A prefect in France is the States representative in a department or region. Sub-prefects are responsible for the subdivisions of departments, the office of a prefect is known as a prefecture and that of a sub-prefect as a subprefecture. Prefects are appointed by a decree of the President of the Republic in the Council of Ministers, following the proposal of the Prime Minister and they serve at the Governments discretion and can be replaced at any meeting of the Council. From 1982 to 1988 prefects were called de la République. The exact role and attributions are defined in decrees, most notably decrees of 1964,1982,2004, the prefect of the département containing the chef-lieu de région is the préfet de région, or the prefect of the région. Prefects operate under the Minister of the Interior, prefects may issue administrative orders in areas falling within the competency of the national government, including general safety. For instance, they may prohibit the use of roads without special tyres in times of snow.
The prohibition on smoking or leaving the running while filling the fuel tank of a motor vehicle is another example of a matter typically decided by a prefectoral administrative order. On official occasions, prefects wear uniforms, prefects originally had fairly extensive powers of supervision and control over departmental affairs. With the decentralization of local government in recent years, the role has largely been limited to preventing local policies from conflicting with national policy. In New Caledonia and French Polynesia, the roles, with certain differences in status, are fulfilled by a high commissioner, in Wallis and Futuna. The French Southern and Antarctic Lands used to be run by a superior administrator, the prefect, however, is not based in the territories, but in Réunion. Paris, which is itself a department, is an exception, in Paris, the law enforcement powers exercised in other French cities and towns by the mayor belong to the Prefect of Police. In 2012, a Prefecture of Police of the Bouches-du-Rhône was created, seated at Marseille, the authority of the state over the sea is exercised by the Maritime Prefect of the relevant region.
In Québec, the word is used to refer to the administrator of a Municipalité régionale de comté. There is no equivalent of French arrondissements, and instead, the word arrondissement always refers to a division with an elected leader
The district of Locarno is a district of Canton Ticino, Switzerland. It has a population of 63,688, the Locarno District has an area, as of 1997, of 551.08 square kilometers. Of this area,35.25 km2 or 6. 4% is used for agricultural purposes, while 320.45 km2 or 58. 1% is forested. Of the rest of the land,26.96 km2 or 4. 9% is settled,12.76 km2 or 2. 3% is either rivers or lakes and 133.75 km2 or 24. 3% is unproductive land. Of the built up area and buildings made up 2. 8%, out of the forested land,47. 1% of the total land area is heavily forested and 3. 6% is covered with orchards or small clusters of trees. Of the agricultural land,3. 0% is used for growing crops and 2. 8% is used for alpine pastures, of the water in the district,0. 5% is in lakes and 1. 9% is in rivers and streams. Of the unproductive areas,14. 7% is unproductive vegetation and 9. 6% is too rocky for vegetation, the Locarno District has a population of 63,688. Of the Swiss national languages,8,831 speak German,971 people speak French,43,408 people speak Italian, as of 2008, the gender distribution of the population was 47. 5% male and 52. 5% female.
The population was made up of 21,828 Swiss men, there were 25,836 Swiss women, and 6,847 non-Swiss women. In 2008 there were 397 live births to Swiss citizens and 104 births to non-Swiss citizens, ignoring immigration and emigration, the population of Swiss citizens decreased by 86 while the foreign population increased by 18. There were 29 Swiss men and 22 Swiss women who immigrated back to Switzerland, at the same time, there were 317 non-Swiss men and 269 non-Swiss women who immigrated from another country to Switzerland. The total Swiss population change in 2008 was an increase of 487 and this represents a population growth rate of 1. 1%. The age distribution, as of 2009, in the Locarno District is,5,081 children or 8. 2% of the population are between 0 and 9 years old and 5,956 teenagers or 9. 6% are between 10 and 19. Of the adult population,6,214 people or 10. 0% of the population are between 20 and 29 years old. 7,768 people or 12. 5% are between 30 and 39,10,299 people or 16. 6% are between 40 and 49, and 8,443 people or 13. 6% are between 50 and 59.
