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Canton of Basel-Stadt

The canton of Basel-Stadt is one of the 26 cantons of Switzerland, the smallest of the cantons by area. The city of Basel and the municipalities of Bettingen and Riehen form its territory; the canton of Basel-Stadt was created when the historic canton of Basel was divided in 1833, following political quarrels and armed conflict in the canton. Some of these were concerned with the rights of the population in the agricultural areas, they led to the separation of the canton of Basel-Landschaft from the city of Basel on 26 August 1833. Since there has been a movement for reunification; this movement gained momentum after 1900. The two half-cantons agreed in principle to reunite, but in 1969, again in September 2014, the people of Basel-Landschaft voted against this proposal in favour of retaining their independence; the canton of Basel-Stadt is located in the north of Switzerland. It borders Germany and France to the north, Basel-Landschaft to the south. Basel is located at the so-called'knee' of the Rhine, at the point where from the west the little Birsig joins the Rhine from the left, where the Rhine itself switches from flowing in a westerly direction to a northerly flow.

Bettingen, Riehen and a part of Basel city lie on the east bank of the Rhine, bordered on three sides by the German state of Baden-Württemberg. The rest of the canton lies on the west bank of the Rhine; the area of the canton is 37 square kilometres, making Basel-Stadt the smallest canton in Switzerland. It is sometimes likened to a city-state. There are three municipalities: The canton of Basel-Stadt shares its political structure and administration with the municipality of Basel. Basel-Stadt is a half-canton; this means. The capital of the canton Basel-Stadt is the city of Basel; the present constitution of the canton dates from 1889. The parliament of the canton is the Grand Council, which has 100 members, who are elected for four years at a time. There are eight different political parties represented in the parliament; the executive of the canton is made up of seven members. There are five different political parties represented in the executive; the canton has a sister state status with Massachusetts.

The population of the canton is 200,298. As of 2007, the population included about 30.29 % of the total population. The population is nearly evenly split between Roman Protestant. About 10% of the population is classed as "Other Religion" while 36% do not belong to any organized religion; the economic area of Basel is considered to be the second largest economic centre in the whole of Switzerland, after Zurich, before Geneva. The chemical industry and the pharmaceutical industry are of greatest significance in the canton. There are a number of multinationals in the city of Basel, attracting workers from both cantons of Basel and the areas across the border in France and Germany. Banking and finance are important. Small and middle-sized businesses employ a significant number of people, both in the city as the two municipalities; the canton is known for its banking sector, for being the worldwide seat of the Bank for International Settlements. Economically the neighbouring lands in Germany and France are not separated from the area of the canton of Basel-Stadt.

Good transport links across the border as well as supportive local governments facilitate this link. The fact that three nation-states come together in one spot near Basel attracts some tourists; the site is identified and a popular destination for primary school classes. The carnival attracts large number of people from across the neighbouring countries. In 2014, there were 104 workers in Basel-Stadt who work in the primary sector In the same year the secondary sector employed 36,441 or about 19.0% of the total workforce. Of those in the secondary sector, nearly half of the workers were involved in the production of pharmaceutical products; the tertiary sector employed 154,896 or about 80.9% of the total, higher than 74.9% nationwide. Of those in the tertiary sector, health care and retail sales made up about a quarter; some of the other major tertiary fields included job placement and business consulting, public administration and engineering offices and financial services. There is an international airport at Basel-Mulhouse located 4 km inside French territory but with customs-free access from the city.

The canton is well connected by both trains and motorways to the rest of Switzerland and the neighbouring areas in France and Germany. Basel is a major railway station of Switzerland, connected to Paris and Berlin with direct fast trains. There is a port at Basel for ships on the Rhine; this port is of great significance to landlocked Switzerland, as it offers the country's only direct connection to the sea. The port benefits from good connections to both road; the Carnival of Basel is a major cultural event in the year. The carnival is one of the biggest in Switzerland and attracts large crowds, despite the fact that many of its central traditions are played out in the early morning starting at 4am a

Economic planning

Economic planning is a mechanism for the allocation of resources between and within organizations, held in contrast to the market mechanism. As an allocation mechanism for some forms of socialism, economic planning replaces factor markets with a direct allocation of resources within a single or interconnected group of owned organizations. In the words of H. D. Dikinson,“Economic planning is the making of major economic decisions— by the conscious decision of a determinate authority, on the basis of a comprehensive survey of a country’s existing and potential resources and a careful study of the needs of the people.” There are various forms of economic planning. The level of centralization in the decision-making depends on the specific type of planning mechanism employed; as such, one can distinguish between decentralized planning. An economy based on planning is referred to as a planned economy. In a centrally planned economy, the allocation of resources is determined by a comprehensive plan of production which specifies output requirements.

