The cantons of France are territorial subdivisions of the French Republic's departments and arrondissements. Apart from their role as organizational units in relation to certain aspects of the administration of public services and justice, the chief purpose of the cantons today is to serve as constituencies for the election of members of the representative assemblies established in each of France's territorial departments. For this reason, such elections are known in France as "cantonal elections"; as of 2015, there were 2,054 cantons in France. Most of them group together a number of communes, although larger communes may be included in more than one canton, since the cantons – in marked contrast to the communes, which have between more than two million inhabitants and just one person – are intended to be equal in size of population; the role of the canton is to provide a framework for departmental elections. Each canton elects a woman and a man to represent it at the conseil général du département – or general council for the department, the principal administrative division of the French Republic.
In urban areas, a single commune includes several cantons. Conversely, in rural areas, a canton may comprise several smaller communes. In the latter case, administrative services, the gendarmerie headquarters for example, are situated in the principal town of the canton, although there are exceptions, such as cantons Gaillon-Campagne and Sarreguemines-Campagne, which have in common a "chief-town" which does not belong to either canton. For statistical purposes, the twenty arrondissements of Paris – the administrative subdivisions of that city – are sometimes considered cantons, but they serve no greater electoral function. Cantons form legal districts, as seats of Tribunaux d'instance or "Courts of First Instance"; the cantons are called justices de paix or "district courts". The cantons were created in 1790 at the same time as the départements by the Revolutionary Committee for the Division of Territory, they were more numerous than today. Cantons were, at first, grouped into. After the abolition of the district in 1800, they were reorganized by the Consulate into arrondissements.
The number of cantons was drastically reduced by the Loi du 8 pluviôse an IX, or the "Law for the Reduction of the Number of District Courts", or Loi portant réduction du nombre de justices de paix in French. The département prefects were told by the government to group the communes within newly established cantons; the département lists, once approved by the government, were published in the Bulletin des lois in 1801 and 1802. On the whole, their number increased appreciably. In May 2013 a law was adopted; this law came into effect at the French departmental elections in March 2015. Before the cantonal reform, there were 4,032 cantons; the 2013 reform law changed the representation of the cantons in the departmental councils: each canton is now represented by a man and a woman. The number of cantons varies from one département to another. Administrative divisions of France Canton List of cantons of France
Danse des petits cygnes is a famous dance from Tchaikovsky's Swan Lake, from the ballet's second act, the fourth movement of No. 13. Translated from French, it means "Dance of the Little Swans" known as "Dance of the cygnets", it is challenging because all dancers must look the same. Lev Ivanov's choreography—created for the famous revival of Swan Lake in 1895—was meant to imitate the way cygnets huddle and move together for protection. Four dancers enter the stage in a line and move across with their arms crossed in front of one another, grasping the next dancers' hands, they move sideways. Ideally the dancers move in near-exact unison. At the end, they break their chain and try to "fly", only to drop to the ground. According to ballet writer Jean Battey Lewis in a 1997 NPR commentary the Little Swans are portrayed by unknown, up-and-coming dancers. In view of the conformity required of the quartet, being cast as a Little Swan is seen as a chance to be singled out and given more important roles.
Paul N. Courant is an American economist, an expert in public goods, his recent research focuses on the economics of universities, the economics of libraries and archives, the impact of new information technologies on the scholarly publishing system. Courant received his BA in History from Swarthmore College in 1968. Before attending graduate school, Courant served as a research assistant at the Brookings Institution. After receiving his PhD, he joined the faculty at the University of Michigan. In 1979 and 1980 he was a Senior Staff Economist at the Council of Economic Advisers. From 2002-2005 he served as Provost and Executive Vice-President for Academic Affairs, the chief academic officer and the chief budget officer of the University. While Provost, he negotiated a contract with Google to allow them to digitize the entire contents of Michigan's library for their Google Books Library Project now known as Google Books, he has served as the Associate Provost for Academic and Budgetary Affairs, Chair of the Department of Economics and Director of the Institute of Public Policy Studies.
He served as the University Librarian and Dean of Libraries from 2007 to 2013. Courant is Arthur F. Thurnau Professor, Harold T. Shapiro Collegiate Professor of Public Policy, Professor of Economics, Professor of Information, Faculty Associate in the Institute for Social Research at the University of Michigan. Courant has authored half a dozen books and over seventy papers covering a broad range of topics in economics and public policy, including tax policy, local economic development, gender differences in pay, housing and public health, relationships between economic growth and environmental policy, university budgeting systems. ARTstor Board of Trustees Center for Research Libraries Board of Directors Council on Library and Information Resources Board of Directors Digital Public Library of America Board of Directors In November 2007, Courant started a blog in which he defended the University of Michigan's participation in the Google Books Library Project, his remarks joined an ongoing debate about the project with regard to the role of libraries in large scale digitization efforts.
Book chaptersCourant, Paul N.. Journal articlesCourant, Paul N.. "Sex-role socialization and occupational segregation: an exploratory investigation". Journal of Post Keynesian Economics. 9: 330–346. CiteSeerX 10.1.1.431.6259. Doi:10.1080/01603477.1987.11489627. Paul Courant on Twitter Paul Courant's blog, Au Courant Paul Courant's faculty profile Paul Courant's Curriculum Vitae "Works of Paul Courant". Google Scholar