In 2000 there were 29,582 single family homes out of a total of 65,150 inhabited buildings, there were 7,996 two family buildings and 20,959 multi-family buildings. There were 6,613 buildings in the district that were multipurpose buildings, in 2000 there were 43,636 apartments in the district. The most common apartment size was the 3 room apartment of which there were 13,418, there were 3,749 single room apartments and 6,608 apartments with five or more rooms
The French invaded Switzerland and turned it into an ally known as the Helvetic Republic. The interference with localism and traditional liberties was deeply resented, although some modernizing reforms took place, resistance was strongest in the more traditional Catholic bastions, with armed uprisings breaking out in spring 1798 in the central part of Switzerland. During the French Revolutionary Wars of the 1790s, the French Republican armies expanded eastward, the French Republican armies enveloped Switzerland on the grounds of liberating the Swiss people, whose own system of government was deemed as feudal, especially for annexed territories such as Vaud. Some Swiss nationals, including Frédéric-César de La Harpe, had called for French intervention on these grounds, the invasion proceeded largely peacefully, since the Swiss people failed to respond to the calls of their politicians to take up arms. On 5 March 1798, French troops completely overran Switzerland and the Old Swiss Confederation collapsed, on 12 April 1798,121 cantonal deputies proclaimed the Helvetic Republic and Indivisible.
On 14 April 1798, an assembly was called in the canton of Zürich. The new régime abolished cantonal sovereignty and feudal rights, the occupying forces established a centralised state based on the ideas of the French Revolution. Many Swiss citizens resisted these ideas, particularly in the central areas of the country. Some of the controversial aspects of the new regime limited freedom of worship. In response, the Cantons of Uri and Nidwalden raised an army of about 10,000 men led by Alois von Reding to fight the French and this army was deployed along the defensive line from Napf to Rapperswil. Reding besieged French-controlled Lucerne and marched across the Brünig pass into the Berner Oberland to support the armies of Bern, at the same time, the French General Balthasar Alexis Henri Antoine of Schauenburg marched out of occupied Zürich to attack Zug and the Sattel pass. Even though Redings army won victories at Rothenthurm and Morgarten, Schauenburgs victory near Sattel allowed him to threaten the town of Schwyz, on 4 May 1798, the town council of Schwyz surrendered.
On 13 May and Schauenburg agreed to a cease-fire, no general agreement existed about the future of Switzerland. Leading groups split into the Unitaires, who wanted a republic, and the Federalists. Coup-attempts became frequent, and the new régime had to rely on the French to survive, the occupying forces insisted that the accommodation and feeding of the soldiers be paid for by the local populace, which drained the economy. The treaty of alliance with France broke the tradition of neutrality established by the Confederation, all this made it difficult to establish a new working state. Instability in the Republic reached its peak in 1802–1803, which included the Bourla-papey uprising, by then, it was 12 million francs in debt having started with a treasury of 6 million francs. This together with local resistance caused the Helvetic Republic to collapse, at that time, Napoleon Bonaparte, First Consul of France, summoned representatives of both sides to Paris in order to negotiate a solution
Italian and Swiss expedition
Although by 1799 he was nearly seventy years old, Suvorov was one of the great soldiers of the age. He had won no fewer than sixty-three battles in the course of his military career. He was only recalled after the Austrians specifically requested that he be appointed to command the combined Austro-Russian army to fight the French in Italy. Taking command on 19 April, Suvorov moved his army westwards in a march towards the Adda River. On 27 April, he defeated Jean Victor Moreau at the Battle of Cassano, soon afterward, Suvorov wrote to a Russian diplomat, The Adda is a Rubicon, and we crossed it over the bodies of our enemies. On 29 April he entered Milan, two weeks later, he moved on to Turin, having defeated Moreau yet again at Marengo. The king of Sardinia greeted him as a hero and conferred on him the rank of Prince of the House of Savoy, from Naples, General MacDonald moved north to assist Moreau in June. Marching back to the north, the indomitable soldier chased the whole French Army of Italy back towards the Riviera, Moreau was relieved of command, to be replaced by Joubert.
