Saint-Étienne-de-Baïgorry is a commune in the Pyrénées-Atlantiques department in south-western France, located at the same time in the former province of Lower Navarre. It borders the municipality of Baztan to the west, it is the main access to the Aldudes valley, having nearby the Castle, Echauz Castle, Château d'Etxauz, the river through the place being known as the river Nive des Aldudes. The town is home to the renowned Day of Navarre, a festival attracting a massive turnout from the Spanish and French side of Navarre in early May intended to strengthen ties between both Navarrese territories and affirming their common Basque identity. Saint-Étienne-de-Baïgorry was the chief town of the former canton of Saint-Étienne-de-Baïgorry, its 11 communes had some 5,727 inhabitants on some 311 km2 with decreasing population. In 2015, the canton was merged into the new canton of Montagne Basque. Bidarray, Northwards. 652 inhabitants in 2006. Some 30 km2. 43°16′3″N 1°20′38″W Saint-Martin-d'Arrossa- North-East.
462 inhabitants in 2006. 43°14′21″N 1°18′43″W Irouléguy. East. Famous vineyards for many years. 316 inhabitants in 2006, 43°10′40″N 1°18′01″W Anhaux. South-West.280 inhabitants in 2006. 12.3 km2. 43°10′9″N 1°17′28″W Banca. South; some 373 inhabitants in 2006, 43°7′39″N 1°22′23″W Saint-Étienne-de-Baïgorry has 1617 inhabitants, as of the 2006 census. Set in a mountainous area, Baigorri is communicated by departmental roads D15 and D948, with a coach line offering service to Ossès within TER Aquitaine's network; the Area as a part of the French GR10, French footpaths, Saint-Etienne church, in a Viscounty created in 1033 by King Sancho III of Navarre, is mentioned in documents of 1253, but with a Baroque retable of the 17th century displaying the stoning of 1st century AD Saint Étienne Château d'Etchaux, built in the 16th century by Viscount of Baïgorry The meaning in Basque is the “red bank of the river”, in this case the river Nive, flowing through Bayonne and discharging the waters in the 324 km long Adour River.
Jean Isidore Harispe, 1st Comte Harispe, was a distinguished French soldier of the Revolutionary and Napoleonic Wars, as well as of the following period. Harispe was created a Marshal of France in 1851. Communes of the Pyrénées-Atlantiques department INSEE commune file http://www.euskomedia.org/aunamendi/63865. An account on the Basque historic works by French born researcher Jean de Jaurgain, Arnaud d'Oihenart et sa famille, París, 1885, by Jean de Jaurgin. BAIGORRI in the Bernardo Estornés Lasa - Auñamendi Encyclopedia
Barcus is a commune in the Pyrénées-Atlantiques department in the Nouvelle-Aquitaine region of southwestern France in the former province of Soule. The inhabitants of the commune are known in French as Barcusiens or Barcusiennes and in Basque as Barkoxtar. Barcus is located in the Massif des Arbailles in the former province of Soule some 25 km south by south-east of Sauveterre-de-Béarn and 12 km west of Oloron-Sainte-Marie; the commune covers a complex of valleys formed by the course of the Joos and its left and right tributaries - the Paradis district, for example, is located on the Ibarra and the former hamlet of Guibelhéguiet is on a tributary of the Joos. Access to the commune is by the D24 road from Chéraute in the west which passes through the centre of the commune and continues east to Esquiule; the D347 goes south to Tardets-Sorholus. The D59 comes from Saint-Goin in the north-east through the village and continues south down the eastern side of the commune to Montory; the D859 branches off the D59 in the north of the commune and goes north to join the D25 north of the commune.
