Canton of Linth
Linth was a canton of the Helvetic Republic from 1798 to 1803, consisting of Glarus and its subject County of Werdenberg, the Höfe and March districts of Schwyz and the Züricher subject Lordship of Sax, along with a handful of shared territories. The canton contained 78,500 inhabitants. Like all the cantons of the Helvetic Republic, Linth was established and administered on a French Revolutionary model. Linth and was divided administratively into seven districts Werdenberg:capital Werdenberg, 30 electors, approx. 10,500 inhabitantsNeu St. Johann:capital Neu St. Johann, 30 electors, approx. 11,600 inhabitantsMels:capital Mels, 25 electors, approx. 9,800 inhabitantsSchwanden:capital Schwanden, 29 electors, approx. 10,100 inhabitantsGlarus:capital Glarus, 38 electors, 12,700 inhabitantsSchänis:capital Schänis, 29 electors, 11,900 inhabitantsRapperswil:capital Rapperswil, 29 electors, 11,800 inhabitants The brief tenure of office of the cantonal heads Joachim Heer, Johann Jakob Heussi, Felix Christoph Cajetan Fuchs, Niklaus Heer, Franz Josef Büeler reflected the military and political turmoil plaguing the region, under French occupation from 1799, during the War of the Second Coalition, with serious effects on the local economy.
The mainly-Roman Catholic canton acquired a strong aversion to the centralised nature of the government of the Helvetic Republic though the canton was composed of territories subject to the Old Swiss Confederation, rather than any of the Dreizehn Orte, though all citizens of the republic had equal rights. The canton sided only reluctantly with the French Revolutionary Army. Initial fervour for public education waned. Upper Toggenburg was transferred to the canton of Säntis in 1801, but the canton as a whole existed until the Act of Mediation on March 10, 1803. Canton of Linth in German and Italian in the online Historical Dictionary of Switzerland
In Swiss history, the Helvetic Republic represented an early attempt to impose a central authority over Switzerland, which until had consisted of self-governing cantons united by a loose military alliance. The French invaded Switzerland and turned it into an ally known as the "Helvetic Republic"; the interference with localism and traditional liberties was resented, although some modernizing reforms took place. Resistance was strongest in the more traditional Catholic bastions, with armed uprisings breaking out in spring 1798 in the central part of Switzerland; the French Army suppressed the uprisings, but support for revolutionary ideals declined, as the Swiss resented their loss of local democracy, the new taxes, the centralization, the hostility to religion. Nonetheless, there were long-term impacts; the Republic being named Helvetic after the Helvetii, the Gaulish inhabitants of the Swiss Plateau in antiquity, was not an innovation. During the French Revolutionary Wars of the 1790s, the French Republican armies expanded eastward.
The French Republican armies enveloped Switzerland on the grounds of "liberating" the Swiss people, whose own system of government was deemed as feudal for annexed territories such as Vaud. Some Swiss nationals, including Frédéric-César de La Harpe, had called for French intervention on these grounds; the invasion proceeded peacefully, since the Swiss people failed to respond to the calls of their politicians to take up arms. On 5 March 1798, French troops overran Switzerland and the Old Swiss Confederation collapsed. On 12 April 1798, 121 cantonal deputies proclaimed the Helvetic Republic, "One and Indivisible". On 14 April 1798, a cantonal assembly was called in the canton of Zürich, but most of the politicians from the previous assembly were re-elected; the new régime abolished feudal rights. The occupying forces established a centralised state based on the ideas of the French Revolution. Many Swiss citizens resisted these "progressive" ideas in the central areas of the country; some of the more controversial aspects of the new regime limited freedom of worship, which outraged many of the more devout citizens.
In response, the Cantons of Uri and Nidwalden raised an army of about 10,000 men led by Alois von Reding to fight the French. This army was deployed along the defensive line from Napf to Rapperswil. Reding besieged French-controlled Lucerne and marched across the Brünig pass into the Berner Oberland to support the armies of Bern. At the same time, the French General Balthasar Alexis Henri Antoine of Schauenburg marched out of occupied Zürich to attack Zug and the Sattel pass. Though Reding's army won victories at Rothenthurm and Morgarten, Schauenburg's victory near Sattel allowed him to threaten the town of Schwyz. On 4 May 1798, the town council of Schwyz surrendered. On 13 May and Schauenburg agreed to a cease-fire, the terms of which included the rebel cantons merging into a single one, thus limiting their effectiveness in the central government. However, the French failed to keep their promises in respecting religious matters and before the year was out there was another uprising in Nidwalden which the authorities crushed, with towns and villages burnt down by French troops.