Pushing through the Bocchetta Pass, Joubert was defeated and killed in battle with Suvorov at Novi to the north of Genoa. In 1798, Paul I gave Korsakov command of a force of 30,000 men sent to Germany to join Austria in the fight against the French Republic. At the beginning of 1799, the force was diverted to drive the French out of Switzerland, leaving Russia in May, Korsakov reached Stockach in 90 days. It was expected that Alexander Suvorovs army would join them from Italy after marching through the Alps, in the meantime, Korsakov waited near Zurich in a relaxed state of over-confidence. Korsakov took up a position on the east of the Rhine in the Dorflingen Camp between Schaffhausen and Constance, remaining there while Masséna was left free to deal with Suvorov and he joined Suvorov’s survivors at Lindau on 18 October, and was shortly after relieved of command. Although he succeeded in rescuing his army and did not lose a battle, Suvorovs spectacular manoeuvring in Italy. He was promoted to the rank of Generalissimo, the fourth in all of Russian history and it was as a consequence of this campaign that Suvorov wrote Rules for the Conduct of Military Actions in the Mountains.
He died in May 1800, having never fulfilled his greatest ambition – to meet Napoleon on the battlefield, a detailed account of the campaign was published in five volumes by Dmitry Milyutin in 1852–53. Suvorov remains vividly remembered in the parts of the Swiss Alps his army passed through, even though his famished troops plundered the countryside bare and his campaign was ultimately fruitless, the general is venerated as a liberator from the occupying French. Plaques adorn nearly every spot where he ate or slept in the Alps, chairs, a life-size equestrian statue was unveiled in 1999 on the St. Gotthard Pass
Historical Dictionary of Switzerland
The encyclopedia is published by a foundation under the patronage of the Swiss Academy of Humanities and Social Sciences and the Swiss Historical Society and is financed by national research grants. Besides a staff of 35 at the offices, the contributors include 100 academic advisors,2500 historians and 100 translators. The encyclopedia is being edited simultaneously in three languages of Switzerland, German and Italian. The first of 13 volumes was published in 2002, the last volume was published in 2014. The 36,000 headings are grouped in, Biographies Articles on families and it makes accessible, for free, all articles ready for publication in print, but no illustrations. It lists all 36,000 topics that are to be covered, lexicon Istoric Retic is a two volume version with a selection of articles published in Romansh. It includes articles not available in the other languages, the first volume was published in 2010, the second in 2012. An on-line version is available
Military occupation is effective provisional control by a certain ruling power over a territory which is not under the formal sovereignty of that entity, without the volition of the actual sovereign. Military government may be characterized as the administration or supervision of occupied territory. Military government is distinguished from law, which is the temporary rule by domestic armed forces over disturbed areas. The rules of government are delineated in various international agreements, primarily the Hague Convention of 1907. A country that establishes a government and violates internationally agreed upon norms runs the risk of censure, criticism. In the current era, the practices of government have largely become a part of customary international law. Article 42 of the 1907 Hague Convention on Land Warfare specify that erritory is considered occupied when it is placed under the authority of the hostile army. The form of administration by which an occupying power exercises government authority over occupied territory is called military government, neither the Hague Conventions nor the Geneva Conventions specifically define or distinguish an act of invasion.
The terminology of occupation is used exclusively, the clear distinction has been recognized among the principles of international law since the end of the Napoleonic wars in the 19th century. These customary laws of belligerent occupation which evolved as part of the laws of war gave some protection to the population under the occupation of a belligerent power. The first two articles of that state, Art. Territory is considered occupied when it is placed under the authority of the hostile army. The occupation extends only to the territory where such authority has been established, in 1949 these laws governing belligerent occupation of an enemy states territory were further extended by the adoption of the Fourth Geneva Convention. Much of GCIV is relevant to protected persons in occupied territories and Section III, Article 6 restricts the length of time that most of GCIV applies, The present Convention shall apply from the outset of any conflict or occupation mentioned in Article 2. In the territory of Parties to the conflict, the application of the present Convention shall cease on the close of military operations.