The D159 branches off the D59 halfway down the commune and goes east to join the D24 east of Esquiule. The D459 goes south-east to Lanne-en-Barétous; the commune is located in the drainage basin of the Adour. The Joos river rises west of the commune and flows east across the commune north, forming the eastern border of the commune, continuing north-east to join the Gave d'Oloron at Préchacq-Josbaig. Many tributaries rise in the commune and flow east into the Joos including the Bouhatéko erreka, the arréc of Etchanchu, the Handia, the Oyhanart erreka, the arriou of Soulou, the Sustaris erreka, the Ibarra stream with its tributaries, the Ruisseau Ibarra and the Lecheguita stream. Paul Raymond mentioned another tributary of the Joos crossing Barcus called the Guibéléguiet with its tributary the Paradis. Tributaries of the Lausset, which flows into the Gave d'Oloron pass through the commune such as the Ascania stream and the Ibarle stream with its tributary the Ambelseko erreka; the Ruisseau de Lacoste, a sub-tributary of the arréc of Bitole crosses the commune.
There are a large number of places and hamlets in the commune: The commune name in Basque is Barkoxe. Jean-Baptiste Orpustan proposes a Basque etymological construction in two parts; the first element barr meaning "located inside, at the bottom" is joined to the element -koiz to approximate the Basque goiz meaning "morning or east". Barcus is located in a low valley to the east; the following table details the origins of the commune name and other names in the commune. Sources: Raymond: Topographic Dictionary of the Department of Basses-Pyrenees, 1863, on the page numbers indicated in the table. Orpustan: Jean-Baptiste Orpustan, New Basque Toponymy Bulletin des Lois: Ldh/EHESS/Cassini database Origins: Navarrenx: Notaries of Navarrenx Oloron: Notaries of Oloron-Sainte-Marie'Ohix: Contracts retained by Ohix, Notary of Soule Customs: Customs of Soule Luxe: Titles of Luxe Guienne: Government General of Guienne and Guascogne and neighbouring country Jean-Baptiste Orpustan noted that the commune was a former "royal town".
Paul Raymond on page 21 of his 1863 dictionary noted that the commune had a Lay Abbey, vassal of the Viscounts of Soule. In 1790 Barcus was the capital of a Canton dependent on the District of Mauleon Licharre and made up of the communes of Barcus, L'Hôpital-Saint-Blaise, Roquiague. Barcus appears as the same on the 1790 version. List of Successive Mayors The commune is part of five inter-communal structures: the Community of communes of Soule-Xiberoa; the Journal by Pierre Casalivetery, Notary at Mauléon, during 1460-1481 counted 26 fires at Barcus and 210 for the years 1540-1548, indicating a growing population. In 2010 the commune had 734 inhabitants; the evolution of the number of inhabitants is known from the population censuses conducted in the commune since 1793. From the 21st century, a census of communes with fewer than 10,000 inhabitants is held every five years, unlike larger communes that have a sample survey every year. Population change Sources: Ldh/EHESS/Cassini until 1962, INSEE database from 1968 Economic activity is oriented towards agriculture.
The commune is part of the Appellation d'origine contrôlée zone designation of Ossau-iraty. The Lamiñen ziloa. Laminak are small lutins in Basque mythology. A treasure trove of Celtiberian currency was discovered in 1879. Composed of 1,750 silver coins from different cities of Navarre and Aragon, the reason for their presence in Barcus remains controversial. A gaztelu zahar stands at 440 metres above sea level in the Haitzhandia locality; the Parish Church of the Ascension is registered as an historical monument. It was rebuilt in the 19th century and restored in the 20th century, it contains a Bronze Bell, registered as an historical object. In 2009 Barcus organised a Pastoral, a Soule traditional show mixing theatre and singing. There is a Pastoral throughout winter until April on Sundays in other villages of Soule. Léon Urthuburu, vice-consul
Haux is a commune in the Pyrénées-Atlantiques department in south-western France. It is located in the former province of Soule. Communes of the Pyrénées-Atlantiques department INSEE HAUZE in the Bernardo Estornés Lasa - Auñamendi Encyclopedia
Saint-Jean-Pied-de-Port is a commune in the Pyrénées-Atlantiques department in south-western France close to Ostabat in the Pyrenean foothills. The town is the old capital of the traditional Basque province of Lower Navarre. Saint-Jean-Pied-de-Port is a starting point for the French Way Camino Francés, the most popular option for travelling the Camino de Santiago; the town lies on the river Nive, 8 km from the Spanish border, is the head town of the region of Cize. The town's layout is one main street with sandstone walls encircling. Saint-Jean-le-Vieux Ossès Baigorri Estérençuby Luzaide/Valcarlos The original town at nearby Saint-Jean-le-Vieux was razed to the ground in 1177 by the troops of Richard the Lionheart after a siege; the Kings of Navarre refounded the town on its present site shortly afterwards. The town was thereafter a town of the Kingdom of Navarre, the seat of the sheriff of the Lower Navarre district, it remained as such up to the period of the Spanish conquest when King Henry II of Navarre decided to transfer the seat of the royal institutions to Saint Palais on safety grounds.
