Counts of Toggenburg
The counts of Toggenburg ruled the Toggenburg region of today’s canton of St. Gallen and adjacient areas during the 13th to 15th centuries. A baronial family of Toggenburg is mentioned in the 11th and 12th centuries and they are named for their ancestral seat, now known as Alt-Toggenburg, near Kirchberg, St. Gallen. The family is attested from the early 13th century, as Toccanburg, Diethelm I was followed by Diethelm II. Either of these was the beneficiary of the inheritance of a number of noble families in c.1200. In 1187, one Werner of Toggenburg became abbot of Einsiedeln, the legend of a Saint Idda of Toggenburg is recorded in 1481, making her the wife of a count of Toggenburg, possibly either Diethelm, or one Heinrich. According to the legend, the husband defenestrated his innocent wife on suspicion of adultery and she survived and lived as an anchoress in Fischingen. Her veneration there is attested for 1410, the early counts were in competition with St. Gallen Abbey, the bishops of Constance and the counts of Kyburg.
The inheritance disputes motivated the donation of religious establishments in Bubikon, Rüti, Oberbollingen and Wurmsbach in the 1190s, in 1436, the death of the last count, Frederick VII, Count of Toggenburg, led to the Old Zurich War over the succession. Friedrich VII was buried in a chapel, the so-called Toggenburger Kapelle given by his wife, Elisabeth Countess of Toggenburg. Elisabeth spent her last days in the Rüti Abbey, writing on 20 June 1442 that she had retreated there,14 members of the family were buried in the Toggenburg vault in the church of the Rüti Abbey
See-Gaster is a constituency in the canton of St. Gallen in Switzerland. The Wahlkreis has been established on June 10,2001 with an area of 246.16 km2 and it was formed from the former See and Gaster districts in 2001. The name Gaster is from Latin castrum castle, a it is first recorded in 1230, the Gaster districts corresponded to the historical county of Windegg. The See district corresponded to the counties of Rapperswil and Uznach. Schänis was administrative center and site of the Landsgemeinde of Gaster, Rapperswil was ruled by its own counts until its destruction in 1350, after which it fell under Habsburg rule, until it became a protectorate of the Swiss Confederacy in 1464. In 1798, Gaster became a district of the canton of Linth in the Helvetic Republic, the historical county of Uznach was separated from Gaster in 1831 to form the See district, until the reunification of the two districts in 2001. See-Gaster Wahlkreis has a population of 65,763. ). Of the foreign population,919 are from Germany,2,073 are from Italy,3,867 are from ex-Yugoslavia,278 are from Austria,817 are from Turkey, and 2,206 are from another country.
Of the population,51,263 speak German,277 people speak French,1,420 people speak Italian, and 130 people speak Romansh. The age distribution, as of 2000, in Region See-Gaster is,7,257 children or 12. 5% of the population are between 0 and 9 years old and 7,776 teenagers or 13. 4% are between 10 and 19. Of the adult population,7,432 people or 12. 8% of the population are between 20 and 29 years old. 9,522 people or 16. 4% are between 30 and 39,8,341 people or 14. 4% are between 40 and 49, and 7,130 people or 12. 3% are between 50 and 59. In 2000 there were 6,895 persons who were living alone in a private dwelling, there were 12,907 persons who were part of a couple without children, and 32,227 who were part of a couple with children. The remainder did not answer this question, as of October 2009 the average unemployment rate was 3. 3%. From the 2000 census,35,391 or 61. 1% are Roman Catholic, there are 21 individuals who are Jewish, and 2,421 who are Islamic. There are 583 individuals who belong to church,3,644 belong to no church, are agnostic or atheist.