GCIV emphasised an important change in international law, the Occupying Power shall not deport or transfer parts of its own civilian population into the territory it occupies. S. are not signatory to this additional protocol. The military government of the occupying power will continue past the point in time when the peace treaty comes into force. Military government continues until legally supplanted is the rule, as stated in Military Government and Martial Law, by William E. Birkhimer, see Birkhimer, p. 25–26, No proclamation of part of the victorious commander is necessary to the lawful inauguration and enforcement of military government
Canton of Lucerne
The canton of Lucerne is a canton of Switzerland. It is located in the centre of Switzerland, the population of the canton is 398,762. As of 2007, the population included 57,268 foreigners, the canton of Lucerne comprises territories acquired by its capital Lucerne, either by treaty, armed occupation or purchase. The oldest traces of humans in the Lucerne area are stone artifacts, other animal bones including mammoth and giant deer from the local glacial maximum have been found in the canton. Around 17,000 BC the glaciers disappeared from the Swiss plateau, the first Paleolithic and Mesolithic settlement discovered in the canton is in the Wauwilermoos, which is now a Swiss heritage site of national significance. A number of settlements have since been found, mainly on sandy. The settlements of Egolzwil 3 in Wauwilermoos in Egolzwil, Seematte at Hitzkirch, the Wauwilermoos houses had wooden or bark floors and hearths of clay. The villages had ceramic vessels and wood, antler, copper ax blades and knives provide the first evidence of metal use in Switzerland.
Imported mollusks show that there were connections to the Mediterranean. The bones at Egolzwil 3 are over two thirds from domestic animals with the remainder from wild animals, the main domesticated animals were sheep and pigs with only a few domestic cattle. The animals hunted included deer, roe deer, wild boar, during the Bronze Age the canton was quite settled. There were a number of settlements on the shores of Lake Sempach and Lake Baldegg along with settlements, graves. At Hochdorf-Baldegg a fenced village from the early Bronze Age was uncovered, the single-story houses all had clay or stone hearths. During the Middle Bronze Age most of the villages were not located directly on the lake shores, the Late Bronze Age settlement at Sursee-Zellmoos on Lake Sempach featured houses arranged in rows with mortared stone. The walls were lined with clay. Another Late Bronze Age settlement near the village of Schötz was densely populated between 1350 and 800 BC, while numerous individual Iron Age items have been found, almost no settlements have been discovered.
From the Hallstatt period mainly graves have been discovered, very little is known about the La Tène period in Lucerne. Some iron tools, gold coins, ceramic vessels and a glass bangle as well as a ground with at least four graves have been found
Canton of Bern
The canton of Bern is the second largest of the 26 Swiss cantons by both surface area and population. Located in west-central Switzerland, it borders the canton of Jura, to the west lie the canton of Neuchâtel, the canton of Fribourg and Vaud. To the south lies the canton of Valais, east of the canton of Bern lie the cantons of Uri, Obwalden and Aargau. The canton of Bern is bilingual and has a population of 1,017,483, as of 2007, the population included 119,930 foreigners. The cantonal capital, the capital of Switzerland, is Bern. Bern joined the Swiss Confederation in 1353 and was between 1803 and 1814 one of the six directorial cantons of the Napoleonic Swiss Confederation and these caves were used at various times during the last ice age. The first open-air settlement in the area is an upper paleolithic settlement at Moosbühl in Moosseedorf, during the warmer climate of the mesolithic period, increasing forest cover restricted the movement of hunters and gatherers. Their temporary settlements were built along lake and marsh edges, which remained free of trees due to fluctuations in water level, important mesolithic sites in the Canton are at Pieterlenmoos and Burgäschisee lake along with alpine valleys at Diemtig and Simmental.
During the neolithic period, there were a number of settlements on the shores of Lake Biel, several of these sites are part of the Prehistoric Pile dwellings around the Alps, a UNESCO World Heritage Site. One of the best explored neolithic sites is at Twann, in the Twannbach delta there were about 25 Cortaillod culture and Horgen culture villages that existed between 3800 and 2950 BC. One of the oldest examples of bread from Switzerland, a sourdough from 3560–3530 BC, simple copper objects were already in use in the 4th millennium BC, including a copper pin from Lattrigen from 3170 BC and a knife blade from Twann. Shortly before 2000 BC bronze production entered the area and brought about a surge in development, settlements began to spread into the pre-Alpine and Alpine areas. The area between Lake Thun and the Niedersimmental were densely settled, Late Bronze Age settlements along Lake Biel have yielded up a wealth of items. During the early Iron Age changes in climate forced them to settlements along many waterways and in the valley floors and move to the plateaus.