The town has traditionally been an important point on the Way of St. James, the pilgrimage to Santiago de Compostela, as it stands at the base of the Roncevaux Pass across the Pyrenees. Pied-de-Port means'foot of the pass' in Pyrenean French; the routes from Paris, Vézelay and Le Puy-en-Velay meet at Saint-Jean-Pied-de-Port and it was the pilgrims' last stop before the arduous mountain crossing. In 1998, the Porte St-Jacques was added to the UNESCO World Heritage Sites as part of the sites along the Routes of Santiago de Compostela in France; the cobbled rue de la Citadelle runs down hill and over the river from the fifteenth century Porte St-Jacques to the Porte d'Espagne by the bridge. From the bridge, there are views of the old houses with balconies overlooking the Nive. Many of the buildings are old, built of pink and grey schist, retain distinctive features, including inscriptions over their doors. One, a bakery, lists the price of wheat in 1789; the 14th century red schist Gothic church, Notre-Dame-du-Bout-du-Pont, stands by the Porte d'Espagne.
The original was built by Sancho the Strong of Navarre to commemorate the 1212 Battle of Las Navas de Tolosa where Moorish dominance of Spain was undermined. Above the town at the top of the hill is the citadel, remodelled by Vauban in the 17th century. Outside the walls is a new town, with a pelota fronton. Traditional crafts and foods remain in the town, including Basque linen from the Inchauspé family since 1848; the town is now an important tourist centre for the Pyrenees and the French Basque country and there are shops and hotels. St-Jean-Pied-de-Port specializes in fromage de brebis, an Ossau-Iraty cheese, local trout and pipérade omelette with peppers and Bayonne ham. Mondays see a large market, with sheep and cattle driven into the town. At 5pm, there is a communal game of bare-handed pelote at the fronton. There are large fairs four times a year. Saint-Jean-Pied-de-Port is the terminus on the railway line from Bayonne through the French Basque Country, along the valley of the river Nive, with several services each day.
It is 1 km from the centre of the town. Biarritz Airport is the closest airport to Saint Jean Pied de Port. Bernard Etxepare, writer of first printed book in Basque. Juan Huarte de San Juan and psychologist was born there. Charles Floquet, born in Saint-Jean-Pied-de-Port, French lawyer and statesman. Imanol Harinordoquy, French international rugby union player, grew up in the town. Communes of the Pyrénées-Atlantiques department INSEE commune file Official website Tourist office website Webpage about the fortifications
Aussurucq is a commune in the Pyrénées-Atlantiques department in the Nouvelle-Aquitaine region of south-western France. The inhabitants are known as Altzürükütar. Aussurucq is located in the former province of Soule in the Massif des Arbailles some 30 km west by south-west of Oloron-Sainte-Marie and 25 km east of Saint-Jean-Pied-de-Port. Access to the commune is by road D147 from Idaux-Mendy in the north which passes through the village and continues south through the commune to join the D117 on the southern border of the commune. A pastoral road from Béhorléguy to Alçay and Aussurucq passes through the Col d'Aphanize and follows the line of the watershed along the Col de Burdin Olatzé; the commune is rugged and forested however there is some farmland in the north. The Ruisseau de Guessalia rises in the south of the commune and flows north-east gathering some tributaries to join the Apouhoura north of the commune; the Arangorena forms the north-western border as it flows north-east to join the Saison near Gotein-Libarrenx.