No general agreement existed about the future of Switzerland. Leading groups split into the Unitaires, who wanted a united republic, the Federalists, who represented the old aristocracy and demanded a return to cantonal sovereignty. Coup-attempts became frequent, the new régime had to rely on the French to survive. Furthermore, the occupying forces insisted that the accommodation and feeding of the soldiers be paid for by the local populace, which drained the economy; the treaty of alliance with France broke the tradition of neutrality established by the Confederation. All this made it difficult to establish a new working state. In 1799, Switzerland became a virtual battle-zone between the French and Imperial Russian armies, with the locals supporting the latter two, rejecting calls to fight with the French armies in the name of the Helvetic Republic. Instability in the Republic reached its peak in 1802–1803, which included the Bourla-papey uprising and the Stecklikrieg civil war of 1802. By it was 12 million francs in debt having started with a treasury of 6 million francs.
This, together with local resistance, caused the Helvetic Republic to collapse, its government took refuge in Lausanne. At that time, Napoleon Bonaparte First Consul of France, summoned representatives of both sides to Paris in order to negotiate a solution. Although the Federalist representatives formed a minority at the conciliation conference, known as the "Helvetic Consulta", Bonaparte characterised Switzerland as federal "by nature" and considered it unwise to force the country into any other constitutional framework. On 19 February 1803, the Act of Mediation restored the cantons. With the abolition of the centralized state, Switzerland became a confederation once again. Before the advent of the Helvetic Republic, each individual canton had exercised complete sovereignty over its own territory or territories. Little central authority had existed, with matters concerning the country as a whole confined to meetings of leading representatives from the cantons: the Diets; the constitution of the Helvetic Republic came from the design of Peter Ochs, a magistrate from Basel.
It established a central two-chamber legislature which included the Grand Cou
Abbey of Saint Gall
The Abbey of Saint Gall is a dissolved abbey in a Roman Catholic religious complex in the city of St. Gallen in Switzerland; the Carolingian-era monastery has existed since 719 and became an independent principality between 9th and 13th centuries, was for many centuries one of the chief Benedictine abbeys in Europe. It was founded by Saint Othmar on the spot; the library at the Abbey is one of the richest medieval libraries in the world. The city of St. Gallen originated as an adjoining settlement of the abbey. Following the secularization of the abbey around 1800 the former Abbey church became a Cathedral in 1848. Since 1983 the whole remaining abbey precinct has been a UNESCO World Heritage Site. Around 613 Gallus, according to tradition an Irish monk and disciple and companion of Saint Columbanus, established a hermitage on the site that would become the monastery, he lived in his cell until his death in 646. in Arbon. The people kept looking for protection at Gallus' cell in time of danger.
Following Gallus' death, Charles Martel appointed Otmar as custodian of St Gall's relics. Several different dates are given for the foundation of the monastery, including 719, 720, 747 and the middle of the 8th century. During the reign of Pepin the Short, in the 8th century, Othmar founded the Carolingian style Abbey of St Gall, where arts and sciences flourished; the abbey grew many Alemannic noblemen became monks. At the end of abbot Otmar's reign, the Professbuch mentions 53 names. Two monks of the Abbey of St Gall, Magnus von Füssen and Theodor, founded the monasteries in Kempten and Füssen in the Allgäu. With the increase in the number of monks the abbey grew stronger economically. Much land in Thurgau, Zürichgau and in the rest of Alemannia as far as the Neckar was transferred to the abbey due to Stiftungen. Under abbot Waldo of Reichenau copying of manuscripts was undertaken and a famous library was gathered. Numerous Anglo-Saxon and Irish monks came to copy manuscripts. At Charlemagne's request Pope Adrian I sent distinguished chanters from Rome, who propagated the use of the Gregorian chant.