With increased trade contacts across the Alps, the influence of the Mediterranean grew in the area. Evidence of this include a hydria which was discovered in Grächwil. Burial rituals and social classes became more developed during this time, the so-called princely graves became more common, many of the burial mounds were over 30 m in diameter and 4 m high and richly outfitted with grave goods. In a grave mound in Bützberg the first burial in the mound was followed by burials
A sister republic was a republic established by invading French armies or by local revolutionaries and assisted by the First French Republic during the French Revolutionary Wars. Ideals favored by the National Convention and Robespierre during the period were popular sovereignty, rule of law, the republicans borrowed ideas and values from Whiggism and Enlightenment philosophers. The republican governments promoted nationalism over the monarchy, primarily the Bourbons, in France, Revolutionary Republicanism was, in part, based on limiting corruption and greed. The revolutionaries saw these vices as endemic at the time, but were more readily preventable in a popular republic, a virtuous citizen was defined as one who ignored monetary compensation and made a commitment to resist and eradicate corruption. The Republic was sacred, therefore, it was necessary to serve the state in a representative way, ignoring self-interest. Republicanism required supporters who were willing to give up their own interests for a common good, virtuous citizens needed to be strong defenders of liberty and challenge the corruption and greed in government.
The duty of the virtuous citizen became a foundation for the American Revolution, the French Revolution looked to incorporate these founding ideals and to export them throughout Europe. However, most of these French client republics were short-lived, as the revolutionary republic became the Napoleonic Empire, they were often annexed to France proper or subsumed into more openly French puppet regimes
Flags and arms of cantons of Switzerland
Each of the 26 modern cantons of Switzerland has an official flag and a coat of arms. The history of development of these designs spans the 13th to the 20th centuries and Obwalden form traditional subdivisions of Unterwalden. Basel-Stadt and Basel-Landschaft, as well as Appenzell Inner- and Ausserrhoden, are half cantons, resulting from the division of Basel and Appenzell, with the exception of Lucerne and Ticino, the cantonal flags are simply transposed versions of the cantonal coats of arms. In case of Lucerne and Ticino, whose flags consist of fields of different colours divided per fess, the coat of arms of Schwyz has the cross moved from the canton to the sinister canton with respect to the flag. Of the 22 cantonal coats of arms as they stood with the creation of Switzerland as a state in 1848. Vaud has a bicolor, but an added inscription, gallen stars for Valais and Aargau, the latter with additional wavy lines representing rivers Distinctively, Swiss cantons use square flags. See the List below for the histories of the individual designs, the coats of arms of the Thirteen Cantons are based on medieval signs, originating as war flags and as emblems used on seals.
For war flags, a distinction was made between Banner and Fähnlein, the former was the war flag used only in the case of a full levy of cantonal troops for a major operation. The latter was a flag used for minor military expeditions. The Banner was considered a sacred possession, usually kept in a church, losing the banner to an enemy force was a great shame and invited mockery from other cantons. Papal legate Matthias Schiner in addition gave to the Swiss cantons and their associates a total of 42 costly silk banners with augmentations, some of these banners survive, of the cantonal ones notably those of Zürich and Solothurn. The fashion of arranging cantonal insignia in shields as coats of arms arises in the late 15th century, the Tagsatzung in Baden was presented with stained glass representations of all cantons in ca. In these designs, two cantonal escutcheons were shown side by side, below a shield bearing the Imperial Eagle, based on these, there arose a tradition of representing cantonal arms in stained glass, alive throughout the early modern period and continued in the modern state.
Flag of Switzerland Cantons of Switzerland Walter Angst, A Panoply of Colours, The Cantonal Banners of Switzerland and the Swiss National Flag,1992