The Bidouze rises in the south of the commune and flows north to join the Adour north of Bardos. The commune name in basque is Altzürükü. Jean-Baptiste Orpustan indicated that the name comes from the basque altzu, explained by the position of the valley covered in alder trees; the second part of the name is more enigmatic. According to Orpustan it could be from Urru or iri giving alzu- ri-ku meaning "place in the Alder field"; the following table details the origins of the commune name and other names in the commune. Sources: Orpustan: Jean-Baptiste Orpustan, New Basque Toponymy Raymond: Topographic Dictionary of the Department of Basses-Pyrenees, 1863, on the page numbers indicated in the table. Origins: Duchesne: Duchesne collection volume CXIV Notaries: Notaries of Navarrenx Chapter: Titles of the Chapter of Bayonne Soule: Customs of Soule In the Middle Palaeolithic era Soule was populated as remains of Neanderthal prehistoric man have been found in the Xaxixiloaga caves in Aussurucq. A tumulus was reported at shepherd's cabins in Potxo along the D147 road.
The central part of Soule is called the Messagerie des Arbailles between Basabürü and Pettarra. List of Successive Mayors The commune is part of six inter-communal structures: the Community of communes of Soule-Xiberoa. In 2010 the commune had 251 inhabitants; the evolution of the number of inhabitants is known from the population censuses conducted in the commune since 1793. From the 21st century, a census of communes with fewer than 10,000 inhabitants is held every five years, unlike larger towns that have a sample survey every year. Population change Sources: Ldh/EHESS/Cassini until 1962, INSEE database from 1968 Economic activity is based on agriculture; the commune is part of the Appellation d'origine contrôlée zone of Ossau-iraty. The village features a dynamic scene related to Basque culture; the inhabitants of the village performed the pastoral Ürrüti Jauregiko Peirot in 2002, a play written by the son of the village Niko Etxart, an acclaimed Basque musician. The Chateau of Ruthie is registered as an historical monument.
A Gaztelu Zahar is at a place called gaztelu at an altitude of 582 metres. The town has a church with a Trinitarian steeple or a tower surmounted by three points of nearly equal height; the church contains a processional cross, registered as an historical object. At the end of the 19th century, the Arbailles Forest covered parts of the communes of Aussurucq, Béhorléguy, Camou-Cihigue, Musculdy and Saint-Just-Ibarre. A wealth of heritage in Aussurucq commune is contained in its sub-soil. Most of the territory of the commune is karstic; the environment is characterized by the presence of natural cavities in complex shapes that have not all yet been discovered or much less explored to date. Departmental cavers have undertaken the exploration and publication of this heritage respecting the environment and the local population. One of the most beautiful caves in the commune is the Nébélé, the subject of works and regular explorations since 1972; the peak of Ascune stands at 860 m, Echagorry is 935 m, Elsarré is 1,153 m, Sihigue is 1,193 m, Etchecortia is 1,204 m.
