Canton of Solothurn
The Canton of Solothurn is a canton of Switzerland. It is located in the northwest of Switzerland, the territory of the canton comprises land acquired by the city. Between 1798 and 1803 the canton was part of the Helvetic Republic, in 1803 Solothurn was one of the 19 Swiss cantons that were reconstituted by Napoleon. Even though the population was strictly Roman Catholic, Solothurn did not join the Catholic separatist movement in 1845, the federal constitutions of 1848 and 1874 were approved. The current constitution of the dates from 1987. The canton is located in the north-west of Switzerland, to the west and south lies the cantons of Jura and Bern, to the east is Aargau. To the north the canton is bounded by the canton of Basel-Landschaft, parts of two of the districts are exclaves and are located along the French border. The lands are drained by the Aare river and its tributaries, the landscape is mostly flat, but it includes the foothills of the Jura massif. Part of this, the massif of the Weissenstein, overlooks Solothurn, the flat lands are a plain created by the Aare river.
The total area of the canton is 791 km², from 2005, Solothurns ten districts are merged pairwise into five electoral districts, termed Amtei. From 2005, the districts have only a statistical significance, the population is mostly German speaking. About 44% of the population are Roman Catholic, with most of the remainder being Protestants, the population of the canton is 266,418. As of 2007, the population included 46,898 foreigners, up to the 19th century agriculture was the main economic activity in the canton. Agriculture is still of importance, but manufacturing and the industry are now more significant. The industries of the canton are specialized in watches, textiles, cement, until recently the manufacturing of shoes was an important economic activity, but global competition thought that the Swiss canton was not competitive enough. The canton is home to the Gösgen Nuclear Power Plant near Däniken which started operation in 1979, ^a FDP before 2009, FDP. The Liberals after 2009 ^b * indicates that the party was not on the ballot in this canton.
The canton has good connections with other parts of Switzerland, both by rail and by road, there is a railway junction at Olten with direct trains to Geneva, Zurich and the Ticino via Lucerne
Christian Democratic People's Party of Switzerland
The Christian Democratic Peoples Party of Switzerland is a Christian democratic political party in Switzerland. It is the fourth-largest party in the National Council, with 28 seats, and it has one seat, that of Doris Leuthard, on the Swiss Federal Council. The party was founded as the Catholic Conservative Party in 1912, the party peaked in the 1950s, having three members of the Federal Council before agreeing to the Magic formula. It adopted its current name in 1970, from 1979 to 2003, the partys vote declined, mostly in the favour of the Swiss Peoples Party, and the party was reduced to one Federal Councillor at the 2003 election. The party sits in the centre to centre-right of the spectrum, advocating Christian democracy, the social market economy. The party is strongest in Catholic rural areas, particularly Central Switzerland, in 1912 the Catholic-Conservative Party of Switzerland was founded. From 1919 on, the party occupied two out of the seven seats in the cabinet, the party had to relinquish the third seat in favor of the Magic formula, which was introduced to the cabinet in 1959.
In 1957 it changed its name to the Conservative-Christian-Social Peoples Party, in the ensuing decades, the Catholic voter base dissolved somewhat. The reduction of the base, in addition to less cohesion among politicians in the party. Beginning in the 1990s, conservative voters from former strongholds of the CVP switched to vote for the right-wing populist Swiss Peoples Party. Due to that voter switch and the resultant 2003 national elections to the national assembly, in its party platform, the CVP describes itself as a centrist party. The CVP fosters a social economy in which a balance is struck between economic liberalism and social justice. There, the electorate is mostly socially conservative, the CVP has three main policies in the political centre, The CVP upholds the social market economy. It supports exporting industries, more spending on education, research and it aims at combating the black market and tax evasion. The CVP calls for equal wages and job opportunities for men and women.