In 744, the Alemannic nobleman Beata sells several properties to the abbey in order to finance his journey to Rome. In the subsequent century, St Gall came into conflict with the nearby Bishopric of Constance which had acquired jurisdiction over the Abbey of Reichenau on Lake Constance, it was not until Emperor Louis the Pious confirmed in 813 the imperial immediacy of the abbey, that this conflict ceased. The abbey became an Imperial Abbey. King Louis the German confirmed in 833 the immunity of the abbey and allowed the monks the free choice of their abbot. In 854 the Abbey of St Gall reached its full autonomy by King Louis the German releasing the abbey from the obligation to pay tithes to the Bishop of Constance. From this time until the 10th century, the abbey flourished, it was home to several famous scholars, including Notker of Liège, Notker the Stammerer, Notker Labeo and Hartker. During the 9th century a new, larger church was built and the library was expanded. Manuscripts on a wide variety of topics were purchased by the abbey and copies were made.
Over 400 manuscripts from this time are still in the library today. Between 924 and 933 the Magyars threatened the abbey and the books had to be removed to Reichenau for safety. Not all the books were returned. On 26 April 937 a fire broke out and destroyed much of the abbey and the adjoining settlement, though the library was undamaged. About 954 they started to protect the monastery and buildings by a surrounding wall. Around 971/974 abbot Notker finalized the walling and the adjoining settlements started to become the town of St Gall. In 1006, the abbey was the northernmost place; the death of abbot Ulrich on 9 December 1076 terminated the cultural silver age of the monastery. In 1207, abbot Ulrich von Sax becomes a Prince of the Holy Roman Empire by King Philip of Swabia; the abbey became a Princely Abbey. As the abbey became more involved in local politics, it entered a period of decline; the city of St. Gallen proper progressively freed itself from the rule of the abbot, acquiring Imperial immediacy, by the late 15th century was recognized as a Free imperial city.
By about 1353 the guilds, headed by the cloth-weavers guild, gained control of the civic government. In 1415 the city bought its liberty from the German king King Sigismund. During the 14th century Humanists were allowed to carry off some of the rare texts from the abbey library. In the late 14th and early 15th centuries, the farmers of the abbot's personal estates began seeking independence. In 1401, the first of the Appenzell Wars broke out, following the Appenzell victory at Stoss in 1405 they became allies of the Swiss Confederation in 1411. During the Appenzell Wars, the town of St. Gallen sided with Appenzell against the abbey. So when Appenzell allied with the Swiss, the town of St. Gallen followed just a few months later; the abbot became an ally of several members of the Swiss Confederation in 1451. While Appenzell and St. Gallen became full members of the Swiss Confederation in 1454. In 1457 the town of St. Gallen became free from the abbot. In 1468 the abbot, Ulrich Rösch, bought the County of Toggenburg from the representatives of its counts, after the family died out in 1436.
In 1487 he
The Three Leagues was the alliance of 1471 of the League of God's House, the League of the Ten Jurisdictions and the Grey League, leading to the formation of the Swiss canton of Graubünden. Most of the lands of Graubünden were part of the Roman province Raetia in 15 BC; the area was part of the lands of the Bishopric of Chur. On January 29, 1367, the League of God's House, was founded to resist the rising power of the Bishopric of Chur and the House of Habsburg. Bishop Peter Gelyto reacted by transferring the bishopric to the Habsburgs in exchange for a pension from the ducal house; the instrument of union was signed by envoys of the cathedral chapter, the episcopal Ministerialis, the city of Chur and the districts of Domleschg, Oberhalbstein, Oberengadin and Bergell. Other districts joined the league subsequently, including the Poschiavo in 1408 and the Vier Dörfer in 1450. For some time, Unterengadin, Münstertal and the upper Vinschgau were disputed between the Bishopric of Chur and the County of Tyrol.
While the first two could shake off the rule of the Habsburgs as count of Tyrol, in 1618, Untercalven was separated from the League as the last part of the Vinschgau. With its capital in Chur, the League was composed of the following districts: Chur Bergell: districts of Ober- and Unterporta Calven: districts of Obercalven and Untercalven Domleschg: districts of Ortenstein and Fürstenau Greifenstein: districts of Bergün and Obervaz Oberengadin: districts of Sur and Suot Funtauna Merla Oberhalbstein: districts of Oberhalbstein and Tiefencastel Poschiavo Ramosch-Stalla-Avers: districts of Ramosch and Stalla –Avers Unterengadin: districts of Ober- and Untertasna Vier Dörfer The Grey League was founded in 1395 in the Upper Rhine valley, as a reaction to various feuds between the Barony of Belmont, the Lordship of Sax, the Barony of Rhäzüns, the Barony of Vaz, County of Werdenberg, Disentis Abbey and the Bishopric of Chur; the capital of the League was Ilanz. The name Grey League is derived from the homespun grey clothes worn by the people.