In the south-west of the commune, Bohorcortia is 1,214 metres high. The town has a primary school. Pierre V de Charritte de Ruthie, born in Aussurucq, was chaplain to François I. Gilen Epherre, born at Aussurucq in 1911 and died in Bayonne in 1974, was a writer, priest and important cultural player in the post-war period Communes of the Pyrénées-Atlantiques department ALTZÜRUKÜ in the Bernardo Estornés Lasa - Auñamendi Encyclopedia Aussurucq on the Community of communes Soule-Xiberoa official website Aussurucq on Lion1906 Aussurucq on Google Maps Aussurucq on Géoportail, National Geographic Institute website Anßuruc on the 1750 Cassini Map Aussurucq on the INSEE website INSEE
Arnéguy is a commune in the Pyrénées-Atlantiques department in southwestern France. The village is an important stopping point on the road between Saint-Jean-Pied-de-Port and Pamplona, Spain, as it lies on the border of France and Spain, it is located in the former province of Lower Navarre. Because of its proximity to Saint-Jean-Pied-de-Port, Arnéguy is a popular tourist destination for those travelling across the Pyrenees, although its economy remains agricultural. Communes of the Pyrénées-Atlantiques department INSEE Arneguy Official Site Official site ARNEGI in the Bernardo Estornés Lasa - Auñamendi Encyclopedia
Alçay-Alçabéhéty-Sunharette is a commune in the Pyrénées-Atlantiques department in the Nouvelle-Aquitaine region in southwestern France. Alçay-Alçabéhéty-Sunharette is located in the former province of Soule, it is located some 35 km west by 10 km north of Larrau. The commune can be accessed by the small D247 road from the village to Tardets-Sorholus in the north-east; the D149 goes north to Camou-Cihigue. There is the D117 road which goes west from the village to Mendive. Located in the drainage basin of the Adour, most of the southern border of the commune is formed by the Alphoura river which flows through the village and continues northeast to join the Saison near Alos-Sibas-Abense; the Alphoura is fed by many tributaries rising in the commune including the Ardounc. The Escalérako erreka flows west with its many tributaries. Paul Raymond mentioned a brook that rises at Alçay and flows into the Alphoura; the commune name in Basque is Altzai-Altzabeheti Zünharreta. According to Jean-Baptiste Orpustan, the base altz meaning "aulne" was used for the both toponyms Alcay and Alçabéhéty.
Beheti means "at the bottom". The name Sunharette comes from the Basque zunharr using the romanized locative suffix ette meaning the "place of elm"; the following table details the origins of the commune name and other names in the commune. Sources: Orpustan: Jean-Baptiste Orpustan, New Basque Toponymy Raymond: Topographic Dictionary of the Department of Basses-Pyrenees, 1863, on the page numbers indicated in the table. Cassini1: Alçabéhéty on the Ldh/EHESS/Cassini database Cassini2: Sunharette on the Ldh/EHESS/Cassini databaseOrigins: Duchesne: Duchesne collection volume CXIV Ohix: Contracts retained by Ohix, Notary of Soule Chronicles: Chronicles of Arthez-Lassalle Soule: Custom of Soule In 1790 Sunharette was the chief town of a canton, part of the District of Mauleon; the canton included the communes of Alçay-Alçabéhéty-Sunharette, Alos-Sibas-Abense, Camou-Cihigue, Lacarry-Arhan-Charritte-de-Haut, Lichans-Sunhar, Ossas-Suhare. In 1833, the three communes of Alçay, Alçabéhéty, Sunharette merged to form a single joint commune.
List of Successive Mayors The town is part of seven intercommunal organisations: the Community of communes of Soule-Xiberoa the association to support Basque culture. The town is part of the Appellation d'origine contrôlée zone of Ossau-iraty. According to the 2006 classification of INSEE, showing the median household incomes for all communes with more than 50 households Alçay-Alçabéhéty-Sunharette is ranked 20,901st with an average income of €14,927 per year; the commune has two sites that are registered as historical monuments: The Seven Ibarnaba Tumuli in the Esquirassy district The Ten Ibarletta Tumuli in the Esquirassy districtOther sites of interestThe Gaztelu zahar of Maide korralea meaning "the enclosure of Maide" is attributed to Maidé, mythological beings incorporating some of the traits of Jentils and Laminak. The Romanesque Parish Church of Saint-Pierre is registered as an historical monument; the church contains a Processional Cross, registered as an historical object. The Belhygagne peaks and Gaztelia are the highest points in the commune at 1,072 and 1,345 metres high.
Communes of the Pyrénées-Atlantiques department ALTZAI-ALTZABEHETI-ZUNHARRETA in the Bernardo Estornés Lasa - Auñamendi Encyclopedia Alçay-Alçabéhéty-Sunharette on Lion1906 Alçay-Alçabéhéty-Sunharette on Google Maps Alçay-Alçabéhéty-Sunharette on Géoportail, National Geographic Institute website Sunharete and Alcabehety on the 1750 Cassini Map Alçay-Alçabéhéty-Sunharette on the INSEE website INSEE