The CVP calls for flexible working times and affordable housing, the CVP aims at ensuring social security. The CVP calls for reforms of the security system, by raising taxes on demerit goods to generate more revenues for the pension funds. The retirement age of 65 should be upheld, the public health care system shall be streamlined by a reduction of waiting times of medical procedures, in order to ensure equitable services
Birsfelden is a municipality in the district of Arlesheim in the canton of Basel-Country in Switzerland. Birsfelden is first mentioned in 1274 as minor Rinvelden, around 1500 it was first mentioned as Birsfeld. Birsfelden has an area, as of 2009, of 2.52 square kilometers, of this area 0.04 km2 or 1. 6% is forested. Of the rest of the land,2.04 km2 or 81. 0% is settled,0.46 km2 or 18. 3% is either rivers or lakes. Of the built up area, industrial buildings made up 21. 0% of the area while housing and buildings made up 26. 6%. Power and water infrastructure as well as other developed areas made up 4. 0% of the area while parks. Out of the land, all of the forested land area is covered with heavy forests. Of the agricultural land,0. 0% is used for growing crops, all the water in the municipality is flowing water. The municipality is located in the Arlesheim district, and is one of the suburbs of Basel and it is south of the Rhine River and on the right bank of the Birs River. It consists of the village of Birsfelden with a harbor.
Until 1874, it was part of the municipality of Muttenz, the blazon of the municipal coat of arms is Gules, three Mullets of Six Or, in chief a Barullet wavy Argent. Birsfelden has a population of 10,424, as of 2008,23. 9% of the population are resident foreign nationals. Over the last 10 years the population has changed at a rate of -4. 4%, most of the population speaks German, with Italian language being second most common and French being third. There are 9 people who speak Romansh, as of 2008, the gender distribution of the population was 48. 7% male and 51. 3% female. The population was made up of 7,780 Swiss citizens, and 2,653 non-Swiss residents Of the population in the municipality 2,397 or about 23. 0% were born in Birsfelden and lived there in 2000. There were 1,015 or 9. 7% who were born in the canton, while 4,013 or 38. 5% were born somewhere else in Switzerland. In 2008 there were 71 live births to Swiss citizens and 36 births to non-Swiss citizens, ignoring immigration and emigration, the population of Swiss citizens decreased by 29 while the foreign population increased by 26.
There were 2 Swiss men who immigrated back to Switzerland and 1 Swiss woman who emigrated from Switzerland, at the same time, there were 68 non-Swiss men and 43 non-Swiss women who immigrated from another country to Switzerland
Switzerland, officially the Swiss Confederation, is a federal republic in Europe. It consists of 26 cantons, and the city of Bern is the seat of the federal authorities. The country is situated in western-Central Europe, and is bordered by Italy to the south, France to the west, Germany to the north, and Austria and Liechtenstein to the east. Switzerland is a country geographically divided between the Alps, the Swiss Plateau and the Jura, spanning an area of 41,285 km2. The establishment of the Old Swiss Confederacy dates to the medieval period, resulting from a series of military successes against Austria. Swiss independence from the Holy Roman Empire was formally recognized in the Peace of Westphalia in 1648. The country has a history of armed neutrality going back to the Reformation, it has not been in a state of war internationally since 1815, nevertheless, it pursues an active foreign policy and is frequently involved in peace-building processes around the world. In addition to being the birthplace of the Red Cross, Switzerland is home to international organisations.
On the European level, it is a member of the European Free Trade Association. However, it participates in the Schengen Area and the European Single Market through bilateral treaties, spanning the intersection of Germanic and Romance Europe, Switzerland comprises four main linguistic and cultural regions, French and Romansh. Due to its diversity, Switzerland is known by a variety of native names, Suisse, Svizzera. On coins and stamps, Latin is used instead of the four living languages, Switzerland is one of the most developed countries in the world, with the highest nominal wealth per adult and the eighth-highest per capita gross domestic product according to the IMF. Zürich and Geneva have each been ranked among the top cities in the world in terms of quality of life, with the former ranked second globally, according to Mercer. The English name Switzerland is a compound containing Switzer, a term for the Swiss. The English adjective Swiss is a loan from French Suisse, in use since the 16th century.
The name Switzer is from the Alemannic Schwiizer, in origin an inhabitant of Schwyz and its associated territory, the Swiss began to adopt the name for themselves after the Swabian War of 1499, used alongside the term for Confederates, used since the 14th century. The data code for Switzerland, CH, is derived from Latin Confoederatio Helvetica. The toponym Schwyz itself was first attested in 972, as Old High German Suittes, ultimately related to swedan ‘to burn’
France, officially the French Republic, is a country with territory in western Europe and several overseas regions and territories. The European, or metropolitan, area of France extends from the Mediterranean Sea to the English Channel and the North Sea, Overseas France include French Guiana on the South American continent and several island territories in the Atlantic and Indian oceans. France spans 643,801 square kilometres and had a population of almost 67 million people as of January 2017. It is a unitary republic with the capital in Paris. Other major urban centres include Marseille, Lille, Toulouse, during the Iron Age, what is now metropolitan France was inhabited by the Gauls, a Celtic people. The area was annexed in 51 BC by Rome, which held Gaul until 486, France emerged as a major European power in the Late Middle Ages, with its victory in the Hundred Years War strengthening state-building and political centralisation. During the Renaissance, French culture flourished and a colonial empire was established.