Planning may take the form of directive planning or indicative planning. A distinction can be made between financial planning. Physical planning involves economic planning and coordination conducted in terms of disaggregated physical units whereas financial planning involves plans formulated in terms of financial units. Different forms of economic planning have been featured in various models of socialism; these range from decentralized-planning systems which are based on collective decision-making and disaggregated information to centralized systems of planning conducted by technical experts who use aggregated information to formulate plans of production. In a developed socialist economy and technical specialists, overseen or appointed in a democratic manner, would coordinate the economy in terms of physical units without any need or use for financial-based calculation; the economy of the Soviet Union never reached this stage of development, so planned its economy in financial terms throughout the duration of its existence.

Nonetheless, a number of alternative metrics were developed for assessing the performance of non-financial economies in terms of physical output. In general, the various models of socialist economic planning exist as theoretical constructs that have not been implemented by any economy because they depend on vast changes on a global scale. In the context of mainstream economics and the field of comparative economic systems, socialist planning refers to the Soviet-style command economy, regardless of whether or not this economic system constituted a type of socialism or state capitalism or a third, non-socialist and non-capitalist type of system. In some models of socialism, economic planning substitutes the market mechanism rendering monetary relations and the price system obsolete. In other models, planning is utilized as a complement to markets; the classical conception of socialist economic planning held by Marxists involved an economic system where goods and services were valued and produced directly for their use-value as opposed to being produced as a by-product of the pursuit of profit by business enterprises.

This idea of production for use is a fundamental aspect of a socialist economy. This involves social control over the allocation of the surplus product and in its most extensive theoretical form calculation-in-kind in place of financial calculation. For Marxists in particular, planning entails control of the surplus product by the associated producers in a democratic manner; this differs from planning within the framework of capitalism, based on the planned accumulation of capital in order to either stabilize the business cycle or to maximize profits as opposed to the socialist concept of planned production for use. In such a socialist society based on economic planning, the primary function of the state apparatus changes from one of political rule over people into a technical administration of production and organization; the concept of a command economy is differentiated from the concepts of a planned economy and economic planning by socialists and Marxists who liken command economies to that of a single capitalist firm, organized in a top-down administrative fashion based on bureaucratic organization akin to that of a capitalist corporation.

Economic analysts have argued that the economy of the Soviet Union represented an administrative or command economy as opposed to a planned economy because planning did not play an operational role in the allocation of resources among productive units in the economy since in actuality the main allocation mechanism was a system of command-and-control. As a result, the phrase administrative command economy gained currency as a more accurate descriptor of Soviet-type economies. Decentralized economic planning is a planning process that starts at the user-level in a bottom-up flow of information; as such, decentralized planning appears as a complement to the idea of socialist self-management. The theoretical postulates for models of decentralized socialist planning stem from the thought of Karl Kautsky, Rosa Luxem

Slagelse B&I

Slagelse B&I is a Danish football club playing in the Denmark Series. They play at Slagelse Stadion in Slagelse on Zealand, which has a capacity of 10,000. Between 2008 and 2015, the club's first team, was known as FC Vestsjælland. Slagelse B&I was formed in 1887 as a cricket club; the club played its first season in the highest Danish football league in the 1974 Danish 1st Division. Slagelse B&I got relegated the following season, but returned to the top flight in 1978; the 1979 Danish 1st Division once again saw the club relegated, they spent the following decades in the lower leagues of Danish football. From January 2008 the elite team in the organisation was named FC Vestsjælland and was organised on a professional basis; the team won the 2008–09 Danish 2nd Division East in its first year of competition. It competed in the Danish 1st Division between 2009 and 2013 when, after finishing as runners-up in the 2012–13 season, the team was promoted to the Danish Superliga, they competed at the top level of Danish football for two seasons, being relegated after the 2014–15 season during which they finished as runners-up in the 2014–15 Danish Cup competition.

After the relegation the club went bankrupt in December 2015 and was relegated to the Zealand Series, the fifth tier of Danish football, began playing as an amateur side under the Slagelse B&I name. Since they have made their way up to the second division; the third tier of Danish football. Danish Cup: Runners-up: 2014–15‡ Zealand Series Winner: 1937–38, 1940–41, 1947–48, 1948–49, 1949–50, 1960, 1965 Runners-up: 1939–40, 1950–51, 1951–52, 1976‡, 1998, 2016–17‡: As FC Vestsjælland‡: Honour achieved by reserve team Official site