 16th century. Dürer worked on the most extravagantly illustrated book of the period, after completing his apprenticeship in 1490, Dürer travelled in Germany for four years, and Italy for a few months, before establishing his own workshop in Nuremberg. He rapidly became famous all over Europe for his energetic and balanced woodcuts and engravings, Dürer supported Martin Luther but continued to create Madonnas and other Catholic imagery, and paint portraits of leaders on both sides of the emerging split of the Protestant Reformation.
Dürer died in 1528, before it was clear that the split of the Reformation had become permanent, most leading German artists became Protestants, but this deprived them of painting most religious works, previously the mainstay of artists revenue. Cranach, apart from portraits, developed a format of thin vertical portraits of provocative nudes, the Danube School is the name of a circle of artists of the first third of the 16th century in Bavaria and Austria, including Albrecht Altdorfer, Wolf Huber and Augustin Hirschvogel. With Altdorfer in the lead, the school produced the first examples of independent landscape art in the West and their religious paintings had an expressionist style somewhat similar to Grünewalds. Dürers pupils Hans Burgkmair and Hans Baldung Grien worked largely in prints, Hans Holbein the Elder and his brother Sigismund Holbein painted religious works in the late Gothic style. Hans the Elder was a pioneer and leader in the transformation of German art from the Gothic to the Renaissance style and his son, Hans Holbein the Younger was an important painter of portraits and a few religious works, working mainly in England and Switzerland.
The next significant German artists worked in the artificial style of Northern Mannerism. In Catholic parts of South Germany the Gothic tradition of wood carving continued to flourish until the end of the 18th century, Renaissance Architecture in Germany was inspired first by German philosophers and artists such as Albrecht Dürer and Johannes Reuchlin who visited Italy. A particular form of Renaissance architecture in Germany is the Weser Renaissance, with prominent examples such as the City Hall of Bremen, in July 1567 the city council of Cologne approved a design in the Renaissance style by Wilhelm Vernukken for a two storied loggia for Cologne City Hall
Johann Froben, in Latin, Johannes Frobenius, was a famous printer and learned Renaissance humanist in Basel. He was a friend of Erasmus and cooperated closely with Hans Holbein the Younger. He made Basel one of the leading centres of the book trade. He passed his business on to his son, Hieronymus. Froben was born in Hammelburg, Franconia, in 1500, he married the daughter of the bookseller Wolfgang Lachner, who entered into a partnership with him. His printing of Erasmus Novum Testamentum was used by Martin Luther for his translation, Froben employed Hans Holbein the Younger to illustrate his texts as It was part of Frobens plan to print editions of the Greek Fathers. He employed the formschneiders Jakob Faber and Hans Lützelburger, Holbein painted a portrait of Froben, probably as a pair with one of Erasmus, the original has not survived but a number of copies have. Dying in October 1527, Froben did not, live to carry out this work, Froben died in October 1527 in Basel. His Hebrew - Greek - Latin tombstone is located in the Basel Peterskirche Peterskirche which has used as a reformed church since 1529.
Frobens work in Basel made that city in the 16th century the center of the Swiss book trade. The epistle concludes with an epitaph in Greek and Latin, johann Froben marks caduceus This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain, Hugh, ed. Froben, Joannes