The 16th century was dominated by civil wars between Catholics and Protestants. France became Europes dominant cultural and military power under Louis XIV, in the 19th century Napoleon took power and established the First French Empire, whose subsequent Napoleonic Wars shaped the course of continental Europe. Following the collapse of the Empire, France endured a succession of governments culminating with the establishment of the French Third Republic in 1870. Following liberation in 1944, a Fourth Republic was established and dissolved in the course of the Algerian War, the Fifth Republic, led by Charles de Gaulle, was formed in 1958 and remains to this day. Algeria and nearly all the colonies became independent in the 1960s with minimal controversy and typically retained close economic. France has long been a centre of art, science. It hosts Europes fourth-largest number of cultural UNESCO World Heritage Sites and receives around 83 million foreign tourists annually, France is a developed country with the worlds sixth-largest economy by nominal GDP and ninth-largest by purchasing power parity.
In terms of household wealth, it ranks fourth in the world. France performs well in international rankings of education, health care, life expectancy, France remains a great power in the world, being one of the five permanent members of the United Nations Security Council with the power to veto and an official nuclear-weapon state. It is a member state of the European Union and the Eurozone. It is a member of the Group of 7, North Atlantic Treaty Organization, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, the World Trade Organization, originally applied to the whole Frankish Empire, the name France comes from the Latin Francia, or country of the Franks
Grand Est, previously Alsace-Champagne-Ardenne-Lorraine, is a French administrative region in northeastern France. It superseded three former administrative regions—Alsace, Champagne-Ardenne, and Lorraine—on 1 January 2016, as a result of reform which was passed by the French legislature in 2014. Frances Conseil dÉtat approved Grand Est as the new name of the region on 28 September 2016, the administrative capital and largest city is Strasbourg. The formula for the name of the region was established by the territorial reform law and applied to all. The provisional name of the region was retired on 30 September 2016, in Alsace and in Lorraine, the new region has frequently been called ALCA, for Alsace-Lorraine-Champagne-Ardennes, on the internet. In a poll conducted in November 2014 by France 3 in Champagne-Ardenne, Grand Est, Grand Est topped a poll the following month conducted by LEst Republicain, receiving 42% of 3,324 votes. The term has commonly used and has topped the polls mentioned above.
Grand Est Europe is a variant of Grand Est that alludes to the region being a gateway to Europe both through trade and since Strasbourg is home to several European institutions, the name has been mocked for how it could suggest that the region is in Eastern Europe. Austrasie, which refers to a region spanning parts of present-day northeast France, the Benelux. Quatre frontières, which refers to the border with four countries, has been discussed. Grand Est covers 57,433 square kilometres of land and is the sixth-largest of the regions of France effective 1 January 2016, Grand Est borders four countries—Belgium, Luxembourg and Switzerland—along its northern and eastern sides. It is the only French region to more than two countries. To the west and south, it borders the French regions Nord-Pas-de-Calais-Picardie, Île-de-France, Grand Est contains ten departments, Aube, Bas-Rhin, Haute-Marne, Haut-Rhin, Meurthe-et-Moselle, Moselle, Vosges. The main ranges in the include the Vosges to the east. The region is border on the east by the Rhine which forms most of the border with Germany, other major rivers which flow through the region include, the Meuse, Marne, and Saône.