In Trun, on March 16, 1424, a governing federation was established, comprising: The abbot and court of Disentis Abbey. Before 1440, the lordships of Löwenberg, Thusis and Heinzenberg joined the League, despite the count of Werdenberg-Sargans having forbidden them from doing so. In 1441 Cazis Abbey joined; the Grey League was administered in eight districts: Disentis Lugnez: districts of Lugnez and Vals Gruob: districts of Gruob and Tenna Waltensburg: districts of Waltensburg and Obersaxen Rhäzüns: districts of Rhäzüns, Hohentrins and Flims Schams-Rheinwald: districts of Rheinwald and Schams Thusis: districts of Thusis, Heinzenberg and Safien Misox: districts of Misox and Calanca A third league was established on June 8, 1436 by the people of ten bailiwicks in the former county of Toggenburg, as the dynasty of Toggenburg had become extinct. The league was called League of the Ten Jurisdictions, with its capital in Davos, was composed of: Belfort Davos Klosters Castels Schiers Schanfigg Langwies Strassberg Maienfeld Neu-Aspermont The alliance was designed to resist Habsburg expansion into the region and was administered in seven districts: Davos Klosters: districts of Klosters-Innerschnitz and Klosters-Ausserschnitz Castels: districts of Luzein and Jenaz Schiers-Seewis: districts of Schiers and Seewis Maienfeld: districts of Maienfeld and Malans Belfort: districts of Churwalden and Inner- and Ausserbelfort Schanfigg: districts of St. Peter and Langwies The three separate Leagues worked together informally, such as in 1450, in the Schamserfehde, a conflict with the house of Werdenberg-Sargans, during which the League of the Ten Jurisdictions allied with the League of God's House.
Joint meetings of the three Leagues are evidenced from 1461. In 1497 and 1498 the Leagues allied with the Old Swiss Confederacy after the Habsburgs acquired the possessions of the extinct Toggenburg dynasty in 1496, siding with the Confederacy in the Swabian War three years later; the Habsburgs were defeated at Calven Gorge and Dornach, helping the Swiss Confederacy and the allied Leagues to be recognised. After 1499, the Free State de facto separated from the Holy Roman Empire and developed, during the 16th century into a political entity, unique in early modern Europe. In the early 17th century, it was the only territory in Europe where all decisions were made by communalism, with the Leagues founded and defended by cooperative decisions; the Musso war of 1520 drove the Three Leagues cl
Canton of Appenzell Ausserrhoden
The canton of Appenzell Ausserrhoden is a canton of Switzerland. The seat of the government and parliament is Herisau, judicial authorities are in Trogen. Appenzell Ausserrhoden is located in the north east of Switzerland, bordering the cantons of St. Gallen and Appenzell Innerrhoden. Settlement in Appenzell started in the 8th century alongside the river Glatt; the monastery of St. Gallen was of great influence on the local population. In 907 Herisau is mentioned for the first time, the canton is named first in 1071; the name Appenzell means "cell of the abbot". This refers to the Abbey of St. Gall. By the middle of the 11th century the abbots of St Gall had established their power in the land called Appenzell, too, became teutonized, its early inhabitants having been romanized Raetians. By about 1360, conflicts over grazing rights and tithes were causing concern for both the abbot and the farmers of Appenzell. Both parties wanted to protect their interests by joining the new Swabian League. In 1377 Appenzell was allowed to join the League with the support of the cities of Konstanz and St. Gallen.
With the support of League, Appenzell refused to pay many of the gifts and tithes that the Abbot Kuno von Stoffeln demanded. In response to the loss of revenue from his estates, Kuno approached the Austrian House of Habsburg for help. In 1392 he made an agreement with the Habsburgs, renewed in 1402. In response, in 1401 Appenzell entered into an alliance with the city of St. Gallen to protect their rights and freedom. Following increasing conflicts between the Appenzellers the abbot's agents, including the bailiff of Appenzell demanding that a dead body be dug up because he wanted the man's clothes, the Appenzellers planned an uprising. On a certain day, throughout the abbot's lands, they attacked the bailiffs and drove them out of the land. Following unsuccessful negotiations Appenzell and St. Gallen entered into a treaty; the treaty between St. Gallen and Appenzell marked a break between his estates. Fearing the Habsburgs, in 1402 the League expelled Appenzell. During the same year, St. Gallen reached an agreement with the abbot and Appenzell could no longer count on St. Gallen's support.
Appenzell declared itself ready to stand against the abbot, in 1403 formed an alliance with the Canton of Schwyz, a member of the Old Swiss Confederation that had defeated the Austrians in the previous century. Glarus authorized any citizen who wished to support Appenzell to do so. In response, the League marched to St. Gallen before heading toward Appenzell. On 15 May 1403, they entered the pass to Speicher and outside the village of Vögelinsegg met the Appenzell army. A small force of Appenzell and Confederation troops defeated the League army and signed a short lived peace treaty. Following another Appenzell victory on 17 June 1405, at Stoss Pass on the border of Appenzell town, the new canton continued to expand. During the expansion, Appenzell had captured the abbot of St Gall and in response they were excommunicated by the Bishop of Constance. However, while the Bund expanded the Austrians used the peace to regain their strength. On 11 September 1406 an association of nobles formed a knightly order known as the Sankt Jörgenschild to oppose the rebellious commoners of the Bund.
Following a defeat at Bregenz, Appenzell was unable to hold the Bund together. The city of St. Gallen and the Canton of Schwyz each paid off the Austrians to avoid an attack, the Bund was dissolved by King Rupert on April 4, 1408; as part of the peace treaty, the abbot gave up his ownership of Appenzell, but was still owed certain taxes. However, it wasn't until 1410. In 1411 Appenzell signed a defensive treaty with the entire Swiss Confederation, which strengthened their position against the abbot. Appenzell joined the Confederation as an "Associate Member", did not become a full member until 1513. Following another battle, in 1429, Appenzell was granted freedom from the obligations in the future; this treaty represented the end of Appenzell's last financial tie to the Abbey of St. Gall, a movement to closer relationships with the Confederation. Starting in 1522, followers of Martin Luther and Huldrych Zwingli began to preach the Protestant Reformation in Appenzell; the early reformers had the most success in the outer Rhoden, a term that in the singular is said to mean a "clearing," and occurs in 1070, long before the final separation.
Following the initial small success, in 1523 Joachim von Watt began to preach the reformed version of the Acts of the Apostles to friends and fellow clergy. His preaching brought the Reformation into the forefront of public debate. In October 1523, the Council supported the Protestant principle of scriptural sermons and on 24 April 1524 Landsgemeinde confirmed the Cantonal Council's decision. However, the work of the Anabaptists in the Appenzell region in 1525 led to government crackdowns; the first police action against the Anabaptists took place in June 1525, followed by the Anabaptist Disputation in Teufen in October 1529. To end the confrontation between the old and new faiths, the Landesgemeinde decided in April 1525, that each parish should choose a faith, but that the principle of free movement would be supported, so that the religious minority could attend the church of their choice regardless of where they lived. Th
Integrated Authority File
The Integrated Authority File or GND is an international authority file for the organisation of personal names, subject headings and corporate bodies from catalogues. It is used for documentation in libraries and also by archives and museums; the GND is managed by the German National Library in cooperation with various regional library networks in German-speaking Europe and other partners. The GND falls under the Creative Commons Zero licence; the GND specification provides a hierarchy of high-level entities and sub-classes, useful in library classification, an approach to unambiguous identification of single elements. It comprises an ontology intended for knowledge representation in the semantic web, available in the RDF format; the Integrated Authority File became operational in April 2012 and integrates the content of the following authority files, which have since been discontinued: Name Authority File Corporate Bodies Authority File Subject Headings Authority File Uniform Title File of the Deutsches Musikarchiv At the time of its introduction on 5 April 2012, the GND held 9,493,860 files, including 2,650,000 personalised names.
There are seven main types of GND entities: LIBRIS Virtual International Authority File Information pages about the GND from the German National Library Search via OGND Bereitstellung des ersten GND-Grundbestandes DNB, 19 April 2012 From Authority Control to Linked Authority Data Presentation given by Reinhold Heuvelmann to the ALA MARC Formats Interest Group, June 2012