On 1 January 2013 the former municipalities of Rieden and Ernetschwil merged into the municipality of Gommiswald, municipalities of the canton of St. Gallen
Canton of St. Gallen
The canton of St. Gallen is a canton of Switzerland. Located in Northeastern Switzerland, the canton has an area of 2,026 km² and it was formed in 1803 as a conflation of the city of St. Gallen, the territories of the Abbey of St. Gall and various former subject territories of the Old Swiss Confederacy. The canton of St. Gallen is a construct of various historical territories. About half of the area corresponds to the acquisitions of the abbey of St. Gallen over centuries. The city of St. Gallen became independent of the Abbey in 1405, at the same time, the Abbey lost control of the Appenzell. Conversely, the Toggenburg was acquired by the Abbey in 1468, both the City and the Abbey were associates of the Old Swiss Confederacy, but unlike Appenzell never joined as full members. The territories at Lake Zürich and Rheintal remained independent until 1798, in the Helvetic Republic, the northern parts of the modern canton together with Appenzell became the Canton of Säntis, while its southern parts together with Glarus became the canton of Linth.
The founding of St. Gallen is based on the Irish monk Gallus, around 720, one hundred years after Galluss death, the Alemannic priest Othmar built an abbey and gave it the name Abbey of St. Gallen. In 926 Hungarian raiders attacked the abbey and surrounding town, about 1205 the abbot became a prince of the church in the Holy Roman Empire. In 1311 St. Gallen became a Free imperial city, by about 1353 the guilds, headed by the cloth-weavers guild, gained control of the civic government. In 1415 the city bought its liberty from the German king Sigismund, in 1405 the Appenzell estates of the abbot successfully rebelled and in 1411 they became allies of the Old Swiss Confederation. A few months the town of St. Gallen became allies and they joined the everlasting alliance as full members of the Confederation in 1454 and in 1457 became completely free from the abbot. However, in 1451 the abbey became an ally of Zürich, Schwyz, in early 1490 the four cantons supported the Abbot against the rebellious city and the Appenzell.
Following their victory the Confederation took ownership of the city of St. Gallen, starting in 1526 then-mayor and humanist Joachim von Watt introduced the reformation in the city of St. Gallen. The town converted to the new reformed religion while the Abbey remained Roman Catholic, while iconoclastic riots forced the monks to flee the city and removed images from the citys churches, the fortified Abbey remained untouched. The Abbey would remain a Catholic stronghold in the Protestant city until 1803, in April 1798, the territories of the canton of St. Gallen were divided between the Cantons of Säntis and Linth of the Helvetic Republic (along with Appenzell and parts of Schwyz. However, the two new Cantons had immediate financial problems and were forced to institute a number of unpopular taxes, the Abbey was secularized on 17 September 1798 and the Prince-Abbot Pankraz Vorster fled to Vienna. The unpopular laws and the closing of the Abbey caused unrest throughout the area, when the War of the Second Coalition broke out in 1799, an Austrian army marched into eastern Switzerland and returned the Prince-Abbot to his throne at the Abbey
French Revolutionary Army
The French Revolutionary Army was the French force that fought the French Revolutionary Wars from 1792 to 1802. These armies were characterised by their revolutionary fervour, their poor equipment, leading generals included Jourdan, Masséna and Moreau. As a general description of French military forces during this period, reactionary Europe stood opposed, especially after the French king was executed. As a result, one of the first major elements of the French state to be restructured was the army, almost all of the ancien regime officer class had been drawn from the aristocracy. During the period preceding the overthrow of the Monarchy, large numbers of officers left their regiments. Between 15 September and 1 December 1791 alone 2,160 officers of the army fled France eventually to join the émigré army of Louis Joseph. Of those who stayed numbers were either imprisoned or killed during the Reign of Terror, the small remaining cadre of officers were promoted swiftly, this meant that the majority of the Revolutionary officers were far younger than their Monarchist counterparts.
Revolutionary fervour, along with calls to save the new regime, the desperate situation meant that these men were quickly inducted into the army. The transformation of the Army was best seen in the officer corps, before the revolution 90% had been aristocrats, compared to only 3% in 1794. Revolutionary fervor was high, and was monitored by the Committee of Public Safety. Indeed, some generals deserted, others were removed or executed, the government demanded that soldiers be loyal to the government in Paris, not to their generals. Officially, the Revolutionary Armies were operating along the set down in the 1791 Reglement. The 1791 Reglement laid down several complex maneuvers, maneuvers which demanded well trained soldiers, officers. The Revolutionary Army was lacking in all three of these areas, and as a result the early efforts to conform to the 1791 Reglement were met with disaster, the untrained troops could not perform the complex maneuvers required, unit cohesion was lost and defeat was ensured.
Realizing that the army was not capable of conforming with the 1791 Reglement, many eminent French military thinkers had been clamoring for change decades before. In the period following the performance of the French Army during the Seven Years War. In the 1770s, some commanders, among them the brilliant duc de Broglie performed exercises testing these tactics, de Broglie decided that lordre profond worked best when it was supported by artillery and large numbers of skirmishers. Despite these exercises, lordre mince had strong and powerful supporters in the Royal Armée Française, the French struck first, with an invasion of the Austrian Netherlands proposed by foreign minister Charles François Dumouriez
Joachim Heer was a Swiss politician and member of the Swiss Federal Council. He was elected to the Swiss Federal Council on 10 December 1875 and he was affiliated to the Free Democratic Party of Switzerland. During his office time he held the following departments, Department of Posts and Telegraph Political Department Department of Railway, dr. Joachim-Heer-Strasse in Glarus is named for him. Profile of Joachim Heer with election results on the website of the Swiss Federal Council, Joachim Heer in German and Italian in the online Historical Dictionary of Switzerland
Schwanden is a village, and former municipality, in the municipality of Glarus Süd and canton of Glarus in Switzerland. Schwanden is first mentioned in 1240 as de swando, in 1879, Schwanden was connected to the Swiss railway network by the opening of the Swiss Northeastern Railway line from Weesen. Between 1905 and 1969, the Sernftal tramway connected Schwanden with communities in the valley of the Sernf river as far as Elm, on 1 January 2011, Schwanden became part of the municipality of Glarus Süd. Schwanden is situated at an elevation of 528 m at the point of confluence of the Linth, the village is located along the roads to Elm and Schwändi, and includes the formerly independent hamlet of Thon. The villages of Nidfurn and Haslen lie to south in the valley of the Linth, to the north, the village of Mitlödi lies in the valley of the Linth, whilst Schwandi and Sool are respectively on the west and east slopes of the valley. South of Schwanden is the oldest Jagdbanngebiet in Switzerland, the Freiberg Kärpf, to the south, the Niederenbäch stream descends from the slopes of the mountain of Kärpf.
This stream has been dammed to create the Garichtisee reservoir, Schwanden has an area, as defined by the former municipal boundaries in 2006, of 30.6 km2. Of this area,32. 3% is used for agricultural purposes, of the rest of the land,3. 2% is settled and the remainder is non-productive. A side road branches off Hauptstrasse 17 in Schwanden and heads the valley of Sernf, serving the communities of that village, but there is no road connection beyond the head of that valley. The high alpine Klausen Pass is normally open to traffic between June and September, and for the rest of the year the road and railway up the Linth valley form the only access to Schwanden. Both services operate once per hour, combining to provide two trains per hour between Ziegelbrücke and Schwanden, as of 2010, Schwanden had a population of 2,392. As of 2007,24. 2% of the population was made up of foreign nationals, over the last 10 years the population has decreased at a rate of -6. 9%. Most of the population speaks German, with Italian being second most common, in the 2007 federal election the most popular party was the SPS which received 59% of the vote.
Most of the rest of the went to the SVP with 31. 6% of the vote. In Schwanden about 60. 6% of the population have completed either non-mandatory upper secondary education or additional higher education, Schwanden has an unemployment rate of 2. 18%. As of 2005, there were 39 people employed in the economic sector. 1,067 people are employed in the sector and there are 45 businesses in this sector. 525 people are employed in the sector, with 92 businesses in this sector
Werdenberg (Holy Roman Empire)
Werdenberg was a county of the Holy Roman Empire situated on either side of the Rhine, including parts of what is now St. Gallen and Vorarlberg. It was partitioned from Montfort in 1230, in 1260, it was divided into Werdenberg and Sargans. It is named for Werdenberg Castle, today located in the municipality of Grabs in the Swiss canton of St and his son was Hugo I of Montfort, whose son Rudolf I is considered the founder of the Werdenberg line. In 1308 Werdenberg was further divided into Werdenberg-Heiligenberg and Werdenberg-Werdenberg, the Vaduz line of Counts of Werdenberg died out in 1406 and Vaduz passed to the Barons of Brandis. The family fractured further into a number of cadet branches, the line of Werdenberg-Heiligenberg-Sigmaringen-Trochtelfingen remained influential in the early 16th century in the context of the Swabian League but was extinct in 1534. The Werdenberg feud was a series of feuds between the Werdenberg and their neighbours in the late 15th century, most notably their conflict with the von Zimmern family of Swabia.
Gerhard Köbler, Werdenberg, in, Historisches Lexikon der deutschen Länder, die deutschen Territorien vom Mittelalter bis zur Gegenwart 2nd edition Munich 1989, p.605. Fritz Rigendinger, Das Sarganserland im Spätmittelalter, lokale Herrschaften, die Grafschaft Sargans und die Grafen von Werdenberg-Sargans. Carl Borromäus Alois Fickler, Heiligenberg in Schwaben, mit einer Geschichte seiner alten Grafen und des von ihnen beherrschten Linzgaues. Macklot, Karlsruhe 1853 Gerhard Köbler, Werdenberg, in, Historisches Lexikon der deutschen Länder, die deutschen Territorien vom Mittelalter bis zur Gegenwart. Verbesserte Auflage, München 1989, S.605 Werdenberg, von in German, johann Nepomuk von Vanotti, Geschichte der Grafen von Montfort und von Werdenberg. Hermann Wartmann, Grafen von, Allgemeine Deutsche Biographie,41, Duncker & Humblot, pp. 749–759
Mels is a municipality in the Wahlkreis of Sarganserland in the Seeztal, canton of St. Gallen, Switzerland. Mels is first mentioned in 765 as Maile though this comes from a copy of the original document. In 1018 it was mentioned as Meilis, Mels has an area, as of 2006, of 139.2 km2. Of this area,42. 6% is used for agricultural purposes, of the rest of the land,2. 6% is settled and the remainder is non-productive. The municipality is located in the Sarganserland Wahlkreis, in terms of area, it is the largest municipality in the canton and covers the Weisstannen valley and a part of the Seez valley. Northwest of town is Castels hill and west of the Nidberg is Castels fortress, chapfensee is a reservoir located in the municipality. The blazon of the coat of arms is Azure two Keys Or in saltire. Mels has a population of 8,620, as of 2007, about 14. 4% of the population was made up of foreign nationals. Of the foreign population,30 are from Germany,228 are from Italy,563 are from ex-Yugoslavia,21 are from Austria,90 are from Turkey, over the last 10 years the population has grown at a rate of 7. 4%.
Most of the population speaks German, with Albanian being second most common, of the Swiss national languages,7,114 speak German,10 people speak French,169 people speak Italian, and 32 people speak Romansh. The age distribution, as of 2000, in Mels is,1,073 children or 13. 7% of the population are between 0 and 9 years old and 1,137 teenagers or 14. 5% are between 10 and 19. Of the adult population,1,038 people or 13. 2% of the population are between 20 and 29 years old. 1,300 people or 16. 6% are between 30 and 39,1,028 people or 13. 1% are between 40 and 49, and 889 people or 11. 3% are between 50 and 59. In 2000 there were 737 persons who were living alone in a private dwelling, there were 1,445 persons who were part of a couple without children, and 4,926 who were part of a couple with children. In the 2007 federal election the most popular party was the SVP which received 43. 9% of the vote, the next three most popular parties were the CVP, the FDP and the SP. In Mels about 65. 5% of the population have completed either non-mandatory upper secondary education or additional higher education, the remainder did not answer this question.
The historical population is given in the table, The municipality is located on the A3 motorway. Castels hill and the medieval church of St. Peter und Paul, are listed as Swiss heritage sites of national significance
Uznach is a municipality in the Wahlkreis of See-Gaster in the canton of St. Gallen in Switzerland. Uznach is first mentioned in 741 as Uzinaa in a grant from a lady at Benken Abbey to the Abbey of Saint Gall. It was mentioned as both Uzinaha and Uzzinriuda, in the late 12th Century, the village was transferred from the Abbey of St. Gallen to the Counts of Toggenburg. Between 1180 and 1195 Diethelm VI. married Guta of Rapperswil and received as dowry the county of Uznach, from their castle in Uznach, the Toggenburgs raided trade caravans from Zurich until 1268 when the castle was conquered and destroyed by Rudolf von Habsburg. The war lasted from 1436 until 1450 and ended with Zurich being brought back into the Confederation, in 1529, a Reformation preacher was arrested in Uznach by Schwyz troops. This led to the outbreak of the First war of Kappel, two years the Second war of Kappel broke out and Uznach was again attacked by Zurich. Uznach has an area, as of 2006, of 7.6 km2, of this area,47. 1% is used for agricultural purposes, while 24. 3% is forested.
Of the rest of the land,23. 3% is settled, the blazon of the municipal coat of arms is Gules a Rose Argent barbed seeded slipped and leaved Vert. Uznach has a population of 6,295, as of 2007, about 26. 2% of the population was made up of foreign nationals. Of the foreign population,58 are from Germany,275 are from Italy,642 are from ex-Yugoslavia,12 are from Austria,116 are from Turkey, over the last 10 years the population has grown at a rate of 5. 2%. Most of the population speaks German, with Albanian being second most common, of the Swiss national languages,4,486 speak German,14 people speak French,176 people speak Italian, and 22 people speak Romansh. The age distribution, as of 2000, in Uznach is,755 children or 14. 1% of the population are between 0 and 9 years old and 749 teenagers or 14. 0% are between 10 and 19. Of the adult population,664 people or 12. 4% of the population are between 20 and 29 years old. 816 people or 15. 2% are between 30 and 39,815 people or 15. 2% are between 40 and 49, and 582 people or 10. 8% are between 50 and 59, in 2000 there were 532 persons who were living alone in a private dwelling.
There were 1,078 persons who were part of a couple without children, in the 2007 federal election the most popular party was the SVP which received 37. 6% of the vote. The next three most popular parties were the CVP, the SP and the FDP, in Uznach about 62. 6% of the population have completed either non-mandatory upper secondary education or additional higher education. The remainder did not answer this question, as of 2007, Uznach had an unemployment rate of 1. 62%. As of 2005, there were 42 people employed in the economic sector
Campaigns of 1798 in the French Revolutionary Wars
1798 was a relatively quiet period in the French Revolutionary Wars. The major continental powers in the First coalition had made peace with France, Napoleon raised a large army including scientists and cultural experts, and sailed from Toulon on 19 May. Stopping to capture Malta on 12 June, he landed near Alexandria on 2 July, Napoleons army proceeded to march against the Mameluke armies in Cairo, and met them at the Battle of the Pyramids on 21 July. Facing a huge army, Napoleon organized his army into squares, the Mameluke army retreated into Syria, leaving Napoleon dominant in Egypt. However, the British were threatened by this move, and admiral Horatio Nelson rushed to the coast of Egypt, there, he came upon the French fleet at anchor and systematically destroyed it in the Battle of the Nile. Without a fleet, Napoleons army was trapped in Egypt, Napoleon consolidated his base in Egypt for the remainder of the year. Damage to mosques sustained during this revolt embittered the Egyptian population against the French, the French were under pressure in Belgium and Luxembourg where the local people revolted against conscription and anti-religious violence.
French troops deposed Pope Pius VI, establishing a republic in Rome, on 5 March 1798, French troops overran Switzerland at the invitation of French-speaking factions in Vaud, and the Old Swiss Confederation collapsed. On 12 April 1798121 cantonal deputies proclaimed the Helvetic Republic, the new régime abolished cantonal sovereignty and feudal rights. The occupying forces established a state based on the ideas of the French Revolution. On 18 May the British launched combined Royal Navy and British Army raid on Ostend to destroy the gates of the Bruge Canal. The objectives were achieved but the army contingent of 1,300 men were either killed or captured. An expeditionary force was sent to County Mayo in Ireland to assist in the rebellion against Britain in the summer of 1798. On 22 August, nearly two months after the uprisings had been defeated, about 1,000 French soldiers under General Humbert landed in the north-west of the country. By the end of the year, the European powers, having recovered from their previous defeats and emboldened by Napoleons absence, organized a new Second Coalition.
The only military activity before the end of the year was in Italy, French Revolution French Revolutionary Wars History of Ottoman Egypt