Lakes in the include, lac de Gérardmer, lac de Longemer, lac de Retournemer, lac des Corbeaux, Lac de Bouzey, lac de Madine, étang du Stock. ACAL is the merger of three regions, Champagne-Ardenne, and Lorraine, the merger has been strongly opposed in Alsace. The region has an population of 5,554,645
Cantons of Switzerland
The 26 cantons of Switzerland are the member states of the Swiss Confederation. The nucleus of the Swiss Confederacy in the form of the first three confederate allies used to be referred to as the Waldstätte, with the Napoleonic period of the Helvetic Republic the term canton/cantone/Kanton was fully established. From 1833, there were 25 cantons, which became 26 after the secession of the canton of Jura from Bern in 1979. The term canton, now used as English term for administrative subdivisions of other countries, originates in French usage in the late 15th century, from a word for edge. After 1490, canton was increasingly used in French and Italian documents to refer to the members of the Swiss Confederacy, English use of canton in reference to the Swiss Confederacy dates to the early 17th century. It was increasingly replaced by Stand after 1550, the French term canton was not adopted into German usage prior to 1648, and after that only in occasional use. The prominent usage of Ort and Stand only gradually disappeared in German-speaking Switzerland with the Helvetic Republic, only with the Act of Mediation of 1803 did German Kanton become an official designation, retained in the Swiss Constitution of 1848.
The term Stand remains in usage and is reflected in the name of the upper chamber of the Swiss Parliament. Republic Some cantonal constitutions provide for a formal name of the state. Most of Romandys cantons and Ticino call themselves république/Repubblica officially, at least within their constitutions, for example, the canton of Geneva refers to itself formally as the République et canton de Genève. Though they were part of the Holy Roman Empire, they had become de facto independent when the Swiss defeated Emperor Maximillian in 1499 in Dornach. The old system was abandoned with the formation of the Helvetic Republic following the French invasion of Switzerland in 1798, the cantons of the Helvetic Republic had merely the status of an administrative subdivision with no sovereignty. The Helvetic Republic collapsed within five years, and cantonal sovereignty was restored with the Act of Mediation of 1803, the status of Switzerland as a federation of states was restored, at the time including 19 cantons.
Three additional western cantons, Neuchâtel and Geneva, acceded in 1815, the process of Restoration, completed by 1830, returned most of the former feudal rights to the cantonal patriciates, leading to rebellions among the rural population. The Liberal Radical Party embodied these democratic forces calling for a new federal constitution and this tension, paired with religious issues escalated into armed conflict in the 1840s, with the brief Sonderbund War. The victory of the party resulted in the formation of Switzerland as a federal state in 1848. The cantons retained far-reaching sovereignty, but were no longer allowed to maintain standing armies or international relations. Each canton has its own constitution, legislature and courts, most of the cantons legislatures are unicameral parliaments, their size varying between 58 and 200 seats
In this period, social democrats embraced a mixed economy based on the predominance of private property, with only a minority of essential utilities and public services under public ownership. By 1868–1869, Marxism had become the official theoretical basis of the first social democratic party established in Europe, in this period, social democracy became associated with reformist socialism. The origins of social democracy have been traced to the 1860s, with the rise of the first major party in Europe. 1864 saw the founding of the International Workingmens Association, known as the First International, another issue in the First International was the role of reformism. Although Lassalle was not a Marxist, he was influenced by the theories of Marx and Engels, however unlike Marxs and Engelss The Communist Manifesto, Lassalle promoted class struggle in a more moderate form. While Marx viewed the state negatively as an instrument of class rule that should only exist temporarily upon the rise to power of the proletariat and dismantled, Lassalle accepted the state.
Lassalle viewed the state as a means through which workers could enhance their interests, Lassalles strategy was primarily electoral and reformist, with Lassalleans contending that the working class needed a political party that fought above all for universal adult male suffrage. The ADAVs party newspaper was called Der Sozialdemokrat and Engels responded to the title Sozialdemocrat with distaste, Engels once writing, But what a title, Sozialdemokrat. Why dont they simply call it The Proletarian. Marx agreed with Engels that Sozialdemokrat was a bad title, there was a Marxist faction within the ADAV represented by Wilhelm Liebknecht who became one of the editors of the Die Sozialdemokrat. Friction in the ADAV arose over Lassalles policy of an approach to Bismarck that had assumed incorrectly that Bismarck in turn would be friendly towards them. This approach was opposed by the partys Marxists, including Liebknecht, opposition in the ADAV to Lassalles friendly approach to Bismarcks government resulted in Liebknecht resigning from his position as editor of Die Sozialdemokrat and leaving the ADAV in 1865.
Though the SDAP was not officially Marxist, it was the first major organization to be led by Marxists and Marx. The party adopted stances similar to those adopted by Marx at the First International, there was intense rivalry and antagonism between the SDAP and the ADAV, with the SDAP being highly hostile to the Prussian government while the ADAV pursued a reformist and more cooperative approach. In spite of such militant rhetoric to appeal to the working class, in 1875 Marx attacked the Gotha Program that became the program of Social Democratic Party of Germany in the same year in his Critique of the Gotha Program. Marx was not optimistic that Germany at the time was not open to a means to achieve socialism. In addition he noticed a change over the relations between the two classes. The Reform Acts of 1867 and 1884 make an approach to universal suffrage. The Fabian Society was founded as a group from the Fellowship of the New Life due to opposition within that group to socialism
Frenkendorf is a municipality in the district of Liestal in the canton of Basel-Country in Switzerland. Frenkendorf is first mentioned in 1249 as Frenchendorf, Frenkendorf has an area, as of 2009, of 4.6 square kilometers. Of this area,1.27 km2 or 27. 6% is used for agricultural purposes, of the rest of the land,1.39 km2 or 30. 2% is settled and 0.01 km2 or 0. 2% is unproductive land. Of the built up area, industrial buildings made up 4. 3% of the area while housing and buildings made up 18. 7%. While parks, green belts and sports made up 1. 1%. Out of the land,40. 7% of the total land area is heavily forested and 1. 3% is covered with orchards or small clusters of trees. Of the agricultural land,10. 2% is used for growing crops and 13. 9% is pastures, the municipality is located in the Liestal district. The old village center is located on a terrace above the Ergolz valley, after 1854, the settlement of Neu-Frenkendorf grew up in the valley along the Basel-Olten railway line. The blazon of the coat of arms is Azure, Moon Argent.
Frenkendorf has a population of 6,513, as of 2008,28. 5% of the population are resident foreign nationals. Over the last 10 years the population has changed at a rate of 6. 2%, most of the population speaks German, with Italian language being second most common and Turkish being third. There are 40 people who speak French and 2 people who speak Romansh, as of 2008, the gender distribution of the population was 49. 5% male and 50. 5% female. The population was made up of 4,360 Swiss citizens, and 1,734 non-Swiss residents Of the population in the municipality 1,300 or about 22. 8% were born in Frenkendorf and lived there in 2000. There were 1,336 or 23. 4% who were born in the canton, while 1,509 or 26. 5% were born somewhere else in Switzerland. In 2008 there were 42 live births to Swiss citizens and 18 births to non-Swiss citizens, ignoring immigration and emigration, the population of Swiss citizens increased by 4 while the foreign population increased by 13. There were 4 Swiss men who emigrated from Switzerland, at the same time, there were 32 non-Swiss men and 37 non-Swiss women who immigrated from another country to Switzerland.
The total Swiss population change in 2008 was a decrease of 81 and this represents a population growth rate of 0. 0%. The age distribution, as of 2010, in Frenkendorf is,404 children or 6. 6% of the population are between 0 and 6 years old and 893 teenagers or 14. 7% are between 7 and 19
The Birs is a 73-kilometre long river in Switzerland that flows through the Jura region and ends as a tributary to the Rhine between Basel and Birsfelden. It is the most important river of the Swiss Jura, the Birs has its source in a spring near the Col de Pierre Pertuis at 762 metres above sea level a little southwest of Tavannes in the Jura bernois. It starts as a river, the large amount of water is the product of an extended underground river system. The Birs runs through wider valleys and narrow gorges, near Delémont, the capital of the canton of Jura, it joins the Sorne and the Scheulte. Between Soyhières and Liesberg, it leaves the French-speaking part of Switzerland, in Laufen it forms a waterfall, which was the source of power and of the name of the city. At the gorge of Angenstein, the river runs into the Birseck, between Aesch and Dornach, the Birs is rich in fresh-water crabs, the native species of which are now threatened by the American red crab. Earlier, the Birs was polluted and dammed, but it has largely restored to its original state.
The Reinacherheide is a preserve with 83 species of bird. The mouth of the Birs was hardly settled until the 18th century, the city of Münchenstein stands there. The lower stretches of the Birs form the border between Basel-Stadt and Basel-Landschaft, in 2004, it was restored from a concrete canal to a more natural river. Beavers have even been sighted along the river, the Birs forms the border between the cities of Basel and Birsfelden. It flows into the Rhine at Birskopf after 73 kilometres, birsköpfli Birs in the Historisches Lexikon